NCERT Textbook - अशोकः एक अनोखा सम्राट जिसने युद्ध का त्याग किया Notes | EduRev

इतिहास (History) for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - अशोकः एक अनोखा सम्राट जिसने युद्ध का त्याग किया Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


67 ?
jkS'ku osQ #i,
tUefnu ij jkS'ku dks nknk th ls dM+d uksV feysA mlus mUgsa vius gkFk
esa nck j[kk FkkA mls ,d u;k lhMh [kjhnus dk cgqr eu Fkk ysfdu lkFk
gh og fcYoqQy u, dM+d uksVksa dks ns[kuk vkSj Nw dj eglwl djuk
pkgrh FkhA rHkh mlus ik;k fd lHkh uksVksa esa nkfguh rji -Q xk¡/hth dk
eqLoQjkrk psgjk cuk gqvk Fkk vkSj ckb± rji - Q NksVs&NksVs 'ksj fpf=kr FksA mlus
lkspk ^vkf[kj ;gk¡ 'ksj D;ksa cus gq, gSa*A
,d cgqr cM+k jkT; ? ? ? ? ?–?? ?? ?,d lkezkT;
ge ftu 'ksjksa osQ fp=k #i;ksa&iSlksa ij ns[krs gSa mudk ,d yack bfrgkl
gSA mUgsa iRFkjksa dks dkV dj cuk;k x;k vkSj fiQj mUgsa lkjukFk esa ,d
fo'kky LraHk ij LFkkfir fd;k x;k FkkA (bl fo"k; esa rqeus vè;k; 6
esa i<+kA)
bfrgkl osQ egkure jktkvksa esa ls ,d] v'kksd osQ funZs'k ij
blosQ tSls dbZ LraHkksa vkSj iRFkjksa ij vfHkys[k mRdh.kZ fd, x,A
blosQ igys fd ge ;g tkusa fd bu vfHkys[kksa esa D;k fy[kk gS]
;g le>us dh dksf'k'k djsa fd muosQ jkT; dks lkezkT; D;ksa dgk
tkrk gSA
v'kksd ftl lkezkT; ij 'kklu djrs Fks mldh LFkkiuk muosQ
nknk pUnzxqIr ekS;Z us yxHkx 2300 lky igys dh FkhA pk.kD; ;k
dkSfVY; uke osQ ,d cqf¼eku O;fDr us pUnzxqIr dh lgk;rk dh
FkhA pk.kD; osQ dbZ fopkj gesa vFkZ'kkL=k uke dh fdrkc esa
feyrs gSaA
'ksjksa okyk LraHk&'kh"kZ
vè;k; ? ? ?
v'kksd% ,d vuks[kk lezkV ftlus ;q¼ dk
R;kx fd;k
oa'k
tc ,d gh ifjokj osQ dbZ lnL; ,d osQ ckn ,d jktk curs gSa rks mUgsa ,d gh oa'k dk dgk tkrk gSA
ekS;Z oa'k esa rhu egRoiw.kZ jktk gq, & pUnzxqIr] mldk csVk fcUnqlkj vkSj fcUnqlkj dk iq=k v'kksdA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 2


67 ?
jkS'ku osQ #i,
tUefnu ij jkS'ku dks nknk th ls dM+d uksV feysA mlus mUgsa vius gkFk
esa nck j[kk FkkA mls ,d u;k lhMh [kjhnus dk cgqr eu Fkk ysfdu lkFk
gh og fcYoqQy u, dM+d uksVksa dks ns[kuk vkSj Nw dj eglwl djuk
pkgrh FkhA rHkh mlus ik;k fd lHkh uksVksa esa nkfguh rji -Q xk¡/hth dk
eqLoQjkrk psgjk cuk gqvk Fkk vkSj ckb± rji - Q NksVs&NksVs 'ksj fpf=kr FksA mlus
lkspk ^vkf[kj ;gk¡ 'ksj D;ksa cus gq, gSa*A
,d cgqr cM+k jkT; ? ? ? ? ?–?? ?? ?,d lkezkT;
ge ftu 'ksjksa osQ fp=k #i;ksa&iSlksa ij ns[krs gSa mudk ,d yack bfrgkl
gSA mUgsa iRFkjksa dks dkV dj cuk;k x;k vkSj fiQj mUgsa lkjukFk esa ,d
fo'kky LraHk ij LFkkfir fd;k x;k FkkA (bl fo"k; esa rqeus vè;k; 6
esa i<+kA)
bfrgkl osQ egkure jktkvksa esa ls ,d] v'kksd osQ funZs'k ij
blosQ tSls dbZ LraHkksa vkSj iRFkjksa ij vfHkys[k mRdh.kZ fd, x,A
blosQ igys fd ge ;g tkusa fd bu vfHkys[kksa esa D;k fy[kk gS]
;g le>us dh dksf'k'k djsa fd muosQ jkT; dks lkezkT; D;ksa dgk
tkrk gSA
v'kksd ftl lkezkT; ij 'kklu djrs Fks mldh LFkkiuk muosQ
nknk pUnzxqIr ekS;Z us yxHkx 2300 lky igys dh FkhA pk.kD; ;k
dkSfVY; uke osQ ,d cqf¼eku O;fDr us pUnzxqIr dh lgk;rk dh
FkhA pk.kD; osQ dbZ fopkj gesa vFkZ'kkL=k uke dh fdrkc esa
feyrs gSaA
'ksjksa okyk LraHk&'kh"kZ
vè;k; ? ? ?
v'kksd% ,d vuks[kk lezkV ftlus ;q¼ dk
R;kx fd;k
oa'k
tc ,d gh ifjokj osQ dbZ lnL; ,d osQ ckn ,d jktk curs gSa rks mUgsa ,d gh oa'k dk dgk tkrk gSA
ekS;Z oa'k esa rhu egRoiw.kZ jktk gq, & pUnzxqIr] mldk csVk fcUnqlkj vkSj fcUnqlkj dk iq=k v'kksdA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
? 68
gekjs vrhr–I
lkezkT; esa cgqr&ls uxj FksA (ekufp=k esa mUgsa dkys fcUnqvksa ls
fn[kk;k x;k gSA) buesa lkezkT; dh jkt/kuh ikVfyiq=k] mTtSu vkSj
r{kf'kyk tSls uxj izeq[k FksA r{kf'kyk mÙkj&if'pe vkSj eè; ,f'k;k osQ
fy, vkus&tkus dk ekxZ FkkA nwljh rji -Q mTtSu mÙkjh Hkkjr ls nf{k.kh
Hkkjr tkus okys jkLrs esa iM+rk FkkA 'kk;n uxjksa esa O;kikjh] ljdkjh
vfèkdkjh vkSj f'kYidkj jgk djrs FksA
lkezkT; osQ cgqr cM+s {ks=kksa esa fdlkuksa vkSj i'kqikydksa osQ xk¡o cls
gq, FksA eè; Hkkjr tSls bykdksa esa ”;knkrj fgLlk taxyksa ls Hkjk gqvk FkkA
ogk¡ ij yksx iQy&iwQy dk laxzg.k vkSj tkuojksa dk f'kdkj djosQ
thfodk pykrs FksA lkezkT; osQ vyx&vyx bykdksa esa yksx fHkUu&fHkUu
ftu txgksa ij v'kksd osQ
f'kykys[k feys gSa mUgsa yky
fcUnqvksa ls fn[kk;k x;k gSA
;s lkjs bykosQ lkezkT; osQ
Hkhrj FksA mu ns'kksa osQ uke
crkvks tgk¡ v'kksd osQ
vfHkys[k feys gSaA Hkkjr osQ
dkSu&ls jkT; ekS;Z lkezkT; ls
ckgj Fks\
ekufp=k ? ??
ekS;Z lkezkT; % ml ;qx osQ
izeq[k uxj vkSj
vfHkys[kksa osQ izkfIr LFky
js[kkfp=k
iSekuk ugha fn;k x;k gSA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 3


67 ?
jkS'ku osQ #i,
tUefnu ij jkS'ku dks nknk th ls dM+d uksV feysA mlus mUgsa vius gkFk
esa nck j[kk FkkA mls ,d u;k lhMh [kjhnus dk cgqr eu Fkk ysfdu lkFk
gh og fcYoqQy u, dM+d uksVksa dks ns[kuk vkSj Nw dj eglwl djuk
pkgrh FkhA rHkh mlus ik;k fd lHkh uksVksa esa nkfguh rji -Q xk¡/hth dk
eqLoQjkrk psgjk cuk gqvk Fkk vkSj ckb± rji - Q NksVs&NksVs 'ksj fpf=kr FksA mlus
lkspk ^vkf[kj ;gk¡ 'ksj D;ksa cus gq, gSa*A
,d cgqr cM+k jkT; ? ? ? ? ?–?? ?? ?,d lkezkT;
ge ftu 'ksjksa osQ fp=k #i;ksa&iSlksa ij ns[krs gSa mudk ,d yack bfrgkl
gSA mUgsa iRFkjksa dks dkV dj cuk;k x;k vkSj fiQj mUgsa lkjukFk esa ,d
fo'kky LraHk ij LFkkfir fd;k x;k FkkA (bl fo"k; esa rqeus vè;k; 6
esa i<+kA)
bfrgkl osQ egkure jktkvksa esa ls ,d] v'kksd osQ funZs'k ij
blosQ tSls dbZ LraHkksa vkSj iRFkjksa ij vfHkys[k mRdh.kZ fd, x,A
blosQ igys fd ge ;g tkusa fd bu vfHkys[kksa esa D;k fy[kk gS]
;g le>us dh dksf'k'k djsa fd muosQ jkT; dks lkezkT; D;ksa dgk
tkrk gSA
v'kksd ftl lkezkT; ij 'kklu djrs Fks mldh LFkkiuk muosQ
nknk pUnzxqIr ekS;Z us yxHkx 2300 lky igys dh FkhA pk.kD; ;k
dkSfVY; uke osQ ,d cqf¼eku O;fDr us pUnzxqIr dh lgk;rk dh
FkhA pk.kD; osQ dbZ fopkj gesa vFkZ'kkL=k uke dh fdrkc esa
feyrs gSaA
'ksjksa okyk LraHk&'kh"kZ
vè;k; ? ? ?
v'kksd% ,d vuks[kk lezkV ftlus ;q¼ dk
R;kx fd;k
oa'k
tc ,d gh ifjokj osQ dbZ lnL; ,d osQ ckn ,d jktk curs gSa rks mUgsa ,d gh oa'k dk dgk tkrk gSA
ekS;Z oa'k esa rhu egRoiw.kZ jktk gq, & pUnzxqIr] mldk csVk fcUnqlkj vkSj fcUnqlkj dk iq=k v'kksdA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
? 68
gekjs vrhr–I
lkezkT; esa cgqr&ls uxj FksA (ekufp=k esa mUgsa dkys fcUnqvksa ls
fn[kk;k x;k gSA) buesa lkezkT; dh jkt/kuh ikVfyiq=k] mTtSu vkSj
r{kf'kyk tSls uxj izeq[k FksA r{kf'kyk mÙkj&if'pe vkSj eè; ,f'k;k osQ
fy, vkus&tkus dk ekxZ FkkA nwljh rji -Q mTtSu mÙkjh Hkkjr ls nf{k.kh
Hkkjr tkus okys jkLrs esa iM+rk FkkA 'kk;n uxjksa esa O;kikjh] ljdkjh
vfèkdkjh vkSj f'kYidkj jgk djrs FksA
lkezkT; osQ cgqr cM+s {ks=kksa esa fdlkuksa vkSj i'kqikydksa osQ xk¡o cls
gq, FksA eè; Hkkjr tSls bykdksa esa ”;knkrj fgLlk taxyksa ls Hkjk gqvk FkkA
ogk¡ ij yksx iQy&iwQy dk laxzg.k vkSj tkuojksa dk f'kdkj djosQ
thfodk pykrs FksA lkezkT; osQ vyx&vyx bykdksa esa yksx fHkUu&fHkUu
ftu txgksa ij v'kksd osQ
f'kykys[k feys gSa mUgsa yky
fcUnqvksa ls fn[kk;k x;k gSA
;s lkjs bykosQ lkezkT; osQ
Hkhrj FksA mu ns'kksa osQ uke
crkvks tgk¡ v'kksd osQ
vfHkys[k feys gSaA Hkkjr osQ
dkSu&ls jkT; ekS;Z lkezkT; ls
ckgj Fks\
ekufp=k ? ??
ekS;Z lkezkT; % ml ;qx osQ
izeq[k uxj vkSj
vfHkys[kksa osQ izkfIr LFky
js[kkfp=k
iSekuk ugha fn;k x;k gSA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
69 ?
Hkk"kk,¡ cksyrs FksA os yksx 'kk;n vyx&vyx izdkj dk Hkkstu djrs Fks
vkSj ;gk¡ rd fd vyx&vyx fdLe dh iks'kkd Hkh igurs FksA
jkT; lkezkT; ls oSQls fHkUu gS\
• pwafd lkezkT; jkT;ksa ls cM+s gksrs gSa vkSj mudh j{kk osQ fy, cM+h lsukvksa
dh ”k:jr gksrh gS] blhfy, lezkVksa dks jktkvksa dh rqyuk esa ”;knk
lalk/uksa dh ”k:jr gksrh gSA
• blh dkj.k mUgsa cM+h la[;k esa dj bdêòk djus okys vf/dkfj;ksa dh
”k:jr gksrh gSA
lkezkT; dk iz'kklu
pawfd ekS;Z lkezkT; cgqr cM+k Fkk] blfy, vyx&vyx fgLlksa ij
vyx&vyx <ax ls 'kklu fd;k tkrk FkkA ikVfyiq=k vkSj mlosQ
vkl&ikl osQ bykdksa ij lezkV dk lh/k fu;a=k.k FkkA bldk eryc ;g
gqvk fd bl bykosQ osQ xk¡oksa vkSj 'kgjksa osQ fdlkuksa] i'kqikydksa]
f'kYidkjksa vkSj O;kikfj;ksa ls dj bdêòk djus osQ fy, jktk
vf/dkfj;ksa dh fu;qfDr djrk FkkA tks jktk osQ vkns'kksa dk mYya?ku djrs
Fks] vf/dkjh mudks l”kk Hkh nsrs FksA buesa ls dbZ vf/dkfj;ksa dks osru
Hkh fn;k tkrk FkkA lans'kokgd ,d txg ls nwljh txg ?kwers jgrs Fks vkSj
jktk osQ tklwl vf/dkfj;ksa osQ dk;Z&dyki ij u”kj j[krs FksA bu lcosQ
Åij lezkV Fkk tks jkt&ifjokj ,oa ofj"B eaf=k;ksa dh lgk;rk ls lc ij
fu;a=k.k j[krk FkkA
ekS;Z lkezkT; osQ Hkhrj dbZ NksVs {ks=k ;k izkar FksA bu ij r{kf'kyk ;k
mTtSu tSlh izkarh; jkt/kfu;ksa ls 'kklu fd;k tkrk FkkA oqQN gn rd
ikVfyiq=k ls bu {ks=kksa ij fu;a=k.k j[kk tkrk Fkk vkSj vDlj jktoqQekjksa
dks ogk¡ dk jkT;iky (xouZj) cuk dj Hkstk tkrk FkkA ysfdu ,slk
yxrk gS fd bu txgksa ij LFkkuh; ijaijkvksa vkSj fu;eksa dks gh ekuk
tkrk FkkA
izknsf'kd osaQnzksa osQ chp foLr`r {ks=k FksA buosQ bykdksa esa ekS;Z 'kkld
fliZ -Q ekxks± vkSj ufn;ksa ij fu;a=k.k j[kus dh dksf'k'k djrs Fks tks fd
v'kksd% ,d vuks[kk lezkV
ftlus ;q¼ dk R;kx fd;k
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 4


67 ?
jkS'ku osQ #i,
tUefnu ij jkS'ku dks nknk th ls dM+d uksV feysA mlus mUgsa vius gkFk
esa nck j[kk FkkA mls ,d u;k lhMh [kjhnus dk cgqr eu Fkk ysfdu lkFk
gh og fcYoqQy u, dM+d uksVksa dks ns[kuk vkSj Nw dj eglwl djuk
pkgrh FkhA rHkh mlus ik;k fd lHkh uksVksa esa nkfguh rji -Q xk¡/hth dk
eqLoQjkrk psgjk cuk gqvk Fkk vkSj ckb± rji - Q NksVs&NksVs 'ksj fpf=kr FksA mlus
lkspk ^vkf[kj ;gk¡ 'ksj D;ksa cus gq, gSa*A
,d cgqr cM+k jkT; ? ? ? ? ?–?? ?? ?,d lkezkT;
ge ftu 'ksjksa osQ fp=k #i;ksa&iSlksa ij ns[krs gSa mudk ,d yack bfrgkl
gSA mUgsa iRFkjksa dks dkV dj cuk;k x;k vkSj fiQj mUgsa lkjukFk esa ,d
fo'kky LraHk ij LFkkfir fd;k x;k FkkA (bl fo"k; esa rqeus vè;k; 6
esa i<+kA)
bfrgkl osQ egkure jktkvksa esa ls ,d] v'kksd osQ funZs'k ij
blosQ tSls dbZ LraHkksa vkSj iRFkjksa ij vfHkys[k mRdh.kZ fd, x,A
blosQ igys fd ge ;g tkusa fd bu vfHkys[kksa esa D;k fy[kk gS]
;g le>us dh dksf'k'k djsa fd muosQ jkT; dks lkezkT; D;ksa dgk
tkrk gSA
v'kksd ftl lkezkT; ij 'kklu djrs Fks mldh LFkkiuk muosQ
nknk pUnzxqIr ekS;Z us yxHkx 2300 lky igys dh FkhA pk.kD; ;k
dkSfVY; uke osQ ,d cqf¼eku O;fDr us pUnzxqIr dh lgk;rk dh
FkhA pk.kD; osQ dbZ fopkj gesa vFkZ'kkL=k uke dh fdrkc esa
feyrs gSaA
'ksjksa okyk LraHk&'kh"kZ
vè;k; ? ? ?
v'kksd% ,d vuks[kk lezkV ftlus ;q¼ dk
R;kx fd;k
oa'k
tc ,d gh ifjokj osQ dbZ lnL; ,d osQ ckn ,d jktk curs gSa rks mUgsa ,d gh oa'k dk dgk tkrk gSA
ekS;Z oa'k esa rhu egRoiw.kZ jktk gq, & pUnzxqIr] mldk csVk fcUnqlkj vkSj fcUnqlkj dk iq=k v'kksdA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
? 68
gekjs vrhr–I
lkezkT; esa cgqr&ls uxj FksA (ekufp=k esa mUgsa dkys fcUnqvksa ls
fn[kk;k x;k gSA) buesa lkezkT; dh jkt/kuh ikVfyiq=k] mTtSu vkSj
r{kf'kyk tSls uxj izeq[k FksA r{kf'kyk mÙkj&if'pe vkSj eè; ,f'k;k osQ
fy, vkus&tkus dk ekxZ FkkA nwljh rji -Q mTtSu mÙkjh Hkkjr ls nf{k.kh
Hkkjr tkus okys jkLrs esa iM+rk FkkA 'kk;n uxjksa esa O;kikjh] ljdkjh
vfèkdkjh vkSj f'kYidkj jgk djrs FksA
lkezkT; osQ cgqr cM+s {ks=kksa esa fdlkuksa vkSj i'kqikydksa osQ xk¡o cls
gq, FksA eè; Hkkjr tSls bykdksa esa ”;knkrj fgLlk taxyksa ls Hkjk gqvk FkkA
ogk¡ ij yksx iQy&iwQy dk laxzg.k vkSj tkuojksa dk f'kdkj djosQ
thfodk pykrs FksA lkezkT; osQ vyx&vyx bykdksa esa yksx fHkUu&fHkUu
ftu txgksa ij v'kksd osQ
f'kykys[k feys gSa mUgsa yky
fcUnqvksa ls fn[kk;k x;k gSA
;s lkjs bykosQ lkezkT; osQ
Hkhrj FksA mu ns'kksa osQ uke
crkvks tgk¡ v'kksd osQ
vfHkys[k feys gSaA Hkkjr osQ
dkSu&ls jkT; ekS;Z lkezkT; ls
ckgj Fks\
ekufp=k ? ??
ekS;Z lkezkT; % ml ;qx osQ
izeq[k uxj vkSj
vfHkys[kksa osQ izkfIr LFky
js[kkfp=k
iSekuk ugha fn;k x;k gSA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
69 ?
Hkk"kk,¡ cksyrs FksA os yksx 'kk;n vyx&vyx izdkj dk Hkkstu djrs Fks
vkSj ;gk¡ rd fd vyx&vyx fdLe dh iks'kkd Hkh igurs FksA
jkT; lkezkT; ls oSQls fHkUu gS\
• pwafd lkezkT; jkT;ksa ls cM+s gksrs gSa vkSj mudh j{kk osQ fy, cM+h lsukvksa
dh ”k:jr gksrh gS] blhfy, lezkVksa dks jktkvksa dh rqyuk esa ”;knk
lalk/uksa dh ”k:jr gksrh gSA
• blh dkj.k mUgsa cM+h la[;k esa dj bdêòk djus okys vf/dkfj;ksa dh
”k:jr gksrh gSA
lkezkT; dk iz'kklu
pawfd ekS;Z lkezkT; cgqr cM+k Fkk] blfy, vyx&vyx fgLlksa ij
vyx&vyx <ax ls 'kklu fd;k tkrk FkkA ikVfyiq=k vkSj mlosQ
vkl&ikl osQ bykdksa ij lezkV dk lh/k fu;a=k.k FkkA bldk eryc ;g
gqvk fd bl bykosQ osQ xk¡oksa vkSj 'kgjksa osQ fdlkuksa] i'kqikydksa]
f'kYidkjksa vkSj O;kikfj;ksa ls dj bdêòk djus osQ fy, jktk
vf/dkfj;ksa dh fu;qfDr djrk FkkA tks jktk osQ vkns'kksa dk mYya?ku djrs
Fks] vf/dkjh mudks l”kk Hkh nsrs FksA buesa ls dbZ vf/dkfj;ksa dks osru
Hkh fn;k tkrk FkkA lans'kokgd ,d txg ls nwljh txg ?kwers jgrs Fks vkSj
jktk osQ tklwl vf/dkfj;ksa osQ dk;Z&dyki ij u”kj j[krs FksA bu lcosQ
Åij lezkV Fkk tks jkt&ifjokj ,oa ofj"B eaf=k;ksa dh lgk;rk ls lc ij
fu;a=k.k j[krk FkkA
ekS;Z lkezkT; osQ Hkhrj dbZ NksVs {ks=k ;k izkar FksA bu ij r{kf'kyk ;k
mTtSu tSlh izkarh; jkt/kfu;ksa ls 'kklu fd;k tkrk FkkA oqQN gn rd
ikVfyiq=k ls bu {ks=kksa ij fu;a=k.k j[kk tkrk Fkk vkSj vDlj jktoqQekjksa
dks ogk¡ dk jkT;iky (xouZj) cuk dj Hkstk tkrk FkkA ysfdu ,slk
yxrk gS fd bu txgksa ij LFkkuh; ijaijkvksa vkSj fu;eksa dks gh ekuk
tkrk FkkA
izknsf'kd osaQnzksa osQ chp foLr`r {ks=k FksA buosQ bykdksa esa ekS;Z 'kkld
fliZ -Q ekxks± vkSj ufn;ksa ij fu;a=k.k j[kus dh dksf'k'k djrs Fks tks fd
v'kksd% ,d vuks[kk lezkV
ftlus ;q¼ dk R;kx fd;k
2020-21
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not to be republished
? 70
gekjs vrhr–I
vkokxeu osQ fy, egRoiw.kZ FksA ;gk¡ ls mUgsa tks Hkh lalk/u dj vkSj HksaV
osQ :i esa feyrs Fks] mls bdêòk fd;k tkrk FkkA mnkgj.k osQ fy,
vFkZ'kkL=k esa ;g fy[kk gS fd mÙkj&if'pe oaQcy osQ fy, vkSj nf{k.k
Hkkjr lksus vkSj dherh iRFkjksa osQ fy, izfl¼ FkkA laHko gS fd lalk/u
u”kjkus osQ :i esa bdêòs fd, tkrs FksA
u”kjkuk
tgk¡ ^dj* fu;fer <ax ls bdêòs fd, tkrs Fks ogha ^u”kjkuk* vfu;fer :i
ls tc Hkh laHko gks] bdêòk fd;k tkrk FkkA ,sls u”kjkus fofo/ inkFkksaZ osQ
:i esaa izk;% ,sls yksxksa ls fy, tkrs Fks tks LosPNk ls bls nsrs FksA
jkt/kuh esa lezkV
esxLFkuh”k] pUnzxqIr osQ njckj esa if'pe&,f'k;k osQ ;wukuh jktk lsY;wdl fuosQVj dk jktnwr FkkA
esxLFkuh”k us tks oqQN ns[kk mldk fooj.k fn;kA
;gk¡ ge mlosQ fooj.k dk ,d va'k ns jgs gSa %
lezkV dk] turk osQ lkeus vkus osQ voljksa ij 'kksHkk;k=kk osQ :i esa t'u euk;k tkrk gSA mUgsa ,d
lksus dh ikydh esa ys tk;k tkrk gSA muosQ vaxj{kd lksus vkSj pk¡nh ls vyao`Qr gkfFk;ksa ij lokj jgrs
gSaA oqQN vaxj{kd isM+ksa dks ysdj pyrs gSaA bu isM+ksa ij izf'kf{kr rksrksa dk ,d >q.M jgrk gS tks lezkV
osQ flj osQ pkjksa rjiQ pDdj yxkrk jgrk gSA jktk lkekU;r% gfFk;kjcan efgykvksa ls f?kjs gksrs gSaA os ges'kk
bl ckr ls Mjs jgrs gSa fd dgha dksbZ mudh gR;k djus dh dksf'k'k u djsA muosQ [kkuk [kkus osQ igys
[kkl ukSdj ml [kkus dks p[krs gSaA os yxkrkj nks jkr ,d gh dejs esa ugha lksrs FksA
vkSj ikVfyiq=k (vk/qfud iVuk) osQ ckjs esa %
;g ,d fo'kky vkSj [kwclwjr uxj gSA ;g ,d fo'kky izkphj ls f?kjk gS ftlesa 570 cqtZ vkSj
64 }kj gSaA nks vkSj rhu eaf”ky okys ?kj] ydM+h vkSj dPph bZaVksa ls cus gSaA jktk dk egy Hkh dkB ls
cuk gS ftls iRFkj dh uDdk'kh ls vyao`Qr fd;k x;k gSA ;g pkjksa rji -Q ls m|kuksa vkSj fpfM+;ksa osQ fy,
cus clsjksa ls f?kjk gSA
jktk }kjk [kkuk [kkus osQ igys [kkl ukSdj ml [kkus dks D;ksa p[krs Fks\
ikVfyiq=k eksgutksnM+ks ls fdl rjg fHkUu Fkk\ (laosQr% vè;k; 3 ns[kks)
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 5


67 ?
jkS'ku osQ #i,
tUefnu ij jkS'ku dks nknk th ls dM+d uksV feysA mlus mUgsa vius gkFk
esa nck j[kk FkkA mls ,d u;k lhMh [kjhnus dk cgqr eu Fkk ysfdu lkFk
gh og fcYoqQy u, dM+d uksVksa dks ns[kuk vkSj Nw dj eglwl djuk
pkgrh FkhA rHkh mlus ik;k fd lHkh uksVksa esa nkfguh rji -Q xk¡/hth dk
eqLoQjkrk psgjk cuk gqvk Fkk vkSj ckb± rji - Q NksVs&NksVs 'ksj fpf=kr FksA mlus
lkspk ^vkf[kj ;gk¡ 'ksj D;ksa cus gq, gSa*A
,d cgqr cM+k jkT; ? ? ? ? ?–?? ?? ?,d lkezkT;
ge ftu 'ksjksa osQ fp=k #i;ksa&iSlksa ij ns[krs gSa mudk ,d yack bfrgkl
gSA mUgsa iRFkjksa dks dkV dj cuk;k x;k vkSj fiQj mUgsa lkjukFk esa ,d
fo'kky LraHk ij LFkkfir fd;k x;k FkkA (bl fo"k; esa rqeus vè;k; 6
esa i<+kA)
bfrgkl osQ egkure jktkvksa esa ls ,d] v'kksd osQ funZs'k ij
blosQ tSls dbZ LraHkksa vkSj iRFkjksa ij vfHkys[k mRdh.kZ fd, x,A
blosQ igys fd ge ;g tkusa fd bu vfHkys[kksa esa D;k fy[kk gS]
;g le>us dh dksf'k'k djsa fd muosQ jkT; dks lkezkT; D;ksa dgk
tkrk gSA
v'kksd ftl lkezkT; ij 'kklu djrs Fks mldh LFkkiuk muosQ
nknk pUnzxqIr ekS;Z us yxHkx 2300 lky igys dh FkhA pk.kD; ;k
dkSfVY; uke osQ ,d cqf¼eku O;fDr us pUnzxqIr dh lgk;rk dh
FkhA pk.kD; osQ dbZ fopkj gesa vFkZ'kkL=k uke dh fdrkc esa
feyrs gSaA
'ksjksa okyk LraHk&'kh"kZ
vè;k; ? ? ?
v'kksd% ,d vuks[kk lezkV ftlus ;q¼ dk
R;kx fd;k
oa'k
tc ,d gh ifjokj osQ dbZ lnL; ,d osQ ckn ,d jktk curs gSa rks mUgsa ,d gh oa'k dk dgk tkrk gSA
ekS;Z oa'k esa rhu egRoiw.kZ jktk gq, & pUnzxqIr] mldk csVk fcUnqlkj vkSj fcUnqlkj dk iq=k v'kksdA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
? 68
gekjs vrhr–I
lkezkT; esa cgqr&ls uxj FksA (ekufp=k esa mUgsa dkys fcUnqvksa ls
fn[kk;k x;k gSA) buesa lkezkT; dh jkt/kuh ikVfyiq=k] mTtSu vkSj
r{kf'kyk tSls uxj izeq[k FksA r{kf'kyk mÙkj&if'pe vkSj eè; ,f'k;k osQ
fy, vkus&tkus dk ekxZ FkkA nwljh rji -Q mTtSu mÙkjh Hkkjr ls nf{k.kh
Hkkjr tkus okys jkLrs esa iM+rk FkkA 'kk;n uxjksa esa O;kikjh] ljdkjh
vfèkdkjh vkSj f'kYidkj jgk djrs FksA
lkezkT; osQ cgqr cM+s {ks=kksa esa fdlkuksa vkSj i'kqikydksa osQ xk¡o cls
gq, FksA eè; Hkkjr tSls bykdksa esa ”;knkrj fgLlk taxyksa ls Hkjk gqvk FkkA
ogk¡ ij yksx iQy&iwQy dk laxzg.k vkSj tkuojksa dk f'kdkj djosQ
thfodk pykrs FksA lkezkT; osQ vyx&vyx bykdksa esa yksx fHkUu&fHkUu
ftu txgksa ij v'kksd osQ
f'kykys[k feys gSa mUgsa yky
fcUnqvksa ls fn[kk;k x;k gSA
;s lkjs bykosQ lkezkT; osQ
Hkhrj FksA mu ns'kksa osQ uke
crkvks tgk¡ v'kksd osQ
vfHkys[k feys gSaA Hkkjr osQ
dkSu&ls jkT; ekS;Z lkezkT; ls
ckgj Fks\
ekufp=k ? ??
ekS;Z lkezkT; % ml ;qx osQ
izeq[k uxj vkSj
vfHkys[kksa osQ izkfIr LFky
js[kkfp=k
iSekuk ugha fn;k x;k gSA
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
69 ?
Hkk"kk,¡ cksyrs FksA os yksx 'kk;n vyx&vyx izdkj dk Hkkstu djrs Fks
vkSj ;gk¡ rd fd vyx&vyx fdLe dh iks'kkd Hkh igurs FksA
jkT; lkezkT; ls oSQls fHkUu gS\
• pwafd lkezkT; jkT;ksa ls cM+s gksrs gSa vkSj mudh j{kk osQ fy, cM+h lsukvksa
dh ”k:jr gksrh gS] blhfy, lezkVksa dks jktkvksa dh rqyuk esa ”;knk
lalk/uksa dh ”k:jr gksrh gSA
• blh dkj.k mUgsa cM+h la[;k esa dj bdêòk djus okys vf/dkfj;ksa dh
”k:jr gksrh gSA
lkezkT; dk iz'kklu
pawfd ekS;Z lkezkT; cgqr cM+k Fkk] blfy, vyx&vyx fgLlksa ij
vyx&vyx <ax ls 'kklu fd;k tkrk FkkA ikVfyiq=k vkSj mlosQ
vkl&ikl osQ bykdksa ij lezkV dk lh/k fu;a=k.k FkkA bldk eryc ;g
gqvk fd bl bykosQ osQ xk¡oksa vkSj 'kgjksa osQ fdlkuksa] i'kqikydksa]
f'kYidkjksa vkSj O;kikfj;ksa ls dj bdêòk djus osQ fy, jktk
vf/dkfj;ksa dh fu;qfDr djrk FkkA tks jktk osQ vkns'kksa dk mYya?ku djrs
Fks] vf/dkjh mudks l”kk Hkh nsrs FksA buesa ls dbZ vf/dkfj;ksa dks osru
Hkh fn;k tkrk FkkA lans'kokgd ,d txg ls nwljh txg ?kwers jgrs Fks vkSj
jktk osQ tklwl vf/dkfj;ksa osQ dk;Z&dyki ij u”kj j[krs FksA bu lcosQ
Åij lezkV Fkk tks jkt&ifjokj ,oa ofj"B eaf=k;ksa dh lgk;rk ls lc ij
fu;a=k.k j[krk FkkA
ekS;Z lkezkT; osQ Hkhrj dbZ NksVs {ks=k ;k izkar FksA bu ij r{kf'kyk ;k
mTtSu tSlh izkarh; jkt/kfu;ksa ls 'kklu fd;k tkrk FkkA oqQN gn rd
ikVfyiq=k ls bu {ks=kksa ij fu;a=k.k j[kk tkrk Fkk vkSj vDlj jktoqQekjksa
dks ogk¡ dk jkT;iky (xouZj) cuk dj Hkstk tkrk FkkA ysfdu ,slk
yxrk gS fd bu txgksa ij LFkkuh; ijaijkvksa vkSj fu;eksa dks gh ekuk
tkrk FkkA
izknsf'kd osaQnzksa osQ chp foLr`r {ks=k FksA buosQ bykdksa esa ekS;Z 'kkld
fliZ -Q ekxks± vkSj ufn;ksa ij fu;a=k.k j[kus dh dksf'k'k djrs Fks tks fd
v'kksd% ,d vuks[kk lezkV
ftlus ;q¼ dk R;kx fd;k
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
? 70
gekjs vrhr–I
vkokxeu osQ fy, egRoiw.kZ FksA ;gk¡ ls mUgsa tks Hkh lalk/u dj vkSj HksaV
osQ :i esa feyrs Fks] mls bdêòk fd;k tkrk FkkA mnkgj.k osQ fy,
vFkZ'kkL=k esa ;g fy[kk gS fd mÙkj&if'pe oaQcy osQ fy, vkSj nf{k.k
Hkkjr lksus vkSj dherh iRFkjksa osQ fy, izfl¼ FkkA laHko gS fd lalk/u
u”kjkus osQ :i esa bdêòs fd, tkrs FksA
u”kjkuk
tgk¡ ^dj* fu;fer <ax ls bdêòs fd, tkrs Fks ogha ^u”kjkuk* vfu;fer :i
ls tc Hkh laHko gks] bdêòk fd;k tkrk FkkA ,sls u”kjkus fofo/ inkFkksaZ osQ
:i esaa izk;% ,sls yksxksa ls fy, tkrs Fks tks LosPNk ls bls nsrs FksA
jkt/kuh esa lezkV
esxLFkuh”k] pUnzxqIr osQ njckj esa if'pe&,f'k;k osQ ;wukuh jktk lsY;wdl fuosQVj dk jktnwr FkkA
esxLFkuh”k us tks oqQN ns[kk mldk fooj.k fn;kA
;gk¡ ge mlosQ fooj.k dk ,d va'k ns jgs gSa %
lezkV dk] turk osQ lkeus vkus osQ voljksa ij 'kksHkk;k=kk osQ :i esa t'u euk;k tkrk gSA mUgsa ,d
lksus dh ikydh esa ys tk;k tkrk gSA muosQ vaxj{kd lksus vkSj pk¡nh ls vyao`Qr gkfFk;ksa ij lokj jgrs
gSaA oqQN vaxj{kd isM+ksa dks ysdj pyrs gSaA bu isM+ksa ij izf'kf{kr rksrksa dk ,d >q.M jgrk gS tks lezkV
osQ flj osQ pkjksa rjiQ pDdj yxkrk jgrk gSA jktk lkekU;r% gfFk;kjcan efgykvksa ls f?kjs gksrs gSaA os ges'kk
bl ckr ls Mjs jgrs gSa fd dgha dksbZ mudh gR;k djus dh dksf'k'k u djsA muosQ [kkuk [kkus osQ igys
[kkl ukSdj ml [kkus dks p[krs gSaA os yxkrkj nks jkr ,d gh dejs esa ugha lksrs FksA
vkSj ikVfyiq=k (vk/qfud iVuk) osQ ckjs esa %
;g ,d fo'kky vkSj [kwclwjr uxj gSA ;g ,d fo'kky izkphj ls f?kjk gS ftlesa 570 cqtZ vkSj
64 }kj gSaA nks vkSj rhu eaf”ky okys ?kj] ydM+h vkSj dPph bZaVksa ls cus gSaA jktk dk egy Hkh dkB ls
cuk gS ftls iRFkj dh uDdk'kh ls vyao`Qr fd;k x;k gSA ;g pkjksa rji -Q ls m|kuksa vkSj fpfM+;ksa osQ fy,
cus clsjksa ls f?kjk gSA
jktk }kjk [kkuk [kkus osQ igys [kkl ukSdj ml [kkus dks D;ksa p[krs Fks\
ikVfyiq=k eksgutksnM+ks ls fdl rjg fHkUu Fkk\ (laosQr% vè;k; 3 ns[kks)
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
71 ?
vkSj var esa taxy okys bykosQ vkrs Fks] ogk¡ jgus okys yksx dki -Qh
gn rd Lora=k FksA muls ;g mEehn dh tkrh Fkh fd os ekS;Z inkfèkdkfj;ksa
dks gkFkh] ydM+h] e/q vkSj ekse tSlh ph”ksa ykdj nsaA
v'kksd &,d vuks[kk lezkV
v'kksd ekS;Z oa'k osQ lcls izfl¼ 'kkld FksA og ,sls igys 'kkld Fks
ftUgksaus vfHkys[kksa }kjk turk rd vius lans'k igq¡pkus dh dksf'k'k dhA
v'kksd osQ ”;knkrj vfHkys[k izko`Qr Hkk"kk vkSj czkãh fyfi esa gSaA
d¯yx ;q¼ dk o.kZu djrk gqvk v'kksd dk vfHkys[k
vius ,d vfHkys[k esa v'kksd us ;g ckr dgh %
¶jktk cuus osQ vkB lky ckn eSaus d¯yx fot; dhA
yxHkx Ms<+ yk[k yksx canh cuk fy, x,A ,d yk[k ls Hkh ”;knk yksx ekjs x,A
blls eq>s vikj nq[k gqvkA D;ksa\
tc fdlh Lora=k ns'k dks thrk tkrk gS rks yk[kksa yksx ekjs tkrs gSa vkSj cgqr lkjs canh cuk, tkrs gSaA
blesa czkã.k vkSj Je.k Hkh ekjs tkrs gSaA
tks yksx vius lxs&lacaf/;ksa vkSj fe=kksa dks cgqr I;kj djrs gSa rFkk nklksa vkSj e`rdksa osQ izfr n;koku
gksrs gSa] os Hkh ;q¼ esa ;k rks ekjs tkrs gSa ;k vius fiz;tuksa dks [kks nsrs gSaA
blhfy, eq>s i'pkrki gks jgk gSA vc eSaus /Ee ikyu djus ,oa nwljksa dks bldh f'k{kk nsus dk fu'p;
fd;k gSA
eSa ekurk gw¡ fd /Ee osQ ekè;e ls yksxksa dk fny thruk cyiwoZd fot; ikus ls ”;knk vPNk gSA eSa
;g vfHkys[k Hkfo"; osQ fy, ,d lans'k osQ :i esa blfy, mRdh.kZ dj jgk gw¡ fd esjs ckn esjs csVs vkSj
iksrs Hkh ;q¼ u djsaA
blosQ cnys mUgsa ;g lkspuk pkfg, fd /Ee dks oSQls c<+k;k tk,A¸
d¯yx dh yM+kbZ ls ;q¼ dks ysdj v'kksd osQ fopkjksa esa oSQls ifjorZu gqvk\
(^/Ee* laLo`Qr 'kCn ^/eZ* dk izko`Qr :i gS)A
v'kksd% ,d vuks[kk lezkV
ftlus ;q¼ dk R;kx fd;k
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
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