NCERT Textbook - किसान, ज़मींदार और राज्य Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - किसान, ज़मींदार और राज्य Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


196
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
lksygoha&l=kgoha lnh osQ nkSjku ¯gnqLrku esa djhc&djhc 85
I
+
kQhlnh yksx xk¡oksa esa jgrs FksA NksVs [ksfrgj vkSj Hkwfegj laHkzkar nksuksa
gh o`Qf"k mRiknu ls tqMs+ Fks vkSj nksuksa gh i
+
Qly osQ fgLlksa osQ nkosnkj
FksA blls muosQ chp lg;ksx] izfr;ksfxrk vkSj la?k"kZ osQ fj'rs cusA [ksrh
ls tqMs+ bu reke fj'rksa osQ rkus&ckus ls xk¡o dk lekt curk FkkA
blh le; dbZ ckgjh rkdrsa Hkh xzkeh.k nqfu;k esa nkf[ky gqb±A
buesa lcls egÙoiw.kZ eqX
+
ky jkT; Fkk tks viuh vkenuh dk cgqr
cM+k fgLlk o`Qf"k mRiknu ls mxkgrk FkkA jkT; osQ uqekbans & jktLo
fuèkkZfjr djus okys] jktLo olwyh djus okys] fglkc j[kus okys &
xzkeh.k lekt ij dkcw j[kus dh dksf'k'k djrs FksA os rlYyh djuk
pkgrs Fks fd [ksrksa dh tqrkbZ gks vkSj jkT; dks mit ls vius fgLls
dk dj le; ij fey tk,A pw¡fd dbZ I
+
kQlysa fcØh osQ fy, mxkbZ
tkrh Fkha] blfy, O;kikj] eqnzk vkSj ck”kkj Hkh xk¡oksa esa ?kql vk, vkSj
blls [ksrh okys bykosQ 'kgj ls tqM+ x,A
1- fdlku vkSj o`Qf"k mRiknu
[ksfrgj lekt dh cqfu;knh bdkbZ xk¡o Fkh ftlesa fdlku jgrs FksA
fdlku lky Hkj vyx&vyx ekSle esa oks reke dke djrs Fks ftlls
i
+
Qly dh iSnkokj gksrh Fkh & tSls fd ”kehu dh tqrkbZ] cht cksuk
vkSj i
+
Qly idus ij mldh dVkbZA blosQ vykok os mu oLrqvksa osQ
mRiknu esa Hkh 'kjhO+kQ gksrs Fks tks o`Qf"k&vkèkkfjr Fkha tSls fd 'kDdj]
rsy bR;kfnA
ysfdu flI
+
kZQ eSnkuh bykdksa esa cls fdlkuksa dh [ksrh gh xzkeh.k
Hkkjr dh [+kkfl;r ugha FkhA dbZ ,sls {ks=k Hkh Fks & tSls fd lw[kh
”kehu osQ fo'kky fgLlksa ls igkfM+;ksa okys bykosQ & tgk¡ ml rjg dh
[ksrh ugha gks ldrh Fkh tSlh fd ”;knk mitkmQ ”kehuksa ijA blosQ
vykok] Hkw[kaM dk ,d cgqr cM+k fgLlk taxyksa ls f?kjk FkkA tc ge
fp=k 8-1
,d xzkeh.k n`';
l=kgoha 'krkCnh osQ ,d eqX
+
ky fp=k dk
C;ksjk
fdlku] ”kehankj vkSj jkT;
Ñf"k lekt vkSj eqX
+
ky lkezkT;
(yxHkx lksygoha vkSj l=kgoha lnh)
fo"k;
vkB
Page 2


196
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
lksygoha&l=kgoha lnh osQ nkSjku ¯gnqLrku esa djhc&djhc 85
I
+
kQhlnh yksx xk¡oksa esa jgrs FksA NksVs [ksfrgj vkSj Hkwfegj laHkzkar nksuksa
gh o`Qf"k mRiknu ls tqMs+ Fks vkSj nksuksa gh i
+
Qly osQ fgLlksa osQ nkosnkj
FksA blls muosQ chp lg;ksx] izfr;ksfxrk vkSj la?k"kZ osQ fj'rs cusA [ksrh
ls tqMs+ bu reke fj'rksa osQ rkus&ckus ls xk¡o dk lekt curk FkkA
blh le; dbZ ckgjh rkdrsa Hkh xzkeh.k nqfu;k esa nkf[ky gqb±A
buesa lcls egÙoiw.kZ eqX
+
ky jkT; Fkk tks viuh vkenuh dk cgqr
cM+k fgLlk o`Qf"k mRiknu ls mxkgrk FkkA jkT; osQ uqekbans & jktLo
fuèkkZfjr djus okys] jktLo olwyh djus okys] fglkc j[kus okys &
xzkeh.k lekt ij dkcw j[kus dh dksf'k'k djrs FksA os rlYyh djuk
pkgrs Fks fd [ksrksa dh tqrkbZ gks vkSj jkT; dks mit ls vius fgLls
dk dj le; ij fey tk,A pw¡fd dbZ I
+
kQlysa fcØh osQ fy, mxkbZ
tkrh Fkha] blfy, O;kikj] eqnzk vkSj ck”kkj Hkh xk¡oksa esa ?kql vk, vkSj
blls [ksrh okys bykosQ 'kgj ls tqM+ x,A
1- fdlku vkSj o`Qf"k mRiknu
[ksfrgj lekt dh cqfu;knh bdkbZ xk¡o Fkh ftlesa fdlku jgrs FksA
fdlku lky Hkj vyx&vyx ekSle esa oks reke dke djrs Fks ftlls
i
+
Qly dh iSnkokj gksrh Fkh & tSls fd ”kehu dh tqrkbZ] cht cksuk
vkSj i
+
Qly idus ij mldh dVkbZA blosQ vykok os mu oLrqvksa osQ
mRiknu esa Hkh 'kjhO+kQ gksrs Fks tks o`Qf"k&vkèkkfjr Fkha tSls fd 'kDdj]
rsy bR;kfnA
ysfdu flI
+
kZQ eSnkuh bykdksa esa cls fdlkuksa dh [ksrh gh xzkeh.k
Hkkjr dh [+kkfl;r ugha FkhA dbZ ,sls {ks=k Hkh Fks & tSls fd lw[kh
”kehu osQ fo'kky fgLlksa ls igkfM+;ksa okys bykosQ & tgk¡ ml rjg dh
[ksrh ugha gks ldrh Fkh tSlh fd ”;knk mitkmQ ”kehuksa ijA blosQ
vykok] Hkw[kaM dk ,d cgqr cM+k fgLlk taxyksa ls f?kjk FkkA tc ge
fp=k 8-1
,d xzkeh.k n`';
l=kgoha 'krkCnh osQ ,d eqX
+
ky fp=k dk
C;ksjk
fdlku] ”kehankj vkSj jkT;
Ñf"k lekt vkSj eqX
+
ky lkezkT;
(yxHkx lksygoha vkSj l=kgoha lnh)
fo"k;
vkB
197
fdlku] ”kehankj vkSj jkT;
o`Qf"k lekt dh ckr djrs gSa rc gesa bu HkkSxksfyd fofoèkrkvksa dk
[+;ky j[kuk pkfg,A
1-1 Ïksrksa dh ryk'k
pw¡fd fdlku vius ckjs eas [kqn ugha fy[kk djrs Fks blfy, xzkeh.k
lekt osQ fØ;kdykiksa dh tkudkjh gesa mu yksxksa ls ugha feyrh tks
[ksrksa esa dke djrs FksA urhtru] lksygoha vkSj l=kgoha lfn;ksa osQ
o`Qf"k bfrgkl dks le>us osQ fy, gekjs eq[; Ïksr os ,sfrgkfld xzaFk
o nLrkos”k gSa tks eqX+ky njckj dh fuxjkuh esa fy[ks x, Fks (nsf[k,
vè;k; 9)A
lcls egÙoiw.kZ ,sfrgkfld xzaFkksa esa ,d Fkk vkbu&,&vdcjh (la{ksi
esa vkbu] nsf[k, vuqHkkx 8) ftls vdcj osQ njckjh bfrgkldkj
vcqy i
+
Q”y us fy[kk FkkA [ksrksa oQh fu;fer tqrkbZ dh rlYyh djus
osQ fy,] jkT; osQ uqekbanksa }kjk djksa dh mxkghs osQ fy, vkSj jkT; o
xzkeh.k lÙkkiks'kkas ;kuh fd ”kehankjksa osQ chp osQ fj'rksa osQ fu;eu osQ
fy,  tks bar”kke jkT; us fd, Fks] mldk ys[kk&tks[kk bl xazFk esa cM+h
lkoèkkuh ls is'k fd;k x;k gSA
vkbu dk eq[; mís'; vdcj osQ lezkT; dk ,d ,slk [kkdk is'k
djuk Fkk tgk¡ ,d e”kcwr lÙkkèkkjh oxZ lkekftd esy&tksy cuk dj
j[krk FkkA vkbu osQ ys[kd osQ eqrkfcd] eqX+ky jkT; osQ f[kykI+kQ dksbZ
cxkor ;k fdlh Hkh fdLe dh Lok;Ùk lÙkk dh nkosnkjh dk vliQy
gksuk igys gh r; FkkA nwljs 'kCnksa esa] fdlkuksa osQ ckjs esa tks oqQN gesa
vkbu ls irk pyrk gS og lÙkk osQ mQ¡ps xfy;kjksa dk u”kfj;k gSA
[kq'kfdLerh ls vkbu dh tkudkjh osQ lkFk&lkFk ge mu Ïksrksa dk
Hkh bLrseky dj ldrs gSa tks eqX+kyksa dh jktèkkuh ls nwj osQ bykdksa esa
fy[ks x, FksA buesa l=kgoha o vBkjgoha lfn;ksa osQ xqtjkr] egkjk"Vª
vkSj jktLFkku ls feyus okys os nLrkos”k 'kkfey gSa tks ljdkj dh
vkenuh dh foLr`r tkudkjh nsrs gSaA blosQ vykok] bZLV bafM;k daiuh
osQ cgqr lkjs nLrkos”k Hkh gSa tks iwohZ Hkkjr esa o`Qf"k&lacaèkksa dk mi;ksxh
[kkdk is'k djrs gSaA ;s lHkh Ïksr fdlkuksa] ”kehankjksa vkSj jkT; osQ chp
rus >xM+kssa dks ntZ djrs gSaA yxs gkFk] ;s Ïksr ;g le>us esa gekjh
enn djrs gSa fd fdlku jkT; dks fdl u”kfj;s ls ns[krs Fks vkSj jkT;
ls mUgsaa oSQls U;k; dh mEehn FkhA
1-2 fdlku vkSj mudh ”kehu
eqX+ky dky osQ Hkkjrh;&i
+
Qkjlh Ïksr fdlku osQ fy, vkerkSj ij jS;r
(cgqopu] fjvk;k) ;k eq”kfj;ku 'kCn dk bLrseky djrs FksA lkFk gh]
gesa fdlku ;k vklkeh tSls 'kCn Hkh feyrs gSaA l=kgoha lnh osQ Ïksr
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Exam

,

Objective type Questions

,

Semester Notes

,

study material

,

NCERT Textbook - किसान

,

ज़मींदार और राज्य Notes | EduRev

,

ppt

,

Extra Questions

,

Free

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Summary

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Sample Paper

,

Viva Questions

,

video lectures

,

practice quizzes

,

past year papers

,

ज़मींदार और राज्य Notes | EduRev

,

mock tests for examination

,

ज़मींदार और राज्य Notes | EduRev

,

NCERT Textbook - किसान

,

Important questions

,

MCQs

,

NCERT Textbook - किसान

,

pdf

;