NCERT Textbook - Resources and Development Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

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Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - Resources and Development Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Everything available in our environment
which can be used to satisfy our needs,
provided, it is technologically accessible,
economically feasible and culturally
acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.
The process of transformation of things
available in our environment involves an
inter- dependent relationship between
nature, technology and institutions. Human
beings interact with nature through
technology and create institutions to
accelerate their economic development.
Do you think that resources are free gifts
of nature as is assumed by many?  They
are not. Resources are a function of human
activities. Human beings themselves are
essential components of resources. They
transform material available in our
environment into resources and use them.
These resources can be classified in the
following ways –
(a) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic
(b) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable
and non-renewable
(c) On the basis of ownership – individual,
community, national and international
(d) On the basis of status of development –
potential, developed stock and reserves.
Can you identify and name the various items
used in making life comfortable in our
villages and towns. List the items and name
the material used in their making.
Fig. 1.1:  Interdependent relationship between
nature, technology and institutions
Fig. 1.2:  Classification of resources
Page 2


Everything available in our environment
which can be used to satisfy our needs,
provided, it is technologically accessible,
economically feasible and culturally
acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.
The process of transformation of things
available in our environment involves an
inter- dependent relationship between
nature, technology and institutions. Human
beings interact with nature through
technology and create institutions to
accelerate their economic development.
Do you think that resources are free gifts
of nature as is assumed by many?  They
are not. Resources are a function of human
activities. Human beings themselves are
essential components of resources. They
transform material available in our
environment into resources and use them.
These resources can be classified in the
following ways –
(a) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic
(b) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable
and non-renewable
(c) On the basis of ownership – individual,
community, national and international
(d) On the basis of status of development –
potential, developed stock and reserves.
Can you identify and name the various items
used in making life comfortable in our
villages and towns. List the items and name
the material used in their making.
Fig. 1.1:  Interdependent relationship between
nature, technology and institutions
Fig. 1.2:  Classification of resources
2 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TYPES OF RESOURCES
On the Basis of Origin
Biotic Resources:  These are obtained from
biosphere and have life such as human beings,
flora and fauna, fisheries,  livestock etc.
Abiotic Resources: All those things which are
composed of non-living things are called abiotic
resources. For example, rocks and metals.
On the Basis of Exhaustibility
Renewable Resources: The resources
which can be renewed or reproduced by
physical, chemical or mechanical processes
are known as renewable or replenishable
resources. For example, solar and wind
energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc. The
renewable resource may further be divided
into continuous or flow (Fig.1.2).
Non-Renewable Resources: These occur over
a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil
fuels are examples of such resources. These
resources take millions of years in their
formation. Some of the resources like metals
are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot
be recycled and get exhausted with their use.
On the Basis of Ownership
Individual Resources: These are also owned
privately by individuals. Many farmers own
land which is allotted to them by government
against the payment of revenue. In villages
there are people with land ownership but there
are many who are landless. Urban people own
plots, houses and other property. Plantation,
pasture lands, ponds, water in wells etc. are
some of the examples of resources ownership
by individuals. Make a list of resources owned
by your household.
Community Owned Resources: There are
resources which are accessible to all the
members of the community. Village commons
(grazing grounds, burial grounds, village
ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots,
playgrounds in urban areas are de facto
accessible to all the people living there.
National Resources: Technically, all the
resources belong to the nation. The country
has legal powers to acquire even private
property for public good. You might have seen
roads, canals, railways being constructed on
fields owned by some individuals. Urban
Development Authorities get empowered by the
government to acquire land. All the minerals,
water resources, forests, wildlife, land within
the political boundaries and oceanic area upto
12 nautical miles (19.2 km) from the coast
termed as territorial water and resources
therein belong to the nation.
International Resources: There are
international institutions which regulate some
resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200
km of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to
open ocean and no individual country can
utilise these without the concurrence of
international institutions.
Do you know that India has got the right to
mine manganese nodules from the bed of
the Indian Ocean from that area which lies
beyond the exclusive economic zone. Identify
some other resources which are international
in nature.
On the Basis of the Status of Development
Potential Resources: Resources which are
found in a region, but have not been utilised.
For example, the western parts of India
particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have
enormous potential for the development of wind
and solar energy, but so far these have not been
developed properly.
Developed Resources: Resources which are
surveyed and their quality and quantity have
been determined for utilisation. The
development of resources depends on
technology and level of their feasibility.
Stock: Materials in the environment which
have the potential to satisfy human needs but
human beings do not have the appropriate
technology to access these, are included among
Identify at least two resources from each
category.
www.tiwariacademy.com
Page 3


Everything available in our environment
which can be used to satisfy our needs,
provided, it is technologically accessible,
economically feasible and culturally
acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.
The process of transformation of things
available in our environment involves an
inter- dependent relationship between
nature, technology and institutions. Human
beings interact with nature through
technology and create institutions to
accelerate their economic development.
Do you think that resources are free gifts
of nature as is assumed by many?  They
are not. Resources are a function of human
activities. Human beings themselves are
essential components of resources. They
transform material available in our
environment into resources and use them.
These resources can be classified in the
following ways –
(a) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic
(b) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable
and non-renewable
(c) On the basis of ownership – individual,
community, national and international
(d) On the basis of status of development –
potential, developed stock and reserves.
Can you identify and name the various items
used in making life comfortable in our
villages and towns. List the items and name
the material used in their making.
Fig. 1.1:  Interdependent relationship between
nature, technology and institutions
Fig. 1.2:  Classification of resources
2 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TYPES OF RESOURCES
On the Basis of Origin
Biotic Resources:  These are obtained from
biosphere and have life such as human beings,
flora and fauna, fisheries,  livestock etc.
Abiotic Resources: All those things which are
composed of non-living things are called abiotic
resources. For example, rocks and metals.
On the Basis of Exhaustibility
Renewable Resources: The resources
which can be renewed or reproduced by
physical, chemical or mechanical processes
are known as renewable or replenishable
resources. For example, solar and wind
energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc. The
renewable resource may further be divided
into continuous or flow (Fig.1.2).
Non-Renewable Resources: These occur over
a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil
fuels are examples of such resources. These
resources take millions of years in their
formation. Some of the resources like metals
are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot
be recycled and get exhausted with their use.
On the Basis of Ownership
Individual Resources: These are also owned
privately by individuals. Many farmers own
land which is allotted to them by government
against the payment of revenue. In villages
there are people with land ownership but there
are many who are landless. Urban people own
plots, houses and other property. Plantation,
pasture lands, ponds, water in wells etc. are
some of the examples of resources ownership
by individuals. Make a list of resources owned
by your household.
Community Owned Resources: There are
resources which are accessible to all the
members of the community. Village commons
(grazing grounds, burial grounds, village
ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots,
playgrounds in urban areas are de facto
accessible to all the people living there.
National Resources: Technically, all the
resources belong to the nation. The country
has legal powers to acquire even private
property for public good. You might have seen
roads, canals, railways being constructed on
fields owned by some individuals. Urban
Development Authorities get empowered by the
government to acquire land. All the minerals,
water resources, forests, wildlife, land within
the political boundaries and oceanic area upto
12 nautical miles (19.2 km) from the coast
termed as territorial water and resources
therein belong to the nation.
International Resources: There are
international institutions which regulate some
resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200
km of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to
open ocean and no individual country can
utilise these without the concurrence of
international institutions.
Do you know that India has got the right to
mine manganese nodules from the bed of
the Indian Ocean from that area which lies
beyond the exclusive economic zone. Identify
some other resources which are international
in nature.
On the Basis of the Status of Development
Potential Resources: Resources which are
found in a region, but have not been utilised.
For example, the western parts of India
particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have
enormous potential for the development of wind
and solar energy, but so far these have not been
developed properly.
Developed Resources: Resources which are
surveyed and their quality and quantity have
been determined for utilisation. The
development of resources depends on
technology and level of their feasibility.
Stock: Materials in the environment which
have the potential to satisfy human needs but
human beings do not have the appropriate
technology to access these, are included among
Identify at least two resources from each
category.
www.tiwariacademy.com
3 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
stock. For example, water is a compound of
two inflammable gases; hydrogen and oxygen,
which can be used as a rich source of energy.
But we do not have the required technical
‘know-how’ to use them for this purpose.
Hence, it can be considered as stock.
Reserves are the subset of the stock, which
can be put into use with the help of existing
technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not
been started. These can be used for meeting
future requirements. River water can be used
for generating hydroelectric power but
presently, it is being utilised only to a limited
extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests etc.
is a reserve which can be used in the future.
An equitable distribution of resources has
become essential for a sustained quality of life
and global peace. If the present trend of resource
depletion by a few individuals and countries
continues, the future of our planet is in danger.
Therefore, resource planning is essential for
sustainable existence of all forms of life.
Sustainable existence is a component of
sustainable development.
Prepare a list of stock and reserve, resources
that you are familiar with from your local area.
DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES
Resources are vital for human survival as well
as for maintaining the quality of life. It was
believed that resources are free gifts of nature.
As a result, human beings used them
indiscriminately and this has led to the
following major problems.
? Depletion of resources for satisfying the
greed of few individuals.
? Accumulation of resources in few hands, which,
in turn, divided the society into two segments
i.e. haves  and have nots or rich and poor.
? Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has
led to global ecological crises such as, global
warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental
pollution and land degradation.
1. Imagine, if the oil supply gets exhausted
one day, how would this affect our life style?
2. Plan a survey in your colony/village to
investigate people’s attitude towards
recycling of the domestic/agricultural
wastes. Ask questions about :
(a) What do they think about resources
they use?
(b) What is their opinion about the
wastes, and its utilisation?
(c) Collage your results.
Sustainable development
Sustainable economic development means
‘development should take place without
damaging the environment, and development
in the present should not compromise with the
needs of the future generations.’
Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992
In June 1992, more than 100 heads of states
met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first
International Earth Summit. The Summit was
convened for addressing urgent problems of
environmental protection and socio-
economic development at the global level.
The assembled leaders signed the
Declaration on Global Climatic Change and
Biological Diversity. The Rio Convention
endorsed the global Forest Principles and
adopted Agenda 21 for achieving
Sustainable Development in the 21
st
 century.
Agenda 21
It is the declaration signed by world leaders
in 1992 at the United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development (UNCED),
which took place at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It
aims at achieving global sustainable
development. It is an agenda to combat
environmental damage, poverty, disease
through global co-operation on common
interests, mutual needs and shared
responsibilities. One major objective of the
Agenda 21 is that every local government
should draw its own local Agenda 21.
RESOURCE PLANNING
Planning is the widely accepted strategy for
judicious use of resources. It has importance
www.tiwariacademy.com
Page 4


Everything available in our environment
which can be used to satisfy our needs,
provided, it is technologically accessible,
economically feasible and culturally
acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.
The process of transformation of things
available in our environment involves an
inter- dependent relationship between
nature, technology and institutions. Human
beings interact with nature through
technology and create institutions to
accelerate their economic development.
Do you think that resources are free gifts
of nature as is assumed by many?  They
are not. Resources are a function of human
activities. Human beings themselves are
essential components of resources. They
transform material available in our
environment into resources and use them.
These resources can be classified in the
following ways –
(a) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic
(b) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable
and non-renewable
(c) On the basis of ownership – individual,
community, national and international
(d) On the basis of status of development –
potential, developed stock and reserves.
Can you identify and name the various items
used in making life comfortable in our
villages and towns. List the items and name
the material used in their making.
Fig. 1.1:  Interdependent relationship between
nature, technology and institutions
Fig. 1.2:  Classification of resources
2 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TYPES OF RESOURCES
On the Basis of Origin
Biotic Resources:  These are obtained from
biosphere and have life such as human beings,
flora and fauna, fisheries,  livestock etc.
Abiotic Resources: All those things which are
composed of non-living things are called abiotic
resources. For example, rocks and metals.
On the Basis of Exhaustibility
Renewable Resources: The resources
which can be renewed or reproduced by
physical, chemical or mechanical processes
are known as renewable or replenishable
resources. For example, solar and wind
energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc. The
renewable resource may further be divided
into continuous or flow (Fig.1.2).
Non-Renewable Resources: These occur over
a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil
fuels are examples of such resources. These
resources take millions of years in their
formation. Some of the resources like metals
are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot
be recycled and get exhausted with their use.
On the Basis of Ownership
Individual Resources: These are also owned
privately by individuals. Many farmers own
land which is allotted to them by government
against the payment of revenue. In villages
there are people with land ownership but there
are many who are landless. Urban people own
plots, houses and other property. Plantation,
pasture lands, ponds, water in wells etc. are
some of the examples of resources ownership
by individuals. Make a list of resources owned
by your household.
Community Owned Resources: There are
resources which are accessible to all the
members of the community. Village commons
(grazing grounds, burial grounds, village
ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots,
playgrounds in urban areas are de facto
accessible to all the people living there.
National Resources: Technically, all the
resources belong to the nation. The country
has legal powers to acquire even private
property for public good. You might have seen
roads, canals, railways being constructed on
fields owned by some individuals. Urban
Development Authorities get empowered by the
government to acquire land. All the minerals,
water resources, forests, wildlife, land within
the political boundaries and oceanic area upto
12 nautical miles (19.2 km) from the coast
termed as territorial water and resources
therein belong to the nation.
International Resources: There are
international institutions which regulate some
resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200
km of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to
open ocean and no individual country can
utilise these without the concurrence of
international institutions.
Do you know that India has got the right to
mine manganese nodules from the bed of
the Indian Ocean from that area which lies
beyond the exclusive economic zone. Identify
some other resources which are international
in nature.
On the Basis of the Status of Development
Potential Resources: Resources which are
found in a region, but have not been utilised.
For example, the western parts of India
particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have
enormous potential for the development of wind
and solar energy, but so far these have not been
developed properly.
Developed Resources: Resources which are
surveyed and their quality and quantity have
been determined for utilisation. The
development of resources depends on
technology and level of their feasibility.
Stock: Materials in the environment which
have the potential to satisfy human needs but
human beings do not have the appropriate
technology to access these, are included among
Identify at least two resources from each
category.
www.tiwariacademy.com
3 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
stock. For example, water is a compound of
two inflammable gases; hydrogen and oxygen,
which can be used as a rich source of energy.
But we do not have the required technical
‘know-how’ to use them for this purpose.
Hence, it can be considered as stock.
Reserves are the subset of the stock, which
can be put into use with the help of existing
technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not
been started. These can be used for meeting
future requirements. River water can be used
for generating hydroelectric power but
presently, it is being utilised only to a limited
extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests etc.
is a reserve which can be used in the future.
An equitable distribution of resources has
become essential for a sustained quality of life
and global peace. If the present trend of resource
depletion by a few individuals and countries
continues, the future of our planet is in danger.
Therefore, resource planning is essential for
sustainable existence of all forms of life.
Sustainable existence is a component of
sustainable development.
Prepare a list of stock and reserve, resources
that you are familiar with from your local area.
DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES
Resources are vital for human survival as well
as for maintaining the quality of life. It was
believed that resources are free gifts of nature.
As a result, human beings used them
indiscriminately and this has led to the
following major problems.
? Depletion of resources for satisfying the
greed of few individuals.
? Accumulation of resources in few hands, which,
in turn, divided the society into two segments
i.e. haves  and have nots or rich and poor.
? Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has
led to global ecological crises such as, global
warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental
pollution and land degradation.
1. Imagine, if the oil supply gets exhausted
one day, how would this affect our life style?
2. Plan a survey in your colony/village to
investigate people’s attitude towards
recycling of the domestic/agricultural
wastes. Ask questions about :
(a) What do they think about resources
they use?
(b) What is their opinion about the
wastes, and its utilisation?
(c) Collage your results.
Sustainable development
Sustainable economic development means
‘development should take place without
damaging the environment, and development
in the present should not compromise with the
needs of the future generations.’
Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992
In June 1992, more than 100 heads of states
met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first
International Earth Summit. The Summit was
convened for addressing urgent problems of
environmental protection and socio-
economic development at the global level.
The assembled leaders signed the
Declaration on Global Climatic Change and
Biological Diversity. The Rio Convention
endorsed the global Forest Principles and
adopted Agenda 21 for achieving
Sustainable Development in the 21
st
 century.
Agenda 21
It is the declaration signed by world leaders
in 1992 at the United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development (UNCED),
which took place at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It
aims at achieving global sustainable
development. It is an agenda to combat
environmental damage, poverty, disease
through global co-operation on common
interests, mutual needs and shared
responsibilities. One major objective of the
Agenda 21 is that every local government
should draw its own local Agenda 21.
RESOURCE PLANNING
Planning is the widely accepted strategy for
judicious use of resources. It has importance
www.tiwariacademy.com
4 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
in a country like India, which has enormous
diversity in the availability of resources. There
are regions which are rich in certain types of
resources but are deficient in some other
resources. There are some regions which can
be considered self sufficient in terms of the
availability of resources and there are some
regions which have acute shortage of some vital
resources. For example, the states of
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya
Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.
Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water
resources but lacks in infrastructural
development. The state of Rajasthan is very well
endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks
in water resources. The cold desert of Ladakh
is relatively isolated from the rest of the
country. It has very rich cultural heritage but
it is deficient in water, infrastructure and some
vital minerals. This calls for balanced resource
planning at the national, state, regional and
local levels.
The availability of resources is a necessary
condition for the development of any region, but
mere availability of resources in the absence of
corresponding changes in technology and
institutions may hinder development. There are
many regions in our country that are rich in
resources but these are included in economically
backward regions. On the contrary there are
some regions which have a poor resource base
but they are economically developed.
Can you name some resource rich but
economically backward regions and some
resource poor but economically developed
regions? Give reasons for such a situation.
The history  of colonisation reveals that rich
resources in colonies were the main attractions
for the foreign invaders. It was primarily the
higher level of technological development of the
colonising countries that helped them to
exploit resources of other regions and establish
their supremacy over the colonies. Therefore,
resources can contribute to development only
when they are accompanied by appropriate
technological development and institutional
changes. India has experienced all this in
different phases of colonisation. Therefore, in
India, development, in general, and resource
development in particular does not only involve
the availability of resources, but also the
technology, quality of human resources and
the historical experiences of the people.
Conservation of Resources: Resources are
vital for any developmental activity. But
irrational consumption and over-utilisation
of resources may lead to socio-economic and
environmental problems. To overcome these
problems, resource conservation at various
levels is important. This had been the main
concern of the leaders and thinkers in the
past. For example, Gandhiji was very apt in
voicing his concern about resource
conservation in these words: “There is enough
for everybody’s need and not for any body’s
greed.” He placed the greedy and selfish
individuals and exploitative nature of modern
technology as the root cause for resource
depletion at the global level. He was against
mass production and wanted to replace it with
the production by the masses.
Prepare a list of resources found in your state
and also identify the resources that are
important but deficit in your state.
What resources are being developed in your
surroundings by the community/village
panchayats/ward level communities with the
help of community participation?
Resource Planning in India
Resource planning is a complex process which
involves : (i) identification and inventory of
resources across the regions of the country.
This involves surveying, mapping and
qualitative and quantitative estimation and
measurement of the resources. (ii) Evolving a
planning structure endowed with appropriate
technology, skill and institutional set up for
implementing resource development plans. (iii)
Matching the resource development plans with
overall national development plans.
India has made concerted efforts for achieving
the goals of resource planning right from the First
Five Year Plan launched after Independence.
www.tiwariacademy.com
Page 5


Everything available in our environment
which can be used to satisfy our needs,
provided, it is technologically accessible,
economically feasible and culturally
acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.
The process of transformation of things
available in our environment involves an
inter- dependent relationship between
nature, technology and institutions. Human
beings interact with nature through
technology and create institutions to
accelerate their economic development.
Do you think that resources are free gifts
of nature as is assumed by many?  They
are not. Resources are a function of human
activities. Human beings themselves are
essential components of resources. They
transform material available in our
environment into resources and use them.
These resources can be classified in the
following ways –
(a) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic
(b) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable
and non-renewable
(c) On the basis of ownership – individual,
community, national and international
(d) On the basis of status of development –
potential, developed stock and reserves.
Can you identify and name the various items
used in making life comfortable in our
villages and towns. List the items and name
the material used in their making.
Fig. 1.1:  Interdependent relationship between
nature, technology and institutions
Fig. 1.2:  Classification of resources
2 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TYPES OF RESOURCES
On the Basis of Origin
Biotic Resources:  These are obtained from
biosphere and have life such as human beings,
flora and fauna, fisheries,  livestock etc.
Abiotic Resources: All those things which are
composed of non-living things are called abiotic
resources. For example, rocks and metals.
On the Basis of Exhaustibility
Renewable Resources: The resources
which can be renewed or reproduced by
physical, chemical or mechanical processes
are known as renewable or replenishable
resources. For example, solar and wind
energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc. The
renewable resource may further be divided
into continuous or flow (Fig.1.2).
Non-Renewable Resources: These occur over
a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil
fuels are examples of such resources. These
resources take millions of years in their
formation. Some of the resources like metals
are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot
be recycled and get exhausted with their use.
On the Basis of Ownership
Individual Resources: These are also owned
privately by individuals. Many farmers own
land which is allotted to them by government
against the payment of revenue. In villages
there are people with land ownership but there
are many who are landless. Urban people own
plots, houses and other property. Plantation,
pasture lands, ponds, water in wells etc. are
some of the examples of resources ownership
by individuals. Make a list of resources owned
by your household.
Community Owned Resources: There are
resources which are accessible to all the
members of the community. Village commons
(grazing grounds, burial grounds, village
ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots,
playgrounds in urban areas are de facto
accessible to all the people living there.
National Resources: Technically, all the
resources belong to the nation. The country
has legal powers to acquire even private
property for public good. You might have seen
roads, canals, railways being constructed on
fields owned by some individuals. Urban
Development Authorities get empowered by the
government to acquire land. All the minerals,
water resources, forests, wildlife, land within
the political boundaries and oceanic area upto
12 nautical miles (19.2 km) from the coast
termed as territorial water and resources
therein belong to the nation.
International Resources: There are
international institutions which regulate some
resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200
km of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to
open ocean and no individual country can
utilise these without the concurrence of
international institutions.
Do you know that India has got the right to
mine manganese nodules from the bed of
the Indian Ocean from that area which lies
beyond the exclusive economic zone. Identify
some other resources which are international
in nature.
On the Basis of the Status of Development
Potential Resources: Resources which are
found in a region, but have not been utilised.
For example, the western parts of India
particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have
enormous potential for the development of wind
and solar energy, but so far these have not been
developed properly.
Developed Resources: Resources which are
surveyed and their quality and quantity have
been determined for utilisation. The
development of resources depends on
technology and level of their feasibility.
Stock: Materials in the environment which
have the potential to satisfy human needs but
human beings do not have the appropriate
technology to access these, are included among
Identify at least two resources from each
category.
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3 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
stock. For example, water is a compound of
two inflammable gases; hydrogen and oxygen,
which can be used as a rich source of energy.
But we do not have the required technical
‘know-how’ to use them for this purpose.
Hence, it can be considered as stock.
Reserves are the subset of the stock, which
can be put into use with the help of existing
technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not
been started. These can be used for meeting
future requirements. River water can be used
for generating hydroelectric power but
presently, it is being utilised only to a limited
extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests etc.
is a reserve which can be used in the future.
An equitable distribution of resources has
become essential for a sustained quality of life
and global peace. If the present trend of resource
depletion by a few individuals and countries
continues, the future of our planet is in danger.
Therefore, resource planning is essential for
sustainable existence of all forms of life.
Sustainable existence is a component of
sustainable development.
Prepare a list of stock and reserve, resources
that you are familiar with from your local area.
DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES
Resources are vital for human survival as well
as for maintaining the quality of life. It was
believed that resources are free gifts of nature.
As a result, human beings used them
indiscriminately and this has led to the
following major problems.
? Depletion of resources for satisfying the
greed of few individuals.
? Accumulation of resources in few hands, which,
in turn, divided the society into two segments
i.e. haves  and have nots or rich and poor.
? Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has
led to global ecological crises such as, global
warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental
pollution and land degradation.
1. Imagine, if the oil supply gets exhausted
one day, how would this affect our life style?
2. Plan a survey in your colony/village to
investigate people’s attitude towards
recycling of the domestic/agricultural
wastes. Ask questions about :
(a) What do they think about resources
they use?
(b) What is their opinion about the
wastes, and its utilisation?
(c) Collage your results.
Sustainable development
Sustainable economic development means
‘development should take place without
damaging the environment, and development
in the present should not compromise with the
needs of the future generations.’
Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992
In June 1992, more than 100 heads of states
met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first
International Earth Summit. The Summit was
convened for addressing urgent problems of
environmental protection and socio-
economic development at the global level.
The assembled leaders signed the
Declaration on Global Climatic Change and
Biological Diversity. The Rio Convention
endorsed the global Forest Principles and
adopted Agenda 21 for achieving
Sustainable Development in the 21
st
 century.
Agenda 21
It is the declaration signed by world leaders
in 1992 at the United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development (UNCED),
which took place at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It
aims at achieving global sustainable
development. It is an agenda to combat
environmental damage, poverty, disease
through global co-operation on common
interests, mutual needs and shared
responsibilities. One major objective of the
Agenda 21 is that every local government
should draw its own local Agenda 21.
RESOURCE PLANNING
Planning is the widely accepted strategy for
judicious use of resources. It has importance
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4 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
in a country like India, which has enormous
diversity in the availability of resources. There
are regions which are rich in certain types of
resources but are deficient in some other
resources. There are some regions which can
be considered self sufficient in terms of the
availability of resources and there are some
regions which have acute shortage of some vital
resources. For example, the states of
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya
Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.
Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water
resources but lacks in infrastructural
development. The state of Rajasthan is very well
endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks
in water resources. The cold desert of Ladakh
is relatively isolated from the rest of the
country. It has very rich cultural heritage but
it is deficient in water, infrastructure and some
vital minerals. This calls for balanced resource
planning at the national, state, regional and
local levels.
The availability of resources is a necessary
condition for the development of any region, but
mere availability of resources in the absence of
corresponding changes in technology and
institutions may hinder development. There are
many regions in our country that are rich in
resources but these are included in economically
backward regions. On the contrary there are
some regions which have a poor resource base
but they are economically developed.
Can you name some resource rich but
economically backward regions and some
resource poor but economically developed
regions? Give reasons for such a situation.
The history  of colonisation reveals that rich
resources in colonies were the main attractions
for the foreign invaders. It was primarily the
higher level of technological development of the
colonising countries that helped them to
exploit resources of other regions and establish
their supremacy over the colonies. Therefore,
resources can contribute to development only
when they are accompanied by appropriate
technological development and institutional
changes. India has experienced all this in
different phases of colonisation. Therefore, in
India, development, in general, and resource
development in particular does not only involve
the availability of resources, but also the
technology, quality of human resources and
the historical experiences of the people.
Conservation of Resources: Resources are
vital for any developmental activity. But
irrational consumption and over-utilisation
of resources may lead to socio-economic and
environmental problems. To overcome these
problems, resource conservation at various
levels is important. This had been the main
concern of the leaders and thinkers in the
past. For example, Gandhiji was very apt in
voicing his concern about resource
conservation in these words: “There is enough
for everybody’s need and not for any body’s
greed.” He placed the greedy and selfish
individuals and exploitative nature of modern
technology as the root cause for resource
depletion at the global level. He was against
mass production and wanted to replace it with
the production by the masses.
Prepare a list of resources found in your state
and also identify the resources that are
important but deficit in your state.
What resources are being developed in your
surroundings by the community/village
panchayats/ward level communities with the
help of community participation?
Resource Planning in India
Resource planning is a complex process which
involves : (i) identification and inventory of
resources across the regions of the country.
This involves surveying, mapping and
qualitative and quantitative estimation and
measurement of the resources. (ii) Evolving a
planning structure endowed with appropriate
technology, skill and institutional set up for
implementing resource development plans. (iii)
Matching the resource development plans with
overall national development plans.
India has made concerted efforts for achieving
the goals of resource planning right from the First
Five Year Plan launched after Independence.
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5 RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
LAND UTILISATION
Land resources are used for the following
purposes:
1. Forests
2. Land not available for cultivation
(a) Barren and waste land
(b) Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g.
buildings, roads, factories, etc.
3. Other uncultivated land (excluding
fallow land)
(a) Permanent pastures and grazing land,
(b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops
groves (not included in net  sown area),
(c) Cultruable waste land (left uncultivated
for more than 5 agricultural years).
4. Fallow lands
(a) Current fallow-(left without cultivation for
one or less than one agricultural year),
(b) Other than current fallow-(left
uncultivated for the past 1 to 5
agricultural years).
5. Net sown area
Area sown more than once in an
agricultural year plus net sown area is
known as gross cropped area.
LAND USE PATTERN IN INDIA
The use of land is determined both by physical
factors such as topography, climate, soil types
as well as human factors such as population
density, technological capability and culture
and traditions etc.
Total geographical area of India is 3.28
million sq km Land use data, however, is
available only for 93 per cent of the total area
because the land use reporting for most of the
north-east states except Assam has not been
done fully. Moreover, some areas of Jammu
and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China
have also not been surveyed.
At the international level, the Club of Rome
advocated resource conservation for the first
time in a more systematic way in 1968.
Subsequently, in 1974, Gandhian philosophy
was once again presented by Schumacher
in his book Small is Beautiful. The seminal
contribution with respect to resource
conservation at the global level was made
by the Brundtland Commission Report, 1987.
This report introduced the concept of
‘Sustainable Development’ and advocated
it as a means for resource conservation,
which was subsequently published in a book
entitled Our Common Future. Another
significant contribution was made at the Earth
Summit at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992.
LAND RESOURCES
We live on land, we perform our economic
activities on land and we use it in different ways.
Thus, land is a natural resource of utmost
importance. It supports natural vegetation, wild
life, human life, economic activities, transport
and communication systems. However, land is
an asset of a finite magnitude, therefore, it is
important to use the available land for various
purposes with careful planning.
India has land under a variety of relief
features, namely; mountains, plateaus, plains
and islands. About 43 per cent of the land area
is plain, which provides facilities for agriculture
and industry. Mountains account for 30 per
cent of the total surface area of the country and
ensure perennial flow of some rivers, provide
facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.
About  27 per cent of the area of the country is
the plateau region. It possesses rich reserves
of minerals, fossil fuels and forests.
Fig 1.3: India :  Land under important Relief Features
Try to do a comparison between the two pie
charts (Fig. 1.4 ) given for land use and find
out why the net sown area and the land
under forests have changed from 1960-61
to 2002-03 very marginally.
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