NCERT Textbook - अठारहवीं शताब्दी में नए राजनीतिक गठन Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - अठारहवीं शताब्दी में नए राजनीतिक गठन Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


138 gekjs vrhr — II
10
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jktuhfrd xBu
;fn vki ekufp=k 1 vkSj 2 dks è;kuiwoZd ns[ksaxs] rks vkidks irk pysxk
fd vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ iwokZ¼Z osQ nkSjku miegk}hi esa oqQN fo'ks"k :i
ls mYys[kuh; ?kVuk,¡ ?kVhaA xkSj dhft, fd dbZ Lora=k jkT;ksa osQ mn; ls
eqxy lkezkT; dh lhek,¡ fdl rjg ls cnyhaA vki ;g Hkh ns[ksa fd
1765 rd ,d vU; 'kfDr ;kuh fczfV'k lÙkk us iwohZ Hkkjr osQ cM+s&cM+s
fgLlksa dks liQyrkiwoZd gM+i fy;k FkkA ;s ekufp=k gesa ;g n'kkZrs gSa fd
ekufp=k 1
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jkT;ksa dk xBu
Page 2


138 gekjs vrhr — II
10
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jktuhfrd xBu
;fn vki ekufp=k 1 vkSj 2 dks è;kuiwoZd ns[ksaxs] rks vkidks irk pysxk
fd vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ iwokZ¼Z osQ nkSjku miegk}hi esa oqQN fo'ks"k :i
ls mYys[kuh; ?kVuk,¡ ?kVhaA xkSj dhft, fd dbZ Lora=k jkT;ksa osQ mn; ls
eqxy lkezkT; dh lhek,¡ fdl rjg ls cnyhaA vki ;g Hkh ns[ksa fd
1765 rd ,d vU; 'kfDr ;kuh fczfV'k lÙkk us iwohZ Hkkjr osQ cM+s&cM+s
fgLlksa dks liQyrkiwoZd gM+i fy;k FkkA ;s ekufp=k gesa ;g n'kkZrs gSa fd
ekufp=k 1
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jkT;ksa dk xBu
139
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jktuhfrd xBu
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh ,d ,slh
vof/ Fkh] tc Hkkjr esa
jktuhfrd ifjfLFkfr;k¡ vis{kkÑr
,d NksVs ls le;karjky esa cM+h
rs”kh ls vpkud cnyuh 'kq:
gks xbZ FkhaA bl vè;k; esa ge
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ iwokZ¼Z (eksVs
rkSj ij 1707 esa tc vkSjax”ksc
dh e`R;q gqbZ Fkh] ls 1761 rd]
tc ikuhir dh rhljh yM+kbZ
gqbZ) osQ nkSjku miegk}hi esa
mRiUu gqbZ ubZ jktuhfrd 'kfDr;ksa
osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA
eqX
+
ky lkezkT; vkSj ijorhZ eqX
+
kyksa osQ fy, ladV
dh fLFkfr
vè;k; 4 esa vkius ns[kk Fkk fd eqX
+
ky lkezkT; viuh liQyrk dh Å¡pkbZ
ij fdl izdkj igq¡pk Fkk vkSj fiQj l=kgoha 'krkCnh osQ vafre o"kks± esa
mlosQ lkeus rjg&rjg osQ ladV fdl izdkj [kM+s gksus yxs FksA ,slk
vusd dkj.kksa ls gqvkA ckn'kkg vkSjax”ksc us nDdu esa (1679 ls) yach
yM+kbZ yM+rs gq, lkezkT; osQ lSU; vkSj foÙkh; lalk/uksa dks cgqr vfèkd
[kpZ dj fn;k FkkA
vkSjax”ksc osQ mÙkjkf/dkfj;ksa osQ 'kkludky esa lkezkT; osQ iz'kklu
dh dk;Z&oqQ'kyrk lekIr gksus yxh vkSj eulcnkjksa osQ 'kfDr'kkyh oxks±
dks o'k esa j[kuk osaQæh; lÙkk osQ fy, dfBu gks x;kA lwcsnkj osQ :i esa
fu;qDr vfHktkr vdlj jktLo vkSj lSU; iz'kklu (nhokuh ,oa I
+
kQkStnkjh)
nksuksa dk;kZy;ksa ij fu;a=k.k j[krs FksA blls eqX
+
ky lkezkT; osQ fo'kky {ks=kksa
?
vè;k; 4 esa rkfydk
1 ns[ksaA vkSjax”ksc osQ
'kkludky esa
fdu&fdu yksxksa us
eqX
+
ky lÙkk dks lcls
yacs le; rd pqukSrh
nhA
ekufp=k 2
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ
eè; fczfV'k {ks=k
Page 3


138 gekjs vrhr — II
10
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jktuhfrd xBu
;fn vki ekufp=k 1 vkSj 2 dks è;kuiwoZd ns[ksaxs] rks vkidks irk pysxk
fd vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ iwokZ¼Z osQ nkSjku miegk}hi esa oqQN fo'ks"k :i
ls mYys[kuh; ?kVuk,¡ ?kVhaA xkSj dhft, fd dbZ Lora=k jkT;ksa osQ mn; ls
eqxy lkezkT; dh lhek,¡ fdl rjg ls cnyhaA vki ;g Hkh ns[ksa fd
1765 rd ,d vU; 'kfDr ;kuh fczfV'k lÙkk us iwohZ Hkkjr osQ cM+s&cM+s
fgLlksa dks liQyrkiwoZd gM+i fy;k FkkA ;s ekufp=k gesa ;g n'kkZrs gSa fd
ekufp=k 1
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jkT;ksa dk xBu
139
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jktuhfrd xBu
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh ,d ,slh
vof/ Fkh] tc Hkkjr esa
jktuhfrd ifjfLFkfr;k¡ vis{kkÑr
,d NksVs ls le;karjky esa cM+h
rs”kh ls vpkud cnyuh 'kq:
gks xbZ FkhaA bl vè;k; esa ge
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ iwokZ¼Z (eksVs
rkSj ij 1707 esa tc vkSjax”ksc
dh e`R;q gqbZ Fkh] ls 1761 rd]
tc ikuhir dh rhljh yM+kbZ
gqbZ) osQ nkSjku miegk}hi esa
mRiUu gqbZ ubZ jktuhfrd 'kfDr;ksa
osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA
eqX
+
ky lkezkT; vkSj ijorhZ eqX
+
kyksa osQ fy, ladV
dh fLFkfr
vè;k; 4 esa vkius ns[kk Fkk fd eqX
+
ky lkezkT; viuh liQyrk dh Å¡pkbZ
ij fdl izdkj igq¡pk Fkk vkSj fiQj l=kgoha 'krkCnh osQ vafre o"kks± esa
mlosQ lkeus rjg&rjg osQ ladV fdl izdkj [kM+s gksus yxs FksA ,slk
vusd dkj.kksa ls gqvkA ckn'kkg vkSjax”ksc us nDdu esa (1679 ls) yach
yM+kbZ yM+rs gq, lkezkT; osQ lSU; vkSj foÙkh; lalk/uksa dks cgqr vfèkd
[kpZ dj fn;k FkkA
vkSjax”ksc osQ mÙkjkf/dkfj;ksa osQ 'kkludky esa lkezkT; osQ iz'kklu
dh dk;Z&oqQ'kyrk lekIr gksus yxh vkSj eulcnkjksa osQ 'kfDr'kkyh oxks±
dks o'k esa j[kuk osaQæh; lÙkk osQ fy, dfBu gks x;kA lwcsnkj osQ :i esa
fu;qDr vfHktkr vdlj jktLo vkSj lSU; iz'kklu (nhokuh ,oa I
+
kQkStnkjh)
nksuksa dk;kZy;ksa ij fu;a=k.k j[krs FksA blls eqX
+
ky lkezkT; osQ fo'kky {ks=kksa
?
vè;k; 4 esa rkfydk
1 ns[ksaA vkSjax”ksc osQ
'kkludky esa
fdu&fdu yksxksa us
eqX
+
ky lÙkk dks lcls
yacs le; rd pqukSrh
nhA
ekufp=k 2
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ
eè; fczfV'k {ks=k
140 gekjs vrhr — II
ij mUgsa foLr`r jktuSfrd] vkfFkZd vkSj lSU; 'kfDr;k¡ fey xb±A tSls&tSls
lwcsnkjksa us izkarksa ij viuk fu;a=k.k lqn`<+ fd;k] jktèkkuh esa igq¡pus okys
jktLo dh ek=kk esa deh vkrh xbZA
mÙkjh rFkk if'peh Hkkjr osQ vusd fgLlksa esa gq, ”kehankjksa vkSj
fdlkuksa osQ fonzksgksa vkSj Ñ"kd vkanksyuksa us bu leL;kvksa dks vkSj Hkh
xaHkhj cuk fn;kA dHkh&dHkh ;s fonzksg c<+rs gq, djksa osQ Hkkj osQ fo#¼
fd, x, Fks vkSj dHkh&dHkh ;s 'kfDr'kkyh ljnkjksa osQ }kjk viuh fLFkfr
dks lqn`<+ cukus dh dksf'k'ksa FkhaA vrhr esa Hkh fonzksgh lewgksa us eqX
+
ky
lÙkk dks pqukSrh nh FkhA ijarq vc ,sls lewgksa us {ks=k osQ v£Fkd lalkèkuksa
dk iz;ksx viuh fLFkfr;ksa dks e”kcwr djus osQ fy, fd;kA ftl rjg ls
/hjs&/hjs jktuSfrd o vk£Fkd lÙkk_ izkarh; lwcsnkjksa] LFkkuh; ljnkjksa o
vU; lewgksa osQ gkFkksa esa vk jgh Fkh] vkSjax”ksc osQ mÙkjkf/dkjh bl
cnyko dks jksd u losQA
Hkjiwj I
+
kQly vkSj [kkyh frtksfj;k¡
,d rRdkyhu ys[kd us lkezkT; osQ foÙkh; fnokfy;siu dk o.kZu bu
'kCnksa esa fd;k gS %
cM+s ”kehankj fuLlgk; vkSj fu/Zu gks x, gSaA muosQ fdlku o"kZ esa nks
I
+
kQlysa mxkrs gSa] ysfdu mUgsa nksuksa esa ls oqQN ugha feyrk gSA muosQ
LFkkuh; xqek'rs ,d rjg ls fdlkuksa osQ gkFk dh dBiqryh cus jgrs
gSa] tSls fd Lo;a fdlku vius ½.knkrk osQ o'k esa jgrk gS] tc rd
fd og lkgwdkj dk d”kkZ ugha pqdk nsrkA bl izdkj laiw.kZ O;oLFkk
,oa iz'kklu bruk pdukpwj gks pqdk gS fd ;|fi fdlku viuh
I
+
kQly osQ ”kfj, ekuks lksuk cVksjrk gS] ysfdu mlosQ ekfyd ”kehankj
dks ,d fruosQ dk VqdM+k Hkh ugha feyrk gSA ,slh gkyr esa ”kehankj
l'kL=k lsuk oSQls j[k ldrs gSa] ftudh mlls vk'kk dh tkrh gS\ os
vius lSfudksa dks tks yM+kbZ osQ le; muosQ vkxs&vkxs pyrs gSa vkSj
?kqM+lokjksa dks tks muosQ Bhd ihNs pyrs gSa] iSlk dgk¡ ls nsaxs\
bl vkfFkZd o jktuhfrd ladV osQ chp bZjku osQ 'kkld ukfnj'kkg
us 1739 esa fnYyh ij vkØe.k fd;k vkSj laiw.kZ uxj dks ywV dj og
cM+h Hkkjh ek=kk esa /u&nkSyr ys x;kA ukfnj'kkg osQ vkØe.k osQ ckn
Page 4


138 gekjs vrhr — II
10
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jktuhfrd xBu
;fn vki ekufp=k 1 vkSj 2 dks è;kuiwoZd ns[ksaxs] rks vkidks irk pysxk
fd vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ iwokZ¼Z osQ nkSjku miegk}hi esa oqQN fo'ks"k :i
ls mYys[kuh; ?kVuk,¡ ?kVhaA xkSj dhft, fd dbZ Lora=k jkT;ksa osQ mn; ls
eqxy lkezkT; dh lhek,¡ fdl rjg ls cnyhaA vki ;g Hkh ns[ksa fd
1765 rd ,d vU; 'kfDr ;kuh fczfV'k lÙkk us iwohZ Hkkjr osQ cM+s&cM+s
fgLlksa dks liQyrkiwoZd gM+i fy;k FkkA ;s ekufp=k gesa ;g n'kkZrs gSa fd
ekufp=k 1
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jkT;ksa dk xBu
139
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jktuhfrd xBu
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh ,d ,slh
vof/ Fkh] tc Hkkjr esa
jktuhfrd ifjfLFkfr;k¡ vis{kkÑr
,d NksVs ls le;karjky esa cM+h
rs”kh ls vpkud cnyuh 'kq:
gks xbZ FkhaA bl vè;k; esa ge
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ iwokZ¼Z (eksVs
rkSj ij 1707 esa tc vkSjax”ksc
dh e`R;q gqbZ Fkh] ls 1761 rd]
tc ikuhir dh rhljh yM+kbZ
gqbZ) osQ nkSjku miegk}hi esa
mRiUu gqbZ ubZ jktuhfrd 'kfDr;ksa
osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA
eqX
+
ky lkezkT; vkSj ijorhZ eqX
+
kyksa osQ fy, ladV
dh fLFkfr
vè;k; 4 esa vkius ns[kk Fkk fd eqX
+
ky lkezkT; viuh liQyrk dh Å¡pkbZ
ij fdl izdkj igq¡pk Fkk vkSj fiQj l=kgoha 'krkCnh osQ vafre o"kks± esa
mlosQ lkeus rjg&rjg osQ ladV fdl izdkj [kM+s gksus yxs FksA ,slk
vusd dkj.kksa ls gqvkA ckn'kkg vkSjax”ksc us nDdu esa (1679 ls) yach
yM+kbZ yM+rs gq, lkezkT; osQ lSU; vkSj foÙkh; lalk/uksa dks cgqr vfèkd
[kpZ dj fn;k FkkA
vkSjax”ksc osQ mÙkjkf/dkfj;ksa osQ 'kkludky esa lkezkT; osQ iz'kklu
dh dk;Z&oqQ'kyrk lekIr gksus yxh vkSj eulcnkjksa osQ 'kfDr'kkyh oxks±
dks o'k esa j[kuk osaQæh; lÙkk osQ fy, dfBu gks x;kA lwcsnkj osQ :i esa
fu;qDr vfHktkr vdlj jktLo vkSj lSU; iz'kklu (nhokuh ,oa I
+
kQkStnkjh)
nksuksa dk;kZy;ksa ij fu;a=k.k j[krs FksA blls eqX
+
ky lkezkT; osQ fo'kky {ks=kksa
?
vè;k; 4 esa rkfydk
1 ns[ksaA vkSjax”ksc osQ
'kkludky esa
fdu&fdu yksxksa us
eqX
+
ky lÙkk dks lcls
yacs le; rd pqukSrh
nhA
ekufp=k 2
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ
eè; fczfV'k {ks=k
140 gekjs vrhr — II
ij mUgsa foLr`r jktuSfrd] vkfFkZd vkSj lSU; 'kfDr;k¡ fey xb±A tSls&tSls
lwcsnkjksa us izkarksa ij viuk fu;a=k.k lqn`<+ fd;k] jktèkkuh esa igq¡pus okys
jktLo dh ek=kk esa deh vkrh xbZA
mÙkjh rFkk if'peh Hkkjr osQ vusd fgLlksa esa gq, ”kehankjksa vkSj
fdlkuksa osQ fonzksgksa vkSj Ñ"kd vkanksyuksa us bu leL;kvksa dks vkSj Hkh
xaHkhj cuk fn;kA dHkh&dHkh ;s fonzksg c<+rs gq, djksa osQ Hkkj osQ fo#¼
fd, x, Fks vkSj dHkh&dHkh ;s 'kfDr'kkyh ljnkjksa osQ }kjk viuh fLFkfr
dks lqn`<+ cukus dh dksf'k'ksa FkhaA vrhr esa Hkh fonzksgh lewgksa us eqX
+
ky
lÙkk dks pqukSrh nh FkhA ijarq vc ,sls lewgksa us {ks=k osQ v£Fkd lalkèkuksa
dk iz;ksx viuh fLFkfr;ksa dks e”kcwr djus osQ fy, fd;kA ftl rjg ls
/hjs&/hjs jktuSfrd o vk£Fkd lÙkk_ izkarh; lwcsnkjksa] LFkkuh; ljnkjksa o
vU; lewgksa osQ gkFkksa esa vk jgh Fkh] vkSjax”ksc osQ mÙkjkf/dkjh bl
cnyko dks jksd u losQA
Hkjiwj I
+
kQly vkSj [kkyh frtksfj;k¡
,d rRdkyhu ys[kd us lkezkT; osQ foÙkh; fnokfy;siu dk o.kZu bu
'kCnksa esa fd;k gS %
cM+s ”kehankj fuLlgk; vkSj fu/Zu gks x, gSaA muosQ fdlku o"kZ esa nks
I
+
kQlysa mxkrs gSa] ysfdu mUgsa nksuksa esa ls oqQN ugha feyrk gSA muosQ
LFkkuh; xqek'rs ,d rjg ls fdlkuksa osQ gkFk dh dBiqryh cus jgrs
gSa] tSls fd Lo;a fdlku vius ½.knkrk osQ o'k esa jgrk gS] tc rd
fd og lkgwdkj dk d”kkZ ugha pqdk nsrkA bl izdkj laiw.kZ O;oLFkk
,oa iz'kklu bruk pdukpwj gks pqdk gS fd ;|fi fdlku viuh
I
+
kQly osQ ”kfj, ekuks lksuk cVksjrk gS] ysfdu mlosQ ekfyd ”kehankj
dks ,d fruosQ dk VqdM+k Hkh ugha feyrk gSA ,slh gkyr esa ”kehankj
l'kL=k lsuk oSQls j[k ldrs gSa] ftudh mlls vk'kk dh tkrh gS\ os
vius lSfudksa dks tks yM+kbZ osQ le; muosQ vkxs&vkxs pyrs gSa vkSj
?kqM+lokjksa dks tks muosQ Bhd ihNs pyrs gSa] iSlk dgk¡ ls nsaxs\
bl vkfFkZd o jktuhfrd ladV osQ chp bZjku osQ 'kkld ukfnj'kkg
us 1739 esa fnYyh ij vkØe.k fd;k vkSj laiw.kZ uxj dks ywV dj og
cM+h Hkkjh ek=kk esa /u&nkSyr ys x;kA ukfnj'kkg osQ vkØe.k osQ ckn
141
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jktuhfrd xBu
vI
+
kQxku 'kkld vgen'kkg vCnkyh osQ vkØe.kksa dk rk¡rk yxk jgkA
mlus rks 1748 ls 1761 osQ chp ik¡p ckj mÙkjh Hkkjr ij vkØe.k fd;k
vkSj ywVikV epkbZA
ukfnj'kkg dk fnYyh ij vkozQe.k
ukfnj'kkg osQ vkØe.k osQ ifj.kkeLo:i fnYyh esa tks foèoal gqvk]
mldk o.kZu ledkyhu izs{kdksa us fd;k FkkA buesa ls ,d us eqX
+
ky dks"k
ls ftl rjg èku ywVk x;k Fkk] mldk o.kZu bl rjg ls fd;k gS %
lkB yk[k #i, vkSj dbZ g”kkj lksus osQ flDosQ] yxHkx ,d djksM+
#i, osQ lksus osQ crZu] yxHkx ipkl djksM+ #i, osQ xgus] tokgjkr
vkSj vU; ph”ksa ys x;k_ ftuesa ls oqQN rks bruh cs'kdherh Fkha fd
nqfu;k esa mudk eqdkcyk dksbZ ugha dj ldrk gS] tSls&r[rs rkml
;kuh&e;wj flagkluA
,d vU; o`Ùkkar esa fnYyh ij vkozQe.k osQ izHkko dk o.kZu feyrk gS %
tks dHkh ekfyd Fks] vc cM+h nnZukd gkyr esa gks x,A ftUgsa dHkh
Hkjiwj vknj&b””kr nh tkrh Fkh] mUgsa vc I;kl cq>kus osQ fy, ikuh
Hkh ugha feyrkA vyx&Fkyx iM+s yksxksa dks muosQ dksuksa ls [khapdj
ckgj fudky fn;k x;kA nkSyreanksa dks fHk[kkjh cuk fn;k x;kA tks
'kkSdhu yksx dHkh rjg&rjg osQ laqnj diM+s igudj iks'kkdksa dk
u;k&u;k iSQ'ku pykrs Fks] vc uaxs ?kweus yxs] vkSj ftuosQ ikl
”kehu&tk;nkn dh dksbZ deh ugha Fkh] os vc cs?kj gks x,--- u;k
'kgj ('kkgtgk¡ukckn) vc eycs dk <sj cu x;kA (ukfnj'kkg us)
rc 'kgj osQ iqjkus eksgYyksa ij geyk cksyk vkSj ogk¡ dh lkjh dh lkjh
nqfu;k dks rckg dj Mkyk---
lkezkT; ij lc vksj ls ncko rks iM+ gh jgk Fkk] vfHktkrksa osQ
fofHkUu lewgksa dh ikjLifjd izfr}af}rk us mls vkSj Hkh de”kksj cuk
MkykA ;s vfHktkr nks cM+s xqVksa esa c¡Vs gq, Fks µ bZjkuh vkSj rwjkuh (rqoZQ
ewy osQ)A dkI
+
kQh le; rd ijoÙkhZ eqX
+
ky  ckn'kkg buesa ls ,d ;k nwljs
lewg osQ gkFkksa dh dBiqryh cus jgsA csgn viekutud fLFkfr rc iSnk
gks xbZ] tc nks eqX
+
ky ckn'kkgksa&iQ Z :[+kfl;j (1713&1719) vkSj vkyexhj
f}rh; (1754&1759) dh gR;k gks xbZ vkSj nks vU; ckn'kkgksa vgen'kkg
fp=k 1
ukfnj'kkg dk 1779 dk
,d fp=k
Page 5


138 gekjs vrhr — II
10
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jktuhfrd xBu
;fn vki ekufp=k 1 vkSj 2 dks è;kuiwoZd ns[ksaxs] rks vkidks irk pysxk
fd vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ iwokZ¼Z osQ nkSjku miegk}hi esa oqQN fo'ks"k :i
ls mYys[kuh; ?kVuk,¡ ?kVhaA xkSj dhft, fd dbZ Lora=k jkT;ksa osQ mn; ls
eqxy lkezkT; dh lhek,¡ fdl rjg ls cnyhaA vki ;g Hkh ns[ksa fd
1765 rd ,d vU; 'kfDr ;kuh fczfV'k lÙkk us iwohZ Hkkjr osQ cM+s&cM+s
fgLlksa dks liQyrkiwoZd gM+i fy;k FkkA ;s ekufp=k gesa ;g n'kkZrs gSa fd
ekufp=k 1
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jkT;ksa dk xBu
139
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jktuhfrd xBu
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh ,d ,slh
vof/ Fkh] tc Hkkjr esa
jktuhfrd ifjfLFkfr;k¡ vis{kkÑr
,d NksVs ls le;karjky esa cM+h
rs”kh ls vpkud cnyuh 'kq:
gks xbZ FkhaA bl vè;k; esa ge
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ iwokZ¼Z (eksVs
rkSj ij 1707 esa tc vkSjax”ksc
dh e`R;q gqbZ Fkh] ls 1761 rd]
tc ikuhir dh rhljh yM+kbZ
gqbZ) osQ nkSjku miegk}hi esa
mRiUu gqbZ ubZ jktuhfrd 'kfDr;ksa
osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA
eqX
+
ky lkezkT; vkSj ijorhZ eqX
+
kyksa osQ fy, ladV
dh fLFkfr
vè;k; 4 esa vkius ns[kk Fkk fd eqX
+
ky lkezkT; viuh liQyrk dh Å¡pkbZ
ij fdl izdkj igq¡pk Fkk vkSj fiQj l=kgoha 'krkCnh osQ vafre o"kks± esa
mlosQ lkeus rjg&rjg osQ ladV fdl izdkj [kM+s gksus yxs FksA ,slk
vusd dkj.kksa ls gqvkA ckn'kkg vkSjax”ksc us nDdu esa (1679 ls) yach
yM+kbZ yM+rs gq, lkezkT; osQ lSU; vkSj foÙkh; lalk/uksa dks cgqr vfèkd
[kpZ dj fn;k FkkA
vkSjax”ksc osQ mÙkjkf/dkfj;ksa osQ 'kkludky esa lkezkT; osQ iz'kklu
dh dk;Z&oqQ'kyrk lekIr gksus yxh vkSj eulcnkjksa osQ 'kfDr'kkyh oxks±
dks o'k esa j[kuk osaQæh; lÙkk osQ fy, dfBu gks x;kA lwcsnkj osQ :i esa
fu;qDr vfHktkr vdlj jktLo vkSj lSU; iz'kklu (nhokuh ,oa I
+
kQkStnkjh)
nksuksa dk;kZy;ksa ij fu;a=k.k j[krs FksA blls eqX
+
ky lkezkT; osQ fo'kky {ks=kksa
?
vè;k; 4 esa rkfydk
1 ns[ksaA vkSjax”ksc osQ
'kkludky esa
fdu&fdu yksxksa us
eqX
+
ky lÙkk dks lcls
yacs le; rd pqukSrh
nhA
ekufp=k 2
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ
eè; fczfV'k {ks=k
140 gekjs vrhr — II
ij mUgsa foLr`r jktuSfrd] vkfFkZd vkSj lSU; 'kfDr;k¡ fey xb±A tSls&tSls
lwcsnkjksa us izkarksa ij viuk fu;a=k.k lqn`<+ fd;k] jktèkkuh esa igq¡pus okys
jktLo dh ek=kk esa deh vkrh xbZA
mÙkjh rFkk if'peh Hkkjr osQ vusd fgLlksa esa gq, ”kehankjksa vkSj
fdlkuksa osQ fonzksgksa vkSj Ñ"kd vkanksyuksa us bu leL;kvksa dks vkSj Hkh
xaHkhj cuk fn;kA dHkh&dHkh ;s fonzksg c<+rs gq, djksa osQ Hkkj osQ fo#¼
fd, x, Fks vkSj dHkh&dHkh ;s 'kfDr'kkyh ljnkjksa osQ }kjk viuh fLFkfr
dks lqn`<+ cukus dh dksf'k'ksa FkhaA vrhr esa Hkh fonzksgh lewgksa us eqX
+
ky
lÙkk dks pqukSrh nh FkhA ijarq vc ,sls lewgksa us {ks=k osQ v£Fkd lalkèkuksa
dk iz;ksx viuh fLFkfr;ksa dks e”kcwr djus osQ fy, fd;kA ftl rjg ls
/hjs&/hjs jktuSfrd o vk£Fkd lÙkk_ izkarh; lwcsnkjksa] LFkkuh; ljnkjksa o
vU; lewgksa osQ gkFkksa esa vk jgh Fkh] vkSjax”ksc osQ mÙkjkf/dkjh bl
cnyko dks jksd u losQA
Hkjiwj I
+
kQly vkSj [kkyh frtksfj;k¡
,d rRdkyhu ys[kd us lkezkT; osQ foÙkh; fnokfy;siu dk o.kZu bu
'kCnksa esa fd;k gS %
cM+s ”kehankj fuLlgk; vkSj fu/Zu gks x, gSaA muosQ fdlku o"kZ esa nks
I
+
kQlysa mxkrs gSa] ysfdu mUgsa nksuksa esa ls oqQN ugha feyrk gSA muosQ
LFkkuh; xqek'rs ,d rjg ls fdlkuksa osQ gkFk dh dBiqryh cus jgrs
gSa] tSls fd Lo;a fdlku vius ½.knkrk osQ o'k esa jgrk gS] tc rd
fd og lkgwdkj dk d”kkZ ugha pqdk nsrkA bl izdkj laiw.kZ O;oLFkk
,oa iz'kklu bruk pdukpwj gks pqdk gS fd ;|fi fdlku viuh
I
+
kQly osQ ”kfj, ekuks lksuk cVksjrk gS] ysfdu mlosQ ekfyd ”kehankj
dks ,d fruosQ dk VqdM+k Hkh ugha feyrk gSA ,slh gkyr esa ”kehankj
l'kL=k lsuk oSQls j[k ldrs gSa] ftudh mlls vk'kk dh tkrh gS\ os
vius lSfudksa dks tks yM+kbZ osQ le; muosQ vkxs&vkxs pyrs gSa vkSj
?kqM+lokjksa dks tks muosQ Bhd ihNs pyrs gSa] iSlk dgk¡ ls nsaxs\
bl vkfFkZd o jktuhfrd ladV osQ chp bZjku osQ 'kkld ukfnj'kkg
us 1739 esa fnYyh ij vkØe.k fd;k vkSj laiw.kZ uxj dks ywV dj og
cM+h Hkkjh ek=kk esa /u&nkSyr ys x;kA ukfnj'kkg osQ vkØe.k osQ ckn
141
vBkjgoha 'krkCnh esa u,
jktuhfrd xBu
vI
+
kQxku 'kkld vgen'kkg vCnkyh osQ vkØe.kksa dk rk¡rk yxk jgkA
mlus rks 1748 ls 1761 osQ chp ik¡p ckj mÙkjh Hkkjr ij vkØe.k fd;k
vkSj ywVikV epkbZA
ukfnj'kkg dk fnYyh ij vkozQe.k
ukfnj'kkg osQ vkØe.k osQ ifj.kkeLo:i fnYyh esa tks foèoal gqvk]
mldk o.kZu ledkyhu izs{kdksa us fd;k FkkA buesa ls ,d us eqX
+
ky dks"k
ls ftl rjg èku ywVk x;k Fkk] mldk o.kZu bl rjg ls fd;k gS %
lkB yk[k #i, vkSj dbZ g”kkj lksus osQ flDosQ] yxHkx ,d djksM+
#i, osQ lksus osQ crZu] yxHkx ipkl djksM+ #i, osQ xgus] tokgjkr
vkSj vU; ph”ksa ys x;k_ ftuesa ls oqQN rks bruh cs'kdherh Fkha fd
nqfu;k esa mudk eqdkcyk dksbZ ugha dj ldrk gS] tSls&r[rs rkml
;kuh&e;wj flagkluA
,d vU; o`Ùkkar esa fnYyh ij vkozQe.k osQ izHkko dk o.kZu feyrk gS %
tks dHkh ekfyd Fks] vc cM+h nnZukd gkyr esa gks x,A ftUgsa dHkh
Hkjiwj vknj&b””kr nh tkrh Fkh] mUgsa vc I;kl cq>kus osQ fy, ikuh
Hkh ugha feyrkA vyx&Fkyx iM+s yksxksa dks muosQ dksuksa ls [khapdj
ckgj fudky fn;k x;kA nkSyreanksa dks fHk[kkjh cuk fn;k x;kA tks
'kkSdhu yksx dHkh rjg&rjg osQ laqnj diM+s igudj iks'kkdksa dk
u;k&u;k iSQ'ku pykrs Fks] vc uaxs ?kweus yxs] vkSj ftuosQ ikl
”kehu&tk;nkn dh dksbZ deh ugha Fkh] os vc cs?kj gks x,--- u;k
'kgj ('kkgtgk¡ukckn) vc eycs dk <sj cu x;kA (ukfnj'kkg us)
rc 'kgj osQ iqjkus eksgYyksa ij geyk cksyk vkSj ogk¡ dh lkjh dh lkjh
nqfu;k dks rckg dj Mkyk---
lkezkT; ij lc vksj ls ncko rks iM+ gh jgk Fkk] vfHktkrksa osQ
fofHkUu lewgksa dh ikjLifjd izfr}af}rk us mls vkSj Hkh de”kksj cuk
MkykA ;s vfHktkr nks cM+s xqVksa esa c¡Vs gq, Fks µ bZjkuh vkSj rwjkuh (rqoZQ
ewy osQ)A dkI
+
kQh le; rd ijoÙkhZ eqX
+
ky  ckn'kkg buesa ls ,d ;k nwljs
lewg osQ gkFkksa dh dBiqryh cus jgsA csgn viekutud fLFkfr rc iSnk
gks xbZ] tc nks eqX
+
ky ckn'kkgksa&iQ Z :[+kfl;j (1713&1719) vkSj vkyexhj
f}rh; (1754&1759) dh gR;k gks xbZ vkSj nks vU; ckn'kkgksa vgen'kkg
fp=k 1
ukfnj'kkg dk 1779 dk
,d fp=k
142 gekjs vrhr — II
(1748&1754) vkSj 'kkg vkye f}rh; dks muosQ vfHktkrksa
us vaèkk dj fn;kA
u, jkT;ksa dk mn;
eqX
+
ky lezkVksa dh lÙkk osQ iru osQ lkFk&lkFk cM+s izkarksa osQ
lwcsnkjksa vkSj cM+s ”kehankjksa us miegk}hi osQ fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa
viuh 'kfDr vkSj izcy cuk yhA vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ nkSjku
eqX
+
ky lkezkT; èkhjs&èkhjs dbZ Lora=k {ks=kh; jkT;ksa esa fc[kj
x;kA eksVs rkSj ij vBkjgoha 'krkCnh osQ jkT;ksa dks rhu ijLij
O;kih lewgksa esa ck¡Vk tk ldrk gS&(1) voèk] caxky o
gSnjkckn tSls os jkT; tks igys eqX
+
ky izkar FksA gkyk¡fd bu
jkT;ksa osQ 'kkld vfr 'kfDr'kkyh Fks vkSj dkI
+
kQh gn rd
Lora=k Fks mUgksaus eqX
+
ky ckn'kkg ls vkSipkfjd rkSj ij vius
lacaèk ugha rksM+sA (2) ,sls jkT; tks eqX
+
kyksa osQ iqjkus 'kkludky esa oru
tkxhjksa osQ :i esa dkI
+
kQh Lora=k FksA buesa dbZ jktiwr ljnkfj;k¡ 'kkfey
FkhaA (3) rhljh Js.kh esa ejkBksa] flD[kksa rFkk tkVksa osQ jkT; vkrs gSaA ;s
fofHkUu vkdkj osQ Fks vkSj bUgksaus dM+s vkSj yacs l'kL=k la?k"kZ osQ ckn
eqX
+
kyksa ls Lora=krk Nhudj yh FkhA
iqjkus eqX
+
ky izkar
iqjkus eqX
+
ky izkarksa ls ftu ^mÙkjkf/dkjh* jkT;ksa dk mn~Hko gqvk] muesa ls
rhu jkT; izeq[k Fks % vo/] caxky vkSj gSnjkcknA ;s rhuksa gh jkT;
mPp eqX
+
ky vfHktkrksa }kjk LFkkfir fd, x, FksA bu rhuksa jkT;ksa osQ
laLFkkid lvknr[kka (vo/)] e'khZn O
+
kqQyh [kk¡ (caxky) vkSj vkliQtkg
(gSnjkckn) ,sls O;fDr Fks] ftudk eqX
+
ky njckj esa Å¡pk LFkku FkkA
eqX
+
ky ckn'kkgksa dks mu ij Hkjkslk vkSj fo'okl FkkA vkliQtkg vkSj
eq'khZn O
+
kqQyh [kk¡] nksuksa dks lkr&lkr g”kkj ”kkr dk ntkZ feyk gqvk Fkk]
tcfd lvknr[kk¡ dh ”kkr dk ntkZ Ng g”kkj FkkA
gSnjkckn
fu”kke&my&eqYd vkliQtkg] ftlus gSnjkckn jkT; dh LFkkiuk dh Fkh_
eqX
+
ky ckn'kkg iQ Z :[+kfl;j osQ njckj dk ,d vR;ar 'kfDr'kkyh lnL;
fp=k 2
,d vfHktkr osQ njckj
esa Lokxr djrs gq,
iQ: Z [+kfl;j
Read More
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