NCERT Textbook - उष्मागतिकी Notes | EduRev

सामान्य विज्ञानं (General Science) for UPSC Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - उष्मागतिकी Notes | EduRev

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158
jlk;u foKku
,dd 6
bl ,dd osQ vè;;u osQ ckn vkiµ
• fudk; ,oa ifjos'k inkssa dks le>k losaQxs_
• can] [kqyk ,oa fo;qDr fudk; esa varj dj
losaQxs_
• vkarfjd ÅtkZ] dk;Z ,oa Å"ek dks le>k
losaQxs_
• Å"ekxfrdh osQ çFke fu;e dks O;Dr dj
losaQxs ,oa bldk xf.krh; :i fy[k losaQxs_
• jklk;fud fudk;ksa esa ÅtkZ&ifjorZu dks
dk;Z ,oa Å"ek osQ ;ksxnku osQ :i esa
ifjdfyr dj losaQxs_
• voLFkk&iQyu U, H dks le> losaQxs_
• ?U ,oa ?H esa lacaèk LFkkfir dj losaQsxs_
• ?U ,oa ?H dk çk;ksfxd ekiu dj
losaQxs_
• ?H osQ fy, ekud voLFkk dks ifjHkkf"kr
dj losaQxs_
• fofHkUu çdkj dh vfHkfØ;kvksa osQ fy,
,UFkSYih ifjorZu dh x.kuk dj losaQxsA
• gsl osQ fLFkj&Å"ek ladyu fu;e dks
O;Dr vkSj vuqç;ksx dj losaQxs_
• foLrh.kZ ,oa xgu xq.kksa esa varj dj losaQxs_
• Lor% rFkk vLor% ço£rr çØeksa dks
ifjHkkf"kr dj losaQxs_
• ,UVªkih dks Å"ekxfrdh voLFkk&iQyu osQ
:i esa ifjHkkf"kr vkSj bldk vuqç;ksx dj
losaQxs_
• eqDr&ÅtkZ ifjorZu (?G) dks le> losaQxs_
• Lor%ço£rrk vkSj ?G rFkk ?G vkSj lkE;
fLFkjkad esa lacaèk LFkkfir dj losaQxsA
Å"ekxfrdh
THERMODYNAMICS
;g lkoZf=kd varoZLrq dk osQoy HkkSfrd fl¼kar gS] ftlosQ fy, eSa larq"V g¡w
fd blosQ ekSfyd fl¼karksa dks mudh mi;qDrrk osQ çkèkkj esa dHkh udkjk ugha
tk ldrk gSA
vYcVZ vkbULVhu
tc b±èku tSls esFksu xSl] jlksbZ xSl ;k dks;yk gok esa tyrs gSa] rks jklk;fud
vfHkfØ;k osQ nkSjku v.kqvksa esa laxzghr jklk;fud ÅtkZ Å"ek osQ :i esa
fueqZDr gksrh gSA tc ,d batu esa b±èku tyrk gS] rc jklk;fud ÅtkZ ;kaf=kd
dk;Z djus esa ç;qDr gks ldrh gS ;k xSYouh lsy ('kq"d lsy) fo|qr~ ÅtkZ
çnku djrh gSA bl çdkj ÅtkZ osQ fofHkUu :i fo'ks"k ifjfLFkr;ksa esa ,d&
nwljs ls ijLij lacafèkr gksrs gSa ,oa ,d :i ls nwljs :i esa cnys tk ldrs
gSaA bu ÅtkZ&:ikarj.kksa dk vè;;u gh Å"ekxfrdh dh fo"k;&oLrq gSA
Å"ekxfrdh osQ fu;e LFkwy fudk;ksa] ftuesa cgqr&ls v.kq gksrs gSa] ls lacafèkr
gksrs gSa] u fd lw{e fudk;ksa ls] ftuesa cgqr de v.kq gksrs gSaA Å"ekxfrdh
bl ckr ls lacafèkr ugha gS fd ;s ifjorZu oSQls ,oa fdl nj ls dk;kZfUor
gksrs gSaA ;g ifjorZudkjh fudk; dh çkjafHkd ,oa vfUre voLFkk ls lacafèkr
gSaA Å"ekxfrdh osQ fu;e rHkh ykxw gksrs gSa] tc fudk; lkE;koLFkk esa gksrk
gS ;k ,d lkE;koLFkk ls nwljh lkE;koLFkk esaa tkrk gSA fdlh fudk; osQ LFkwy
xq.k (tSlsµ nkc ,oa rki) lkE;koLFkk esa le; osQ lkFk ifjo£rr ugha gksrs
gSaA bl ,dd esa ge Å"ekxfrdh osQ ekè;e ls oqQN egRoiw.kZ ç'uksa osQ mÙkj
nsus dk ç;kl djsaxsA tSlsµ
,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k@çØe esa ge ÅtkZ&ifjoZru oSQls fuèkkZfjr
djrs gSa \ ;g ifjorZu gksxk vFkok ugha\ ,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k@çØe
oSQls çsfjr gksrk gS\ jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k fdl lhek rd pyrh gS\
mís';
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158
jlk;u foKku
,dd 6
bl ,dd osQ vè;;u osQ ckn vkiµ
• fudk; ,oa ifjos'k inkssa dks le>k losaQxs_
• can] [kqyk ,oa fo;qDr fudk; esa varj dj
losaQxs_
• vkarfjd ÅtkZ] dk;Z ,oa Å"ek dks le>k
losaQxs_
• Å"ekxfrdh osQ çFke fu;e dks O;Dr dj
losaQxs ,oa bldk xf.krh; :i fy[k losaQxs_
• jklk;fud fudk;ksa esa ÅtkZ&ifjorZu dks
dk;Z ,oa Å"ek osQ ;ksxnku osQ :i esa
ifjdfyr dj losaQxs_
• voLFkk&iQyu U, H dks le> losaQxs_
• ?U ,oa ?H esa lacaèk LFkkfir dj losaQsxs_
• ?U ,oa ?H dk çk;ksfxd ekiu dj
losaQxs_
• ?H osQ fy, ekud voLFkk dks ifjHkkf"kr
dj losaQxs_
• fofHkUu çdkj dh vfHkfØ;kvksa osQ fy,
,UFkSYih ifjorZu dh x.kuk dj losaQxsA
• gsl osQ fLFkj&Å"ek ladyu fu;e dks
O;Dr vkSj vuqç;ksx dj losaQxs_
• foLrh.kZ ,oa xgu xq.kksa esa varj dj losaQxs_
• Lor% rFkk vLor% ço£rr çØeksa dks
ifjHkkf"kr dj losaQxs_
• ,UVªkih dks Å"ekxfrdh voLFkk&iQyu osQ
:i esa ifjHkkf"kr vkSj bldk vuqç;ksx dj
losaQxs_
• eqDr&ÅtkZ ifjorZu (?G) dks le> losaQxs_
• Lor%ço£rrk vkSj ?G rFkk ?G vkSj lkE;
fLFkjkad esa lacaèk LFkkfir dj losaQxsA
Å"ekxfrdh
THERMODYNAMICS
;g lkoZf=kd varoZLrq dk osQoy HkkSfrd fl¼kar gS] ftlosQ fy, eSa larq"V g¡w
fd blosQ ekSfyd fl¼karksa dks mudh mi;qDrrk osQ çkèkkj esa dHkh udkjk ugha
tk ldrk gSA
vYcVZ vkbULVhu
tc b±èku tSls esFksu xSl] jlksbZ xSl ;k dks;yk gok esa tyrs gSa] rks jklk;fud
vfHkfØ;k osQ nkSjku v.kqvksa esa laxzghr jklk;fud ÅtkZ Å"ek osQ :i esa
fueqZDr gksrh gSA tc ,d batu esa b±èku tyrk gS] rc jklk;fud ÅtkZ ;kaf=kd
dk;Z djus esa ç;qDr gks ldrh gS ;k xSYouh lsy ('kq"d lsy) fo|qr~ ÅtkZ
çnku djrh gSA bl çdkj ÅtkZ osQ fofHkUu :i fo'ks"k ifjfLFkr;ksa esa ,d&
nwljs ls ijLij lacafèkr gksrs gSa ,oa ,d :i ls nwljs :i esa cnys tk ldrs
gSaA bu ÅtkZ&:ikarj.kksa dk vè;;u gh Å"ekxfrdh dh fo"k;&oLrq gSA
Å"ekxfrdh osQ fu;e LFkwy fudk;ksa] ftuesa cgqr&ls v.kq gksrs gSa] ls lacafèkr
gksrs gSa] u fd lw{e fudk;ksa ls] ftuesa cgqr de v.kq gksrs gSaA Å"ekxfrdh
bl ckr ls lacafèkr ugha gS fd ;s ifjorZu oSQls ,oa fdl nj ls dk;kZfUor
gksrs gSaA ;g ifjorZudkjh fudk; dh çkjafHkd ,oa vfUre voLFkk ls lacafèkr
gSaA Å"ekxfrdh osQ fu;e rHkh ykxw gksrs gSa] tc fudk; lkE;koLFkk esa gksrk
gS ;k ,d lkE;koLFkk ls nwljh lkE;koLFkk esaa tkrk gSA fdlh fudk; osQ LFkwy
xq.k (tSlsµ nkc ,oa rki) lkE;koLFkk esa le; osQ lkFk ifjo£rr ugha gksrs
gSaA bl ,dd esa ge Å"ekxfrdh osQ ekè;e ls oqQN egRoiw.kZ ç'uksa osQ mÙkj
nsus dk ç;kl djsaxsA tSlsµ
,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k@çØe esa ge ÅtkZ&ifjoZru oSQls fuèkkZfjr
djrs gSa \ ;g ifjorZu gksxk vFkok ugha\ ,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k@çØe
oSQls çsfjr gksrk gS\ jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k fdl lhek rd pyrh gS\
mís';
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Å"ekxfrdh
6-1 Å"ekxfrdh osQ rduhdh 'kCn
gekjh mRlqdrk jklk;fud vfHkfØ;kvksa ,oa muesa gksusokys
ÅtkZ&ifjorZuksa dks tkuus dh gksrh gS blosQ fy, gesa
m"ekxfrdh esa iz;qDr gksus okys oqQN rduhdh 'kCnksa dks
tkuuk gksxk budk o.kZu uhps fn;k x;k gSµ
6-1-1 fudk; ,oa ifjos'k
Å"ekxfrdh esa fudk; dk vFkZ czãkaM osQ ml Hkkx ls gS]
ftlij isz{k.k fd, tkrs gSa rFkk bldk 'ks"k Hkkx ^ifjos'k*
dgykrk gSA ifjos'k esa fudk; dks NksM+dj lc oqQN lfEefyr
gSA fudk; ,oa ifjos'kµ nksuksa feydj czãkaM curk gSA
fudk; + ifjos'k = czãkaM
fudk; ls vfrfjDr laiw.kZ czãkaM fudk; esa gksusokys
ifjorZuksa ls çHkkfor ugha gksrk gSA blhfy, çk;ksfxd dk;k±s osQ
fy, czãkaM dk ogh Hkkx] tks fudk; ls var£Ø;k djrk gS]
ifjos'k osQ :i esa fy;k tkrk gSA
lkekU;r% lef"V dk og {ks=k] tks fudk; osQ vklikl
gksrk gS] ifjos'k osQ varxZr fy;k tkrk gSA
mnkgj.k osQ fy,µ ;fn ge ,d chdj esa mifLFkr nks
inkFkks± A ,oa B dh vfHkfØ;k dk vè;;u dj jgs gksa] rks
chdj (ftlesa vfHkfØ;k&feJ.k gS) fudk;* gksxk ,oa dejk
(ftlesa chdj gS) ifjos'k dk dk;Z djsxk (fp=k 6-1)A
fp=k 6-1 % ifjos'k ,oa fudk;
è;ku jgs fd fudk; HkkSfrd lhekvksa (tSlsµchdj ;k
ij[kuyh) ls ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gS ;k lef"V esa ,d
fuf'pr vk;ru osQ dkrhZ; funsZ'kkadksa (Cartesian coordi-
nates) osQ leqPp; (set) ls ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
;g vko';d gS fd fudk; dks okLrfod ;k dkYifud
nhokj ;k lhek osQ }kjk ifjos'k ls i`Fko~Q lkspk tk,A og
nhokj] tks fudk; ,oa ifjos'k dks i`Fko~Q djrh gS] ^ifjlhek*
(Boundary) dgykrh gSA ifjlhek }kjk ge fudk; osQ
vanj vkSj ckgj æO; rFkk ÅtkZ osQ lapj.k dks fu;af=kr ,oa
çsf{kr dj ldrs gSaA
6-1-2 fudk; osQ çdkj
vc ge æO; ,oa ÅtkZ osQ lapj.k osQ vkèkkj ij fudk; dks
oxhZÑr djrs gSaµ
1- [kqyk fudk; (Open System)
,d [kqys fudk; esa ÅtkZ ,oa æO;µnksuksa dk fudk; ,oa
ifjos'k osQ eè; fofue; (Exchange) gks ldrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZµvfHkdkjd ,d [kqys chdj esa fy;s tk,¡A
2- can fudk; (Closed system)
can fudk; esa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè; æO; dk fofue;
laHko ugha gS] ijarq ÅtkZ dk fofue; gks ldrk gSA tSlsµ
vfHkdkjd can chdj esa fy;s tk,¡A
3- foyfxr fudk; (Isolated system)
,d foyfxr fudk; esa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè; æO; ,oa
ÅtkZµ nksuksa dk gh fofue; laHko ugha gksrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZµ
vfHkdkjd ,d FkeZl ÝykLd esa fy;s tk,¡A fp=k 6-2 esa
fofHkUu çdkj osQ fudk; n'kZk, x, gSaA
fp=k 6-2 % [kqyk] can ,oa foyfxr fudk;
ifjos'k
ifjos'k
* ;fn ge osQoy vfHkfØ;k feJ.k dks fudk; ekusa] rks chdj dh nhokj ifjos'k dk dk;Z djsxhA
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158
jlk;u foKku
,dd 6
bl ,dd osQ vè;;u osQ ckn vkiµ
• fudk; ,oa ifjos'k inkssa dks le>k losaQxs_
• can] [kqyk ,oa fo;qDr fudk; esa varj dj
losaQxs_
• vkarfjd ÅtkZ] dk;Z ,oa Å"ek dks le>k
losaQxs_
• Å"ekxfrdh osQ çFke fu;e dks O;Dr dj
losaQxs ,oa bldk xf.krh; :i fy[k losaQxs_
• jklk;fud fudk;ksa esa ÅtkZ&ifjorZu dks
dk;Z ,oa Å"ek osQ ;ksxnku osQ :i esa
ifjdfyr dj losaQxs_
• voLFkk&iQyu U, H dks le> losaQxs_
• ?U ,oa ?H esa lacaèk LFkkfir dj losaQsxs_
• ?U ,oa ?H dk çk;ksfxd ekiu dj
losaQxs_
• ?H osQ fy, ekud voLFkk dks ifjHkkf"kr
dj losaQxs_
• fofHkUu çdkj dh vfHkfØ;kvksa osQ fy,
,UFkSYih ifjorZu dh x.kuk dj losaQxsA
• gsl osQ fLFkj&Å"ek ladyu fu;e dks
O;Dr vkSj vuqç;ksx dj losaQxs_
• foLrh.kZ ,oa xgu xq.kksa esa varj dj losaQxs_
• Lor% rFkk vLor% ço£rr çØeksa dks
ifjHkkf"kr dj losaQxs_
• ,UVªkih dks Å"ekxfrdh voLFkk&iQyu osQ
:i esa ifjHkkf"kr vkSj bldk vuqç;ksx dj
losaQxs_
• eqDr&ÅtkZ ifjorZu (?G) dks le> losaQxs_
• Lor%ço£rrk vkSj ?G rFkk ?G vkSj lkE;
fLFkjkad esa lacaèk LFkkfir dj losaQxsA
Å"ekxfrdh
THERMODYNAMICS
;g lkoZf=kd varoZLrq dk osQoy HkkSfrd fl¼kar gS] ftlosQ fy, eSa larq"V g¡w
fd blosQ ekSfyd fl¼karksa dks mudh mi;qDrrk osQ çkèkkj esa dHkh udkjk ugha
tk ldrk gSA
vYcVZ vkbULVhu
tc b±èku tSls esFksu xSl] jlksbZ xSl ;k dks;yk gok esa tyrs gSa] rks jklk;fud
vfHkfØ;k osQ nkSjku v.kqvksa esa laxzghr jklk;fud ÅtkZ Å"ek osQ :i esa
fueqZDr gksrh gSA tc ,d batu esa b±èku tyrk gS] rc jklk;fud ÅtkZ ;kaf=kd
dk;Z djus esa ç;qDr gks ldrh gS ;k xSYouh lsy ('kq"d lsy) fo|qr~ ÅtkZ
çnku djrh gSA bl çdkj ÅtkZ osQ fofHkUu :i fo'ks"k ifjfLFkr;ksa esa ,d&
nwljs ls ijLij lacafèkr gksrs gSa ,oa ,d :i ls nwljs :i esa cnys tk ldrs
gSaA bu ÅtkZ&:ikarj.kksa dk vè;;u gh Å"ekxfrdh dh fo"k;&oLrq gSA
Å"ekxfrdh osQ fu;e LFkwy fudk;ksa] ftuesa cgqr&ls v.kq gksrs gSa] ls lacafèkr
gksrs gSa] u fd lw{e fudk;ksa ls] ftuesa cgqr de v.kq gksrs gSaA Å"ekxfrdh
bl ckr ls lacafèkr ugha gS fd ;s ifjorZu oSQls ,oa fdl nj ls dk;kZfUor
gksrs gSaA ;g ifjorZudkjh fudk; dh çkjafHkd ,oa vfUre voLFkk ls lacafèkr
gSaA Å"ekxfrdh osQ fu;e rHkh ykxw gksrs gSa] tc fudk; lkE;koLFkk esa gksrk
gS ;k ,d lkE;koLFkk ls nwljh lkE;koLFkk esaa tkrk gSA fdlh fudk; osQ LFkwy
xq.k (tSlsµ nkc ,oa rki) lkE;koLFkk esa le; osQ lkFk ifjo£rr ugha gksrs
gSaA bl ,dd esa ge Å"ekxfrdh osQ ekè;e ls oqQN egRoiw.kZ ç'uksa osQ mÙkj
nsus dk ç;kl djsaxsA tSlsµ
,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k@çØe esa ge ÅtkZ&ifjoZru oSQls fuèkkZfjr
djrs gSa \ ;g ifjorZu gksxk vFkok ugha\ ,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k@çØe
oSQls çsfjr gksrk gS\ jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k fdl lhek rd pyrh gS\
mís';
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Å"ekxfrdh
6-1 Å"ekxfrdh osQ rduhdh 'kCn
gekjh mRlqdrk jklk;fud vfHkfØ;kvksa ,oa muesa gksusokys
ÅtkZ&ifjorZuksa dks tkuus dh gksrh gS blosQ fy, gesa
m"ekxfrdh esa iz;qDr gksus okys oqQN rduhdh 'kCnksa dks
tkuuk gksxk budk o.kZu uhps fn;k x;k gSµ
6-1-1 fudk; ,oa ifjos'k
Å"ekxfrdh esa fudk; dk vFkZ czãkaM osQ ml Hkkx ls gS]
ftlij isz{k.k fd, tkrs gSa rFkk bldk 'ks"k Hkkx ^ifjos'k*
dgykrk gSA ifjos'k esa fudk; dks NksM+dj lc oqQN lfEefyr
gSA fudk; ,oa ifjos'kµ nksuksa feydj czãkaM curk gSA
fudk; + ifjos'k = czãkaM
fudk; ls vfrfjDr laiw.kZ czãkaM fudk; esa gksusokys
ifjorZuksa ls çHkkfor ugha gksrk gSA blhfy, çk;ksfxd dk;k±s osQ
fy, czãkaM dk ogh Hkkx] tks fudk; ls var£Ø;k djrk gS]
ifjos'k osQ :i esa fy;k tkrk gSA
lkekU;r% lef"V dk og {ks=k] tks fudk; osQ vklikl
gksrk gS] ifjos'k osQ varxZr fy;k tkrk gSA
mnkgj.k osQ fy,µ ;fn ge ,d chdj esa mifLFkr nks
inkFkks± A ,oa B dh vfHkfØ;k dk vè;;u dj jgs gksa] rks
chdj (ftlesa vfHkfØ;k&feJ.k gS) fudk;* gksxk ,oa dejk
(ftlesa chdj gS) ifjos'k dk dk;Z djsxk (fp=k 6-1)A
fp=k 6-1 % ifjos'k ,oa fudk;
è;ku jgs fd fudk; HkkSfrd lhekvksa (tSlsµchdj ;k
ij[kuyh) ls ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gS ;k lef"V esa ,d
fuf'pr vk;ru osQ dkrhZ; funsZ'kkadksa (Cartesian coordi-
nates) osQ leqPp; (set) ls ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
;g vko';d gS fd fudk; dks okLrfod ;k dkYifud
nhokj ;k lhek osQ }kjk ifjos'k ls i`Fko~Q lkspk tk,A og
nhokj] tks fudk; ,oa ifjos'k dks i`Fko~Q djrh gS] ^ifjlhek*
(Boundary) dgykrh gSA ifjlhek }kjk ge fudk; osQ
vanj vkSj ckgj æO; rFkk ÅtkZ osQ lapj.k dks fu;af=kr ,oa
çsf{kr dj ldrs gSaA
6-1-2 fudk; osQ çdkj
vc ge æO; ,oa ÅtkZ osQ lapj.k osQ vkèkkj ij fudk; dks
oxhZÑr djrs gSaµ
1- [kqyk fudk; (Open System)
,d [kqys fudk; esa ÅtkZ ,oa æO;µnksuksa dk fudk; ,oa
ifjos'k osQ eè; fofue; (Exchange) gks ldrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZµvfHkdkjd ,d [kqys chdj esa fy;s tk,¡A
2- can fudk; (Closed system)
can fudk; esa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè; æO; dk fofue;
laHko ugha gS] ijarq ÅtkZ dk fofue; gks ldrk gSA tSlsµ
vfHkdkjd can chdj esa fy;s tk,¡A
3- foyfxr fudk; (Isolated system)
,d foyfxr fudk; esa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè; æO; ,oa
ÅtkZµ nksuksa dk gh fofue; laHko ugha gksrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZµ
vfHkdkjd ,d FkeZl ÝykLd esa fy;s tk,¡A fp=k 6-2 esa
fofHkUu çdkj osQ fudk; n'kZk, x, gSaA
fp=k 6-2 % [kqyk] can ,oa foyfxr fudk;
ifjos'k
ifjos'k
* ;fn ge osQoy vfHkfØ;k feJ.k dks fudk; ekusa] rks chdj dh nhokj ifjos'k dk dk;Z djsxhA
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jlk;u foKku
6-1-3 fudk; dh voLFkk
fdlh Hkh Å"ekxfrdh fudk; dk o.kZu oqQN xq.kksa] tSlsµ
nkc (p)] vk;ru (V)] rki (T) ,oa fudk; osQ la?kVu
(Composition) dks fu£n"V (Specify) djosQ fd;k tkrk
gSA gesa fudk; dks o£.kr djus osQ fy, bu xq.kksa dks ifjorZu
ls iwoZ ,oa i'pkr~ fu£n"V djuk iM+rk gSA vkius HkkSfrd
'kkL=k esa i<+k gksxk fd ;kaf=kdh esa fdlh fudk; dh {kf.kd
voLFkk dh O;k[;k fudk; osQ lHkh æO;&¯cnqvksa osQ ml
{k.k ij fLFkfr ,oa osx osQ vkèkkj ij dh tkrh gSA Å"ekxfrdh
esa voLFkk dk ,d vyx ,oa ljy :i çLrkfor fd;k x;k
gSA blls çR;sd d.k dh xfr osQ foLr`r Kku dh vko';drk
ugha gS] D;kasfd ;gk¡ ge fudk; osQ vkSlr ekiu ;ksX; xq.kksa
dk ç;ksx djrs gSa ge fudk; dh voLFkk dks ^voLFkk&iQyuksa*
;k ^voLFkk&pjksa* osQ }kjk O;Dr djrs gSaA
Å"ekxfrdh; esa fudk; dh voLFkk dk o.kZu mlosQ
ekiu;ksX; vFkok LFkwy xq.kksa osQ }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA ge ,d
xSl dh voLFkk dk mlosQ nkc (p), vk;ru (V), rki (T),
ek=kk (n) vkfn ls o.kZu dj ldrs gSaA p, V, T  dks voLFkk pj
vFkok iQyu dgrs gSa] D;ksafd budk eku fudk; dh voLFkk
ij fuHkZj djrk gS] u fd bldks çkIr djus osQ rjhosQ ijA fdlh
fudk; dh voLFkk dks iw.kZ :i ls ifjHkkf"kr djus osQ fy,
fudk; osQ lHkh xq.kksa dk o.kZu djus dh vko';drk ugha gksrh]
D;ksafd oqQN xq.k gh Lora=k :i esa ifjo£rr gks ldrs gSaA bu
xq.kksa dh la[;k fudk; dh çÑfr ij fuHkZj djrh gSA ,d ckj
de ls de la[;k esa bu LFkwy xq.kksa dks r; dj fn;k tk,] rks
ckdh lkjs xq.kksa dk eku Lor% fuf'pr gks tkrk gSA
6-1-4 vkarfjd ÅtkZ % ,d voLFkk&iQyu
tc ge mu jklk;fud fudk;ksa dh ppkZ djrs gSa] ftuesa ÅtkZ
dk fudkl ;k ços'k gksrk gS] rc gesa ,d ,sls xq.k dh
vko';drk gksrh gS] tks fudk; dh mQTkkZ dk çfrfufèkRo
djrk gksA ;g ÅtkZ jklk;fud] oS|qr ;k ;kaf=kd mQTkkZ gks
ldrh gSA bu lcdk ;ksx gh fudk; dh mQTkkZ gksrh gSA
mQ"ekxfrdh esa bls vkarfjd mQTkkZ U dgrs gSaA ;g ifjo£rr
gksrh gS] tcfd
• Å"ek dk fudk; esa ços'k ;k fudkl gksrk gks]
• fudk; ij ;k fudk; }kjk dk;Z fd;k x;k gks]
• fudk; esa æO; dk ços'k ;k fudkl gksrk gksA
(d) dk;Z
lcls igys ge dk;Z djus ij fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ esa
gksus okys ifjorZu dh tk¡p djsaxsA ge ,d ,slk fudk; ysrs
gSa] ftlesa ,d FkeZl ÝykLd ;k mQ"ekjksèkh chdj esa ty dh
oqQN ek=kk gSA blesa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè; mQ"ek dk
çokg ugha gS] ,sls fudk; dks ge #¼ks"e (Adiabatic)
fudk; dgrs gSaA ,sls fudk; esa voLFkk&ifjorZu dks
#¼ks"e çØe dgrs gSaA blesa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè;
dksbZ mQ"ek&fofue; ugha gksrhA ;gk¡ ij fudk; ,oa ifjos'k
dks i`Fko~Q djusokyh nhokj ^#¼ks"e nhokj* dgykrh gS
(fp=k 6-3)A
fp=k 6-3% ,d #¼ks"e fudk;] ftlesa ifjlhek ls mQ"ek&fofue;
laHko ugha gSA
vc ge fudk; ij oqQN dk;Z djosQ bldh vkarfjd
mQtkZ esa ifjorZu djrs gSaA ekuk fd fudk; dh çkajfHkd
voLFkk A gS ,oa bldk rki T
A
 rFkk vkarfjd mQtkZ U
A
 gSA
fudk; dh voLFkk dks nks çdkj ls ifjo£rr dj ldrs gSaµ
çFke çdkjµekuk fd NksVs iSMy ls ty dks eFkdj ge
1kJ dk;Z djrs gSa] ftlls fudk; dh ubZ voLFkk ekuk B
,oa mldk rki T
B
 gks tkrk gSA ;g ns[kk x;k fd T
B 
> T
A
vr% rki esa ifjorZu ?T = T
B
–T
A
 A ekuk voLFkk B esa
vkarfjd mQtkZ U
B
 gS] rks vkarfjd mQtkZ esa ifjorZu]
?U= U
B
–U
A
f}rh; çdkjµvc ge ty esa ,d fueTtu NM+
(Immersion Rod) Mkydj mruk gh oS|qr dk;Z (1kJ)
djrs gSa ,oa fudk; esa rki&ifjorZu uksV djrs gSaA ge ns[krs
gSa fd rki&ifjroZu iwoZ osQ leku T
B
–T
A
 gh jgrk gSA
;FkkFkZ esa mijksDr ç;ksx ts-ih- twy }kjk lu~ 1845 osQ
vklikl fd;k x;k FkkA mUgksaus ik;k fd fudk; ij fd;k
x;k fuf'pr dk;Z fudk; dh voLFkk esa leku ifjorZu ykrk
ifjos'k
2020-21
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158
jlk;u foKku
,dd 6
bl ,dd osQ vè;;u osQ ckn vkiµ
• fudk; ,oa ifjos'k inkssa dks le>k losaQxs_
• can] [kqyk ,oa fo;qDr fudk; esa varj dj
losaQxs_
• vkarfjd ÅtkZ] dk;Z ,oa Å"ek dks le>k
losaQxs_
• Å"ekxfrdh osQ çFke fu;e dks O;Dr dj
losaQxs ,oa bldk xf.krh; :i fy[k losaQxs_
• jklk;fud fudk;ksa esa ÅtkZ&ifjorZu dks
dk;Z ,oa Å"ek osQ ;ksxnku osQ :i esa
ifjdfyr dj losaQxs_
• voLFkk&iQyu U, H dks le> losaQxs_
• ?U ,oa ?H esa lacaèk LFkkfir dj losaQsxs_
• ?U ,oa ?H dk çk;ksfxd ekiu dj
losaQxs_
• ?H osQ fy, ekud voLFkk dks ifjHkkf"kr
dj losaQxs_
• fofHkUu çdkj dh vfHkfØ;kvksa osQ fy,
,UFkSYih ifjorZu dh x.kuk dj losaQxsA
• gsl osQ fLFkj&Å"ek ladyu fu;e dks
O;Dr vkSj vuqç;ksx dj losaQxs_
• foLrh.kZ ,oa xgu xq.kksa esa varj dj losaQxs_
• Lor% rFkk vLor% ço£rr çØeksa dks
ifjHkkf"kr dj losaQxs_
• ,UVªkih dks Å"ekxfrdh voLFkk&iQyu osQ
:i esa ifjHkkf"kr vkSj bldk vuqç;ksx dj
losaQxs_
• eqDr&ÅtkZ ifjorZu (?G) dks le> losaQxs_
• Lor%ço£rrk vkSj ?G rFkk ?G vkSj lkE;
fLFkjkad esa lacaèk LFkkfir dj losaQxsA
Å"ekxfrdh
THERMODYNAMICS
;g lkoZf=kd varoZLrq dk osQoy HkkSfrd fl¼kar gS] ftlosQ fy, eSa larq"V g¡w
fd blosQ ekSfyd fl¼karksa dks mudh mi;qDrrk osQ çkèkkj esa dHkh udkjk ugha
tk ldrk gSA
vYcVZ vkbULVhu
tc b±èku tSls esFksu xSl] jlksbZ xSl ;k dks;yk gok esa tyrs gSa] rks jklk;fud
vfHkfØ;k osQ nkSjku v.kqvksa esa laxzghr jklk;fud ÅtkZ Å"ek osQ :i esa
fueqZDr gksrh gSA tc ,d batu esa b±èku tyrk gS] rc jklk;fud ÅtkZ ;kaf=kd
dk;Z djus esa ç;qDr gks ldrh gS ;k xSYouh lsy ('kq"d lsy) fo|qr~ ÅtkZ
çnku djrh gSA bl çdkj ÅtkZ osQ fofHkUu :i fo'ks"k ifjfLFkr;ksa esa ,d&
nwljs ls ijLij lacafèkr gksrs gSa ,oa ,d :i ls nwljs :i esa cnys tk ldrs
gSaA bu ÅtkZ&:ikarj.kksa dk vè;;u gh Å"ekxfrdh dh fo"k;&oLrq gSA
Å"ekxfrdh osQ fu;e LFkwy fudk;ksa] ftuesa cgqr&ls v.kq gksrs gSa] ls lacafèkr
gksrs gSa] u fd lw{e fudk;ksa ls] ftuesa cgqr de v.kq gksrs gSaA Å"ekxfrdh
bl ckr ls lacafèkr ugha gS fd ;s ifjorZu oSQls ,oa fdl nj ls dk;kZfUor
gksrs gSaA ;g ifjorZudkjh fudk; dh çkjafHkd ,oa vfUre voLFkk ls lacafèkr
gSaA Å"ekxfrdh osQ fu;e rHkh ykxw gksrs gSa] tc fudk; lkE;koLFkk esa gksrk
gS ;k ,d lkE;koLFkk ls nwljh lkE;koLFkk esaa tkrk gSA fdlh fudk; osQ LFkwy
xq.k (tSlsµ nkc ,oa rki) lkE;koLFkk esa le; osQ lkFk ifjo£rr ugha gksrs
gSaA bl ,dd esa ge Å"ekxfrdh osQ ekè;e ls oqQN egRoiw.kZ ç'uksa osQ mÙkj
nsus dk ç;kl djsaxsA tSlsµ
,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k@çØe esa ge ÅtkZ&ifjoZru oSQls fuèkkZfjr
djrs gSa \ ;g ifjorZu gksxk vFkok ugha\ ,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k@çØe
oSQls çsfjr gksrk gS\ jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k fdl lhek rd pyrh gS\
mís';
2020-21
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Å"ekxfrdh
6-1 Å"ekxfrdh osQ rduhdh 'kCn
gekjh mRlqdrk jklk;fud vfHkfØ;kvksa ,oa muesa gksusokys
ÅtkZ&ifjorZuksa dks tkuus dh gksrh gS blosQ fy, gesa
m"ekxfrdh esa iz;qDr gksus okys oqQN rduhdh 'kCnksa dks
tkuuk gksxk budk o.kZu uhps fn;k x;k gSµ
6-1-1 fudk; ,oa ifjos'k
Å"ekxfrdh esa fudk; dk vFkZ czãkaM osQ ml Hkkx ls gS]
ftlij isz{k.k fd, tkrs gSa rFkk bldk 'ks"k Hkkx ^ifjos'k*
dgykrk gSA ifjos'k esa fudk; dks NksM+dj lc oqQN lfEefyr
gSA fudk; ,oa ifjos'kµ nksuksa feydj czãkaM curk gSA
fudk; + ifjos'k = czãkaM
fudk; ls vfrfjDr laiw.kZ czãkaM fudk; esa gksusokys
ifjorZuksa ls çHkkfor ugha gksrk gSA blhfy, çk;ksfxd dk;k±s osQ
fy, czãkaM dk ogh Hkkx] tks fudk; ls var£Ø;k djrk gS]
ifjos'k osQ :i esa fy;k tkrk gSA
lkekU;r% lef"V dk og {ks=k] tks fudk; osQ vklikl
gksrk gS] ifjos'k osQ varxZr fy;k tkrk gSA
mnkgj.k osQ fy,µ ;fn ge ,d chdj esa mifLFkr nks
inkFkks± A ,oa B dh vfHkfØ;k dk vè;;u dj jgs gksa] rks
chdj (ftlesa vfHkfØ;k&feJ.k gS) fudk;* gksxk ,oa dejk
(ftlesa chdj gS) ifjos'k dk dk;Z djsxk (fp=k 6-1)A
fp=k 6-1 % ifjos'k ,oa fudk;
è;ku jgs fd fudk; HkkSfrd lhekvksa (tSlsµchdj ;k
ij[kuyh) ls ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gS ;k lef"V esa ,d
fuf'pr vk;ru osQ dkrhZ; funsZ'kkadksa (Cartesian coordi-
nates) osQ leqPp; (set) ls ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
;g vko';d gS fd fudk; dks okLrfod ;k dkYifud
nhokj ;k lhek osQ }kjk ifjos'k ls i`Fko~Q lkspk tk,A og
nhokj] tks fudk; ,oa ifjos'k dks i`Fko~Q djrh gS] ^ifjlhek*
(Boundary) dgykrh gSA ifjlhek }kjk ge fudk; osQ
vanj vkSj ckgj æO; rFkk ÅtkZ osQ lapj.k dks fu;af=kr ,oa
çsf{kr dj ldrs gSaA
6-1-2 fudk; osQ çdkj
vc ge æO; ,oa ÅtkZ osQ lapj.k osQ vkèkkj ij fudk; dks
oxhZÑr djrs gSaµ
1- [kqyk fudk; (Open System)
,d [kqys fudk; esa ÅtkZ ,oa æO;µnksuksa dk fudk; ,oa
ifjos'k osQ eè; fofue; (Exchange) gks ldrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZµvfHkdkjd ,d [kqys chdj esa fy;s tk,¡A
2- can fudk; (Closed system)
can fudk; esa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè; æO; dk fofue;
laHko ugha gS] ijarq ÅtkZ dk fofue; gks ldrk gSA tSlsµ
vfHkdkjd can chdj esa fy;s tk,¡A
3- foyfxr fudk; (Isolated system)
,d foyfxr fudk; esa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè; æO; ,oa
ÅtkZµ nksuksa dk gh fofue; laHko ugha gksrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZµ
vfHkdkjd ,d FkeZl ÝykLd esa fy;s tk,¡A fp=k 6-2 esa
fofHkUu çdkj osQ fudk; n'kZk, x, gSaA
fp=k 6-2 % [kqyk] can ,oa foyfxr fudk;
ifjos'k
ifjos'k
* ;fn ge osQoy vfHkfØ;k feJ.k dks fudk; ekusa] rks chdj dh nhokj ifjos'k dk dk;Z djsxhA
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jlk;u foKku
6-1-3 fudk; dh voLFkk
fdlh Hkh Å"ekxfrdh fudk; dk o.kZu oqQN xq.kksa] tSlsµ
nkc (p)] vk;ru (V)] rki (T) ,oa fudk; osQ la?kVu
(Composition) dks fu£n"V (Specify) djosQ fd;k tkrk
gSA gesa fudk; dks o£.kr djus osQ fy, bu xq.kksa dks ifjorZu
ls iwoZ ,oa i'pkr~ fu£n"V djuk iM+rk gSA vkius HkkSfrd
'kkL=k esa i<+k gksxk fd ;kaf=kdh esa fdlh fudk; dh {kf.kd
voLFkk dh O;k[;k fudk; osQ lHkh æO;&¯cnqvksa osQ ml
{k.k ij fLFkfr ,oa osx osQ vkèkkj ij dh tkrh gSA Å"ekxfrdh
esa voLFkk dk ,d vyx ,oa ljy :i çLrkfor fd;k x;k
gSA blls çR;sd d.k dh xfr osQ foLr`r Kku dh vko';drk
ugha gS] D;kasfd ;gk¡ ge fudk; osQ vkSlr ekiu ;ksX; xq.kksa
dk ç;ksx djrs gSa ge fudk; dh voLFkk dks ^voLFkk&iQyuksa*
;k ^voLFkk&pjksa* osQ }kjk O;Dr djrs gSaA
Å"ekxfrdh; esa fudk; dh voLFkk dk o.kZu mlosQ
ekiu;ksX; vFkok LFkwy xq.kksa osQ }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA ge ,d
xSl dh voLFkk dk mlosQ nkc (p), vk;ru (V), rki (T),
ek=kk (n) vkfn ls o.kZu dj ldrs gSaA p, V, T  dks voLFkk pj
vFkok iQyu dgrs gSa] D;ksafd budk eku fudk; dh voLFkk
ij fuHkZj djrk gS] u fd bldks çkIr djus osQ rjhosQ ijA fdlh
fudk; dh voLFkk dks iw.kZ :i ls ifjHkkf"kr djus osQ fy,
fudk; osQ lHkh xq.kksa dk o.kZu djus dh vko';drk ugha gksrh]
D;ksafd oqQN xq.k gh Lora=k :i esa ifjo£rr gks ldrs gSaA bu
xq.kksa dh la[;k fudk; dh çÑfr ij fuHkZj djrh gSA ,d ckj
de ls de la[;k esa bu LFkwy xq.kksa dks r; dj fn;k tk,] rks
ckdh lkjs xq.kksa dk eku Lor% fuf'pr gks tkrk gSA
6-1-4 vkarfjd ÅtkZ % ,d voLFkk&iQyu
tc ge mu jklk;fud fudk;ksa dh ppkZ djrs gSa] ftuesa ÅtkZ
dk fudkl ;k ços'k gksrk gS] rc gesa ,d ,sls xq.k dh
vko';drk gksrh gS] tks fudk; dh mQTkkZ dk çfrfufèkRo
djrk gksA ;g ÅtkZ jklk;fud] oS|qr ;k ;kaf=kd mQTkkZ gks
ldrh gSA bu lcdk ;ksx gh fudk; dh mQTkkZ gksrh gSA
mQ"ekxfrdh esa bls vkarfjd mQTkkZ U dgrs gSaA ;g ifjo£rr
gksrh gS] tcfd
• Å"ek dk fudk; esa ços'k ;k fudkl gksrk gks]
• fudk; ij ;k fudk; }kjk dk;Z fd;k x;k gks]
• fudk; esa æO; dk ços'k ;k fudkl gksrk gksA
(d) dk;Z
lcls igys ge dk;Z djus ij fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ esa
gksus okys ifjorZu dh tk¡p djsaxsA ge ,d ,slk fudk; ysrs
gSa] ftlesa ,d FkeZl ÝykLd ;k mQ"ekjksèkh chdj esa ty dh
oqQN ek=kk gSA blesa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè; mQ"ek dk
çokg ugha gS] ,sls fudk; dks ge #¼ks"e (Adiabatic)
fudk; dgrs gSaA ,sls fudk; esa voLFkk&ifjorZu dks
#¼ks"e çØe dgrs gSaA blesa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè;
dksbZ mQ"ek&fofue; ugha gksrhA ;gk¡ ij fudk; ,oa ifjos'k
dks i`Fko~Q djusokyh nhokj ^#¼ks"e nhokj* dgykrh gS
(fp=k 6-3)A
fp=k 6-3% ,d #¼ks"e fudk;] ftlesa ifjlhek ls mQ"ek&fofue;
laHko ugha gSA
vc ge fudk; ij oqQN dk;Z djosQ bldh vkarfjd
mQtkZ esa ifjorZu djrs gSaA ekuk fd fudk; dh çkajfHkd
voLFkk A gS ,oa bldk rki T
A
 rFkk vkarfjd mQtkZ U
A
 gSA
fudk; dh voLFkk dks nks çdkj ls ifjo£rr dj ldrs gSaµ
çFke çdkjµekuk fd NksVs iSMy ls ty dks eFkdj ge
1kJ dk;Z djrs gSa] ftlls fudk; dh ubZ voLFkk ekuk B
,oa mldk rki T
B
 gks tkrk gSA ;g ns[kk x;k fd T
B 
> T
A
vr% rki esa ifjorZu ?T = T
B
–T
A
 A ekuk voLFkk B esa
vkarfjd mQtkZ U
B
 gS] rks vkarfjd mQtkZ esa ifjorZu]
?U= U
B
–U
A
f}rh; çdkjµvc ge ty esa ,d fueTtu NM+
(Immersion Rod) Mkydj mruk gh oS|qr dk;Z (1kJ)
djrs gSa ,oa fudk; esa rki&ifjorZu uksV djrs gSaA ge ns[krs
gSa fd rki&ifjroZu iwoZ osQ leku T
B
–T
A
 gh jgrk gSA
;FkkFkZ esa mijksDr ç;ksx ts-ih- twy }kjk lu~ 1845 osQ
vklikl fd;k x;k FkkA mUgksaus ik;k fd fudk; ij fd;k
x;k fuf'pr dk;Z fudk; dh voLFkk esa leku ifjorZu ykrk
ifjos'k
2020-21
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Å"ekxfrdh
gS] pkgs dk;Z fdlh Hkh çdkj (çØe) }kjk fd;k tk,] tSlk
;gk¡ ij rki osQ ifjorZu }kjk ns[kk x;k gSA
vr% ;g mi;qDr fn[krk gS fd ,d ,slh jkf'k]
vkarfjd mQtkZ U, dks ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk,] ftldk eku
fudk; dh voLFkk dk vfHkyk{kf.kd gks] tgk¡ #¼ks"e çØe
esa fd;k x;k dk;Z w
ad
 nks voLFkkvksa esa U ifjorZu osQ rqY;]
vFkkZr~ ?U = U
2 
– U
1 
= w
ad 
gSA
vr% fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ ,d voLFkk&iQyu gSA
jklk;fud mQ"ekxfrdh esa IUPAC ijaijk osQ vuqlkj
èkukRed fpÉ* crkrk gS fd dk;Z w
ad
 fudk; ij fd;k x;k
gS rFkk fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ c<+ tkrh gSA blh çdkj  ls
;fn fudk; }kjk dk;Z fd;k tk,] rks w
ad
 Í.kkRed gksxk
D;ksafd fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ de gks tkrh gSA
D;k vki fdUgha vU; ifjfpr voLFkk&iQyuksa osQ uke
crk ldrs gSa\ V, p ,oa T oqQN vU; ifjfpr voLFkk&iQyu
gSaA mnkgj.k osQ fy,µ ;fn ge fdlh fudk; osQ rki esa
25°C ls 35°C rd ifjorZu djsa] rks rki&ifjorZu 35°C–
25°C = +10°C gksxkA pkgs ge lhèks gh 35°C rd tk,¡ ;k
fudk; dks igys oqQN va'kksa (Degree) rd BaMk djsa vkSj
fiQj fudk; dks vafre rki (35°C) rd ys tk,¡A bl çdkj
T ,d voLFkk&iQyu gSA rki esa ifjorZu iFk ij fuHkZj ugha
djrk gSA ,d rkykc esa ikuh dk vk;ru ,d voLFkk&iQyu
gS] D;ksafd blosQ ty osQ vk;ru esa ifjorZu bl ckr ij
fuHkZj ugha djrk gS fd rkykc oSQls Hkjk x;k gSµ ckfj'k }kjk]
uyowQi }kjk ;k nksuksa }kjkA
([k) mQ"ek
ge fcuk dk;Z fd, Hkh ifjos'k ls mQ"ek ysdj ;k ifjos'k dks
mQ"ek nsdj ,d fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ esa ifjorZu dj
ldrs gSaA ;g mQtkZ&fofue;] tks rkikarj dk ifj.kke gS] mQ"ek
q dgykrk gSA vc ge leku rkikarj ykus osQ fy, ¹iwoZ esa
[kaM 6-14 (d) esa crk, vuqlkj ogh çkjafHkd ,oa vafre
rkiº tks :¼ks"e nhokjksa dh vis{kk Å"eh; pkyd nhokjksa
(fp=k 6-4) }kjk Å"ek osQ pkyu ls gksrk gS] ij fopkj djsaxsA
ekuk fd rk¡cs dk ,d ik=k (ftldh nhokjsa mQ"eh;
pkyd gSa) esa T
A
 rki ij ty fy;k x;k gSA bls ,d
cM+s oaqQM] ftldk rki T
B
 gSA esa j[krs gSaA fudk; (ty)
}kjk vo'kksf"kr mQ"ek q dks rki&ifjorZu T
B
–T
A
 }kjk
ekik tk ldrk gSA ;gk¡ ij Hkh vkarfjd mQtkZ esa ifjorZu]
?U = q gS] tcfd fLFkj vk;ru ij dksbZ dk;Z ugha fd;k
x;k gSA
jklk;fud mQ"ekxfrdh esa IUPAC ijaijk osQ vuqlkj
ifjos'k ls mQ"ek dk LFkkukarj.k fudk; esa gksus ij q èkukRed
gksrk gS vkSj fudk; dh mQtkZ c<+rh gS ,oa mQ"ek osQ fudk;
ls ifjos'k dh vksj LFkkukafrfjr gksus ij q ½.kkRed gksrk gS
ifj.kker% fudk; dh mQtkZ de gks tkrh gSA
(x) lkekU; fLFkfr
ge ,d lkekU; fLFkfr ij fopkj djsa] tcfd vkarfjd mQtkZ
esa ifjorZu nksuksa gh çdkjksa (dk;Z djosQ ,oa mQ"ek&LFkkukarj.k)
}kjk gksA ml fLFkfr esa ge vkarfjd mQtkZ esa ifjorZu dks bl
çdkj fy[k ldrs gSaµ
?U = q
 
 + w (6.1)
,d fof'k"V voLFkk&ifjorZu esa ifjorZu osQ çdkj osQ
vuqlkj q ,oa w osQ eku fHk gks ldrs gSa] ijarq q + w
  
=
?U osQoy çkjafHkd ,oa vafre voLFkk ij fuHkZj djsxkA ;g
ifjorZu osQ çdkj ls Lora=k gSA ;fn mQ"ek ;k dk;Z osQ :i
esa mQtkZ&ifjorZu u gks (foyfxr fudk;) vFkkZr~ ;fn
w = 0 ,oa q = 0, rc ?U = 0 gSA
lehdj.k 6-1 vFkkZr~ ?U = q
 
 + w, mQ"ekxfrdh osQ
çFke fu;e dk xf.krh; dFku gSA çFke fu;e osQ vuqlkj]
¶,d foyfxr fudk; dh mQtkZ vifjorZuh; gksrh gSA¸
fp=k 6-4 % ,d fudk;] ftlesa ifjlhek osQ vkj&ikj mQ"ek dk çokg
laHko gSA
* igys fudk; ij fd, tkus okys dk;Z dks Í.kkRed fpUg vkSj fudk; }kjk fd, tkus okys dk;Z dks /ukRed fpUg fn;k x;k FkkA HkkSfrdh
 dh iqLrdksa esa vc Hkh blh ijaEijk dk vuqlj.k gks jgk gS ;|fi IUPAP us Hkh u;h fpUg ijaEijk dh flI
+
kQkfj'k dh gSA
2020-21
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158
jlk;u foKku
,dd 6
bl ,dd osQ vè;;u osQ ckn vkiµ
• fudk; ,oa ifjos'k inkssa dks le>k losaQxs_
• can] [kqyk ,oa fo;qDr fudk; esa varj dj
losaQxs_
• vkarfjd ÅtkZ] dk;Z ,oa Å"ek dks le>k
losaQxs_
• Å"ekxfrdh osQ çFke fu;e dks O;Dr dj
losaQxs ,oa bldk xf.krh; :i fy[k losaQxs_
• jklk;fud fudk;ksa esa ÅtkZ&ifjorZu dks
dk;Z ,oa Å"ek osQ ;ksxnku osQ :i esa
ifjdfyr dj losaQxs_
• voLFkk&iQyu U, H dks le> losaQxs_
• ?U ,oa ?H esa lacaèk LFkkfir dj losaQsxs_
• ?U ,oa ?H dk çk;ksfxd ekiu dj
losaQxs_
• ?H osQ fy, ekud voLFkk dks ifjHkkf"kr
dj losaQxs_
• fofHkUu çdkj dh vfHkfØ;kvksa osQ fy,
,UFkSYih ifjorZu dh x.kuk dj losaQxsA
• gsl osQ fLFkj&Å"ek ladyu fu;e dks
O;Dr vkSj vuqç;ksx dj losaQxs_
• foLrh.kZ ,oa xgu xq.kksa esa varj dj losaQxs_
• Lor% rFkk vLor% ço£rr çØeksa dks
ifjHkkf"kr dj losaQxs_
• ,UVªkih dks Å"ekxfrdh voLFkk&iQyu osQ
:i esa ifjHkkf"kr vkSj bldk vuqç;ksx dj
losaQxs_
• eqDr&ÅtkZ ifjorZu (?G) dks le> losaQxs_
• Lor%ço£rrk vkSj ?G rFkk ?G vkSj lkE;
fLFkjkad esa lacaèk LFkkfir dj losaQxsA
Å"ekxfrdh
THERMODYNAMICS
;g lkoZf=kd varoZLrq dk osQoy HkkSfrd fl¼kar gS] ftlosQ fy, eSa larq"V g¡w
fd blosQ ekSfyd fl¼karksa dks mudh mi;qDrrk osQ çkèkkj esa dHkh udkjk ugha
tk ldrk gSA
vYcVZ vkbULVhu
tc b±èku tSls esFksu xSl] jlksbZ xSl ;k dks;yk gok esa tyrs gSa] rks jklk;fud
vfHkfØ;k osQ nkSjku v.kqvksa esa laxzghr jklk;fud ÅtkZ Å"ek osQ :i esa
fueqZDr gksrh gSA tc ,d batu esa b±èku tyrk gS] rc jklk;fud ÅtkZ ;kaf=kd
dk;Z djus esa ç;qDr gks ldrh gS ;k xSYouh lsy ('kq"d lsy) fo|qr~ ÅtkZ
çnku djrh gSA bl çdkj ÅtkZ osQ fofHkUu :i fo'ks"k ifjfLFkr;ksa esa ,d&
nwljs ls ijLij lacafèkr gksrs gSa ,oa ,d :i ls nwljs :i esa cnys tk ldrs
gSaA bu ÅtkZ&:ikarj.kksa dk vè;;u gh Å"ekxfrdh dh fo"k;&oLrq gSA
Å"ekxfrdh osQ fu;e LFkwy fudk;ksa] ftuesa cgqr&ls v.kq gksrs gSa] ls lacafèkr
gksrs gSa] u fd lw{e fudk;ksa ls] ftuesa cgqr de v.kq gksrs gSaA Å"ekxfrdh
bl ckr ls lacafèkr ugha gS fd ;s ifjorZu oSQls ,oa fdl nj ls dk;kZfUor
gksrs gSaA ;g ifjorZudkjh fudk; dh çkjafHkd ,oa vfUre voLFkk ls lacafèkr
gSaA Å"ekxfrdh osQ fu;e rHkh ykxw gksrs gSa] tc fudk; lkE;koLFkk esa gksrk
gS ;k ,d lkE;koLFkk ls nwljh lkE;koLFkk esaa tkrk gSA fdlh fudk; osQ LFkwy
xq.k (tSlsµ nkc ,oa rki) lkE;koLFkk esa le; osQ lkFk ifjo£rr ugha gksrs
gSaA bl ,dd esa ge Å"ekxfrdh osQ ekè;e ls oqQN egRoiw.kZ ç'uksa osQ mÙkj
nsus dk ç;kl djsaxsA tSlsµ
,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k@çØe esa ge ÅtkZ&ifjoZru oSQls fuèkkZfjr
djrs gSa \ ;g ifjorZu gksxk vFkok ugha\ ,d jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k@çØe
oSQls çsfjr gksrk gS\ jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k fdl lhek rd pyrh gS\
mís';
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Å"ekxfrdh
6-1 Å"ekxfrdh osQ rduhdh 'kCn
gekjh mRlqdrk jklk;fud vfHkfØ;kvksa ,oa muesa gksusokys
ÅtkZ&ifjorZuksa dks tkuus dh gksrh gS blosQ fy, gesa
m"ekxfrdh esa iz;qDr gksus okys oqQN rduhdh 'kCnksa dks
tkuuk gksxk budk o.kZu uhps fn;k x;k gSµ
6-1-1 fudk; ,oa ifjos'k
Å"ekxfrdh esa fudk; dk vFkZ czãkaM osQ ml Hkkx ls gS]
ftlij isz{k.k fd, tkrs gSa rFkk bldk 'ks"k Hkkx ^ifjos'k*
dgykrk gSA ifjos'k esa fudk; dks NksM+dj lc oqQN lfEefyr
gSA fudk; ,oa ifjos'kµ nksuksa feydj czãkaM curk gSA
fudk; + ifjos'k = czãkaM
fudk; ls vfrfjDr laiw.kZ czãkaM fudk; esa gksusokys
ifjorZuksa ls çHkkfor ugha gksrk gSA blhfy, çk;ksfxd dk;k±s osQ
fy, czãkaM dk ogh Hkkx] tks fudk; ls var£Ø;k djrk gS]
ifjos'k osQ :i esa fy;k tkrk gSA
lkekU;r% lef"V dk og {ks=k] tks fudk; osQ vklikl
gksrk gS] ifjos'k osQ varxZr fy;k tkrk gSA
mnkgj.k osQ fy,µ ;fn ge ,d chdj esa mifLFkr nks
inkFkks± A ,oa B dh vfHkfØ;k dk vè;;u dj jgs gksa] rks
chdj (ftlesa vfHkfØ;k&feJ.k gS) fudk;* gksxk ,oa dejk
(ftlesa chdj gS) ifjos'k dk dk;Z djsxk (fp=k 6-1)A
fp=k 6-1 % ifjos'k ,oa fudk;
è;ku jgs fd fudk; HkkSfrd lhekvksa (tSlsµchdj ;k
ij[kuyh) ls ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gS ;k lef"V esa ,d
fuf'pr vk;ru osQ dkrhZ; funsZ'kkadksa (Cartesian coordi-
nates) osQ leqPp; (set) ls ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
;g vko';d gS fd fudk; dks okLrfod ;k dkYifud
nhokj ;k lhek osQ }kjk ifjos'k ls i`Fko~Q lkspk tk,A og
nhokj] tks fudk; ,oa ifjos'k dks i`Fko~Q djrh gS] ^ifjlhek*
(Boundary) dgykrh gSA ifjlhek }kjk ge fudk; osQ
vanj vkSj ckgj æO; rFkk ÅtkZ osQ lapj.k dks fu;af=kr ,oa
çsf{kr dj ldrs gSaA
6-1-2 fudk; osQ çdkj
vc ge æO; ,oa ÅtkZ osQ lapj.k osQ vkèkkj ij fudk; dks
oxhZÑr djrs gSaµ
1- [kqyk fudk; (Open System)
,d [kqys fudk; esa ÅtkZ ,oa æO;µnksuksa dk fudk; ,oa
ifjos'k osQ eè; fofue; (Exchange) gks ldrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZµvfHkdkjd ,d [kqys chdj esa fy;s tk,¡A
2- can fudk; (Closed system)
can fudk; esa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè; æO; dk fofue;
laHko ugha gS] ijarq ÅtkZ dk fofue; gks ldrk gSA tSlsµ
vfHkdkjd can chdj esa fy;s tk,¡A
3- foyfxr fudk; (Isolated system)
,d foyfxr fudk; esa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè; æO; ,oa
ÅtkZµ nksuksa dk gh fofue; laHko ugha gksrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZµ
vfHkdkjd ,d FkeZl ÝykLd esa fy;s tk,¡A fp=k 6-2 esa
fofHkUu çdkj osQ fudk; n'kZk, x, gSaA
fp=k 6-2 % [kqyk] can ,oa foyfxr fudk;
ifjos'k
ifjos'k
* ;fn ge osQoy vfHkfØ;k feJ.k dks fudk; ekusa] rks chdj dh nhokj ifjos'k dk dk;Z djsxhA
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jlk;u foKku
6-1-3 fudk; dh voLFkk
fdlh Hkh Å"ekxfrdh fudk; dk o.kZu oqQN xq.kksa] tSlsµ
nkc (p)] vk;ru (V)] rki (T) ,oa fudk; osQ la?kVu
(Composition) dks fu£n"V (Specify) djosQ fd;k tkrk
gSA gesa fudk; dks o£.kr djus osQ fy, bu xq.kksa dks ifjorZu
ls iwoZ ,oa i'pkr~ fu£n"V djuk iM+rk gSA vkius HkkSfrd
'kkL=k esa i<+k gksxk fd ;kaf=kdh esa fdlh fudk; dh {kf.kd
voLFkk dh O;k[;k fudk; osQ lHkh æO;&¯cnqvksa osQ ml
{k.k ij fLFkfr ,oa osx osQ vkèkkj ij dh tkrh gSA Å"ekxfrdh
esa voLFkk dk ,d vyx ,oa ljy :i çLrkfor fd;k x;k
gSA blls çR;sd d.k dh xfr osQ foLr`r Kku dh vko';drk
ugha gS] D;kasfd ;gk¡ ge fudk; osQ vkSlr ekiu ;ksX; xq.kksa
dk ç;ksx djrs gSa ge fudk; dh voLFkk dks ^voLFkk&iQyuksa*
;k ^voLFkk&pjksa* osQ }kjk O;Dr djrs gSaA
Å"ekxfrdh; esa fudk; dh voLFkk dk o.kZu mlosQ
ekiu;ksX; vFkok LFkwy xq.kksa osQ }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA ge ,d
xSl dh voLFkk dk mlosQ nkc (p), vk;ru (V), rki (T),
ek=kk (n) vkfn ls o.kZu dj ldrs gSaA p, V, T  dks voLFkk pj
vFkok iQyu dgrs gSa] D;ksafd budk eku fudk; dh voLFkk
ij fuHkZj djrk gS] u fd bldks çkIr djus osQ rjhosQ ijA fdlh
fudk; dh voLFkk dks iw.kZ :i ls ifjHkkf"kr djus osQ fy,
fudk; osQ lHkh xq.kksa dk o.kZu djus dh vko';drk ugha gksrh]
D;ksafd oqQN xq.k gh Lora=k :i esa ifjo£rr gks ldrs gSaA bu
xq.kksa dh la[;k fudk; dh çÑfr ij fuHkZj djrh gSA ,d ckj
de ls de la[;k esa bu LFkwy xq.kksa dks r; dj fn;k tk,] rks
ckdh lkjs xq.kksa dk eku Lor% fuf'pr gks tkrk gSA
6-1-4 vkarfjd ÅtkZ % ,d voLFkk&iQyu
tc ge mu jklk;fud fudk;ksa dh ppkZ djrs gSa] ftuesa ÅtkZ
dk fudkl ;k ços'k gksrk gS] rc gesa ,d ,sls xq.k dh
vko';drk gksrh gS] tks fudk; dh mQTkkZ dk çfrfufèkRo
djrk gksA ;g ÅtkZ jklk;fud] oS|qr ;k ;kaf=kd mQTkkZ gks
ldrh gSA bu lcdk ;ksx gh fudk; dh mQTkkZ gksrh gSA
mQ"ekxfrdh esa bls vkarfjd mQTkkZ U dgrs gSaA ;g ifjo£rr
gksrh gS] tcfd
• Å"ek dk fudk; esa ços'k ;k fudkl gksrk gks]
• fudk; ij ;k fudk; }kjk dk;Z fd;k x;k gks]
• fudk; esa æO; dk ços'k ;k fudkl gksrk gksA
(d) dk;Z
lcls igys ge dk;Z djus ij fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ esa
gksus okys ifjorZu dh tk¡p djsaxsA ge ,d ,slk fudk; ysrs
gSa] ftlesa ,d FkeZl ÝykLd ;k mQ"ekjksèkh chdj esa ty dh
oqQN ek=kk gSA blesa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè; mQ"ek dk
çokg ugha gS] ,sls fudk; dks ge #¼ks"e (Adiabatic)
fudk; dgrs gSaA ,sls fudk; esa voLFkk&ifjorZu dks
#¼ks"e çØe dgrs gSaA blesa fudk; ,oa ifjos'k osQ eè;
dksbZ mQ"ek&fofue; ugha gksrhA ;gk¡ ij fudk; ,oa ifjos'k
dks i`Fko~Q djusokyh nhokj ^#¼ks"e nhokj* dgykrh gS
(fp=k 6-3)A
fp=k 6-3% ,d #¼ks"e fudk;] ftlesa ifjlhek ls mQ"ek&fofue;
laHko ugha gSA
vc ge fudk; ij oqQN dk;Z djosQ bldh vkarfjd
mQtkZ esa ifjorZu djrs gSaA ekuk fd fudk; dh çkajfHkd
voLFkk A gS ,oa bldk rki T
A
 rFkk vkarfjd mQtkZ U
A
 gSA
fudk; dh voLFkk dks nks çdkj ls ifjo£rr dj ldrs gSaµ
çFke çdkjµekuk fd NksVs iSMy ls ty dks eFkdj ge
1kJ dk;Z djrs gSa] ftlls fudk; dh ubZ voLFkk ekuk B
,oa mldk rki T
B
 gks tkrk gSA ;g ns[kk x;k fd T
B 
> T
A
vr% rki esa ifjorZu ?T = T
B
–T
A
 A ekuk voLFkk B esa
vkarfjd mQtkZ U
B
 gS] rks vkarfjd mQtkZ esa ifjorZu]
?U= U
B
–U
A
f}rh; çdkjµvc ge ty esa ,d fueTtu NM+
(Immersion Rod) Mkydj mruk gh oS|qr dk;Z (1kJ)
djrs gSa ,oa fudk; esa rki&ifjorZu uksV djrs gSaA ge ns[krs
gSa fd rki&ifjroZu iwoZ osQ leku T
B
–T
A
 gh jgrk gSA
;FkkFkZ esa mijksDr ç;ksx ts-ih- twy }kjk lu~ 1845 osQ
vklikl fd;k x;k FkkA mUgksaus ik;k fd fudk; ij fd;k
x;k fuf'pr dk;Z fudk; dh voLFkk esa leku ifjorZu ykrk
ifjos'k
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Å"ekxfrdh
gS] pkgs dk;Z fdlh Hkh çdkj (çØe) }kjk fd;k tk,] tSlk
;gk¡ ij rki osQ ifjorZu }kjk ns[kk x;k gSA
vr% ;g mi;qDr fn[krk gS fd ,d ,slh jkf'k]
vkarfjd mQtkZ U, dks ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk,] ftldk eku
fudk; dh voLFkk dk vfHkyk{kf.kd gks] tgk¡ #¼ks"e çØe
esa fd;k x;k dk;Z w
ad
 nks voLFkkvksa esa U ifjorZu osQ rqY;]
vFkkZr~ ?U = U
2 
– U
1 
= w
ad 
gSA
vr% fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ ,d voLFkk&iQyu gSA
jklk;fud mQ"ekxfrdh esa IUPAC ijaijk osQ vuqlkj
èkukRed fpÉ* crkrk gS fd dk;Z w
ad
 fudk; ij fd;k x;k
gS rFkk fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ c<+ tkrh gSA blh çdkj  ls
;fn fudk; }kjk dk;Z fd;k tk,] rks w
ad
 Í.kkRed gksxk
D;ksafd fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ de gks tkrh gSA
D;k vki fdUgha vU; ifjfpr voLFkk&iQyuksa osQ uke
crk ldrs gSa\ V, p ,oa T oqQN vU; ifjfpr voLFkk&iQyu
gSaA mnkgj.k osQ fy,µ ;fn ge fdlh fudk; osQ rki esa
25°C ls 35°C rd ifjorZu djsa] rks rki&ifjorZu 35°C–
25°C = +10°C gksxkA pkgs ge lhèks gh 35°C rd tk,¡ ;k
fudk; dks igys oqQN va'kksa (Degree) rd BaMk djsa vkSj
fiQj fudk; dks vafre rki (35°C) rd ys tk,¡A bl çdkj
T ,d voLFkk&iQyu gSA rki esa ifjorZu iFk ij fuHkZj ugha
djrk gSA ,d rkykc esa ikuh dk vk;ru ,d voLFkk&iQyu
gS] D;ksafd blosQ ty osQ vk;ru esa ifjorZu bl ckr ij
fuHkZj ugha djrk gS fd rkykc oSQls Hkjk x;k gSµ ckfj'k }kjk]
uyowQi }kjk ;k nksuksa }kjkA
([k) mQ"ek
ge fcuk dk;Z fd, Hkh ifjos'k ls mQ"ek ysdj ;k ifjos'k dks
mQ"ek nsdj ,d fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ esa ifjorZu dj
ldrs gSaA ;g mQtkZ&fofue;] tks rkikarj dk ifj.kke gS] mQ"ek
q dgykrk gSA vc ge leku rkikarj ykus osQ fy, ¹iwoZ esa
[kaM 6-14 (d) esa crk, vuqlkj ogh çkjafHkd ,oa vafre
rkiº tks :¼ks"e nhokjksa dh vis{kk Å"eh; pkyd nhokjksa
(fp=k 6-4) }kjk Å"ek osQ pkyu ls gksrk gS] ij fopkj djsaxsA
ekuk fd rk¡cs dk ,d ik=k (ftldh nhokjsa mQ"eh;
pkyd gSa) esa T
A
 rki ij ty fy;k x;k gSA bls ,d
cM+s oaqQM] ftldk rki T
B
 gSA esa j[krs gSaA fudk; (ty)
}kjk vo'kksf"kr mQ"ek q dks rki&ifjorZu T
B
–T
A
 }kjk
ekik tk ldrk gSA ;gk¡ ij Hkh vkarfjd mQtkZ esa ifjorZu]
?U = q gS] tcfd fLFkj vk;ru ij dksbZ dk;Z ugha fd;k
x;k gSA
jklk;fud mQ"ekxfrdh esa IUPAC ijaijk osQ vuqlkj
ifjos'k ls mQ"ek dk LFkkukarj.k fudk; esa gksus ij q èkukRed
gksrk gS vkSj fudk; dh mQtkZ c<+rh gS ,oa mQ"ek osQ fudk;
ls ifjos'k dh vksj LFkkukafrfjr gksus ij q ½.kkRed gksrk gS
ifj.kker% fudk; dh mQtkZ de gks tkrh gSA
(x) lkekU; fLFkfr
ge ,d lkekU; fLFkfr ij fopkj djsa] tcfd vkarfjd mQtkZ
esa ifjorZu nksuksa gh çdkjksa (dk;Z djosQ ,oa mQ"ek&LFkkukarj.k)
}kjk gksA ml fLFkfr esa ge vkarfjd mQtkZ esa ifjorZu dks bl
çdkj fy[k ldrs gSaµ
?U = q
 
 + w (6.1)
,d fof'k"V voLFkk&ifjorZu esa ifjorZu osQ çdkj osQ
vuqlkj q ,oa w osQ eku fHk gks ldrs gSa] ijarq q + w
  
=
?U osQoy çkjafHkd ,oa vafre voLFkk ij fuHkZj djsxkA ;g
ifjorZu osQ çdkj ls Lora=k gSA ;fn mQ"ek ;k dk;Z osQ :i
esa mQtkZ&ifjorZu u gks (foyfxr fudk;) vFkkZr~ ;fn
w = 0 ,oa q = 0, rc ?U = 0 gSA
lehdj.k 6-1 vFkkZr~ ?U = q
 
 + w, mQ"ekxfrdh osQ
çFke fu;e dk xf.krh; dFku gSA çFke fu;e osQ vuqlkj]
¶,d foyfxr fudk; dh mQtkZ vifjorZuh; gksrh gSA¸
fp=k 6-4 % ,d fudk;] ftlesa ifjlhek osQ vkj&ikj mQ"ek dk çokg
laHko gSA
* igys fudk; ij fd, tkus okys dk;Z dks Í.kkRed fpUg vkSj fudk; }kjk fd, tkus okys dk;Z dks /ukRed fpUg fn;k x;k FkkA HkkSfrdh
 dh iqLrdksa esa vc Hkh blh ijaEijk dk vuqlj.k gks jgk gS ;|fi IUPAP us Hkh u;h fpUg ijaEijk dh flI
+
kQkfj'k dh gSA
2020-21
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jlk;u foKku
cãkaM Hkh ,d foyfxr fudk; gS vr% fu;e dks fuEu
izdkj ls Hkh dgk tk ldrk gSµ^cãkaM dh ÅtkZ vifjorZuh;
gSA* lkekU;r;k bls ^mQtkZ osQ laj{k.k dk fl¼kar* dgrs gSa]
vFkkZr~ mQtkZ u rks u"V dh tk ldrh gS vkSj u gh bldk
l`tu fd;k tk ldrk gSA
uksV % ,d mQ"ekxfrdh; xq.k (tSlsµmQtkZ) ,oa ,d ;kaf=kd
xq.k (tSlsµvk;ru) esa varj gksrk gSA ge fdlh fo'ks"k
voLFkk esa vk;ru dk rks fujis{k (Absolute) eku fu£n"V
dj ldrs gSa] ijarq vkarfjd mQtkZ dk fujis{k eku fu£n"V ugha
dj ldrs gSa] ;|fi vkarfjd mQtkZ esa ifjorZu ?U Kkr
fd;k tk ldrk gSA
mnkgj.k 6-1
,d fudk; dh vkarfjd mQtkZ esa ifjorZu crkb,] ;fnµ
(i) fudk; }kjk ifjos'k ls mQ"ek vo'kksf"kr ugha gks]
ijarq fudk; ij (w) dk;Z fd;k tk,A fudk; dh
nhokjsa fdl çdkj dh gksaxh\
(ii) fudk; ij dksbZ dk;Z ugha fd;k tk,] ijarq mQ"ek
dh ek=kk q fudk; ls ifjos'k dks ns nh tk,A
fudk; dh nhokjsa fdl çdkj dh gksaxh\
(iii) fudk; }kjk w ek=kk dk dk;Z fd;k tk, ,oa q
ek=kk dh mQ"ek fudk; dks nh tk,A ;g fdl
çdkj dk fudk; gksxk\
gy
(i) ?U = w
ad'
 nhokjsa #¼ks"e gksaxhA
(ii) ?U = - q, nhokjsa mQ"eh; lqpkyd gksaxhA
(iii) ?U = q - w ;g can fudk; gSA
nkc&vk;ru dk;Z dks le>us osQ fy, ge ?k"kZ.kjfgr
fiLVu;qDr fl¯yMj ij fopkj djrs gSa] ftlesa ,d eksy
vkn'kZ xSl Hkjh gqbZ gSA xSl dk oqQy vk;ru V
i
 ,oa fl¯yMj
esa xSl dk nkc p gSA ;fn cká nkc p
ex
 gS] tks p ls vfèkd
gks] rks fiLVu vanj dh vksj rc rd xfr djsxk] tc rd
vkarfjd nkc p
ex
 osQ cjkcj gks tk,A ekuk fd ;g ifjorZu
,d in esa gksrk gS rFkk vafre vk;ru V
f 
gSA ekuk fd bl
laoqQpu esa fiLVu l nwjh r; djrk gS ,oa fiLVu dk vuqçLFk
{ks=kiQy A gS (fp=k 6-5 d)A
rc vk;ru esa ifjorZu = l × A = ?V = (V
f 
 – V
i 
)
ge ;g Hkh tkurs gSa fd nkc 
cy
{ks=kiQy
=
vr% fiLVu ij cy = p
ex 
. A
;fn fiLVu pykus ls fudk; ij fd;k x;k dk;Z w
gks] rks
w = cy x foLFkkiu = p
ex.
A.l
   = p
ex
 . (–?V ) = – p
ex
 ?V = – p
ex 
(V
f
 – V
i 
)       (6.2)
;gk¡ Í.kkRed fpÉ nsuk blfy, vko';d gS fd
ifjikVh (Convention) osQ vuqlkj laihMu esa fudk; ij
6-2 vuqç;ksx
dbZ jklk;fud vfHkfØ;kvksa esa xSlsa mRi gksrh gSa] tks
;kaf=kd dk;Z djus ;k mQ"ek mRi djus esa l{ke gksrh gSaA
bu ifjorZuksa osQ ifjek.k dh x.kuk ,oa bUgsa vkarfjd
mQtkZ&ifjorZuksa ls lac¼ djuk egÙoiw.kZ gSA ns[ksa fd ;g
oSQls gksrk gSA
6-2-1 dk;Z
loZçFke ,d fudk; }kjk fd, x, dk;Z dh ço`Qfr ij ge
çdk'k Mkyrs gSaA ge osQoy ;kaf=kd dk;Z] vFkkZr~ nkc&vk;ru
dk;Z ij fopkj djsaxsA
fp=k 6-5 (d) fl¯yMj esa fLFkr vkn'kZ xSl ij ,d in esa fLFkj
cká nkc P
ex
 }kjk fd;k x;k laoqQpu dk;Z
Nk;knkj {ks=k }kjk n'kkZ;k x;k gSA
2020-21
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