NCERT Textbook - नगर, व्यापारी और शिल्पीजन Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - नगर, व्यापारी और शिल्पीजन Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


75 uxj] O;kikjh vkSj f'kYihtu
,d eè;;qxhu uxj dh ;k=kk ij vk;k dksbZ ;k=kh] ml uxj osQ ckjs esa
oSQlh vkdka{kk,¡ j[krk gksxk\ ;g bl ckr ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd og uxj
fdl izdkj dk Fkk&D;k og ,d eafnj uxj Fkk ;k ,d iz'kklfud osaQnz]
,d okf.kfT;d 'kgj] ,d iÙku uxj vFkok fdlh vU; izdkj dk 'kgj
FkkA oLrqr% dbZ uxj rks ,d lkFk vusd izdkj osQ Fksµos iz'kklfud uxj
rFkk eafnj uxj gksus osQ lkFk&lkFk okf.kfT;d dk;Zdykiksa vkSj f'kYi
mRiknu osQ osaQnz Hkh FksA
uxj] O;kikjh vkSj
f'kYihtu 6
ekufp=k&1
eè; vkSj nf{k.k Hkkjr
esa O;kikj vkSj f'kYidkjh
mRiknu osQ oqQN izeq[k
osaQnz
Page 2


75 uxj] O;kikjh vkSj f'kYihtu
,d eè;;qxhu uxj dh ;k=kk ij vk;k dksbZ ;k=kh] ml uxj osQ ckjs esa
oSQlh vkdka{kk,¡ j[krk gksxk\ ;g bl ckr ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd og uxj
fdl izdkj dk Fkk&D;k og ,d eafnj uxj Fkk ;k ,d iz'kklfud osaQnz]
,d okf.kfT;d 'kgj] ,d iÙku uxj vFkok fdlh vU; izdkj dk 'kgj
FkkA oLrqr% dbZ uxj rks ,d lkFk vusd izdkj osQ Fksµos iz'kklfud uxj
rFkk eafnj uxj gksus osQ lkFk&lkFk okf.kfT;d dk;Zdykiksa vkSj f'kYi
mRiknu osQ osaQnz Hkh FksA
uxj] O;kikjh vkSj
f'kYihtu 6
ekufp=k&1
eè; vkSj nf{k.k Hkkjr
esa O;kikj vkSj f'kYidkjh
mRiknu osQ oqQN izeq[k
osaQnz
76 gekjs vrhr – II
?
iz'kklfud osaQnz
vè;k; 2 esa vkius pksy oa'k osQ ckjs esa i<+kA vkb,] ge viuh dYiuk
osQ ?kksM+s ij lokj gksdj pksy jktkvksa dh jktèkkuh ratkowj] tSlkfd og
,d g”kkj o"kZ igys Fkk] dh ;k=kk ij pysaA
o"kZ esa ckjgksa eghus cgus okyh dkosjh unh bl lqanj uxj osQ ikl cgrh
gSA jktk jktjkt pksy }kjk fufeZr jktjkts'oj eafnj dh ?kafV;k¡ ctrh gqbZ
lqukbZ nsrh gSaA yksx uxj osQ okLrqdkj oqaQtjeYyu jktjkt is:FkPpu dh
okLrqdyk dh iz'kalk djrs gq, ugha FkdrsA gesa okLrqdkj dk uke blfy,
irk gS D;ksafd mlus xoZ ls vius uke dks eafnj dh nhokj ij mRdh.kZ
fd;kA eafnj osQ Hkhrj ,d fo'kky f'ko¯yx LFkkfir gSA
bl eafnj osQ vykok uxj esa vusd jktegy gSa] ftuesa dbZ eaMi cus
gq, gSaA jktk yksx bu eaMiksa esa viuk njckj yxkrs gSaA ;gha ls os vius
vèkhuLFkksa osQ fy, vkns'k tkjh djrs gSaA uxj esa lSU; f'kfoj Hkh cus gSaA
uxj mu ck”kkjksa dh gypy ls Hkjk gqvk gS_ tgk¡ vukt] elkyksa]
diM+ksa vkSj vkHkw"k.kksa dh fcØh gks jgh gSA uxj osQ fy, ty dh vkiwfrZ
o¡qQvksa vkSj rkykcksa ls gksrh gSA ratkowj vkSj mlosQ fudVorhZ uxj mjS;wj osQ
lkyh; cqudj eafnj osQ mRlo osQ fy, >aMs&>afM;k¡ cukus dk diM+k] jktk
vkSj vfHktkr oxZ osQ fy, cf<+;k lwrh oL=k vkSj tulkèkkj.k osQ fy,
eksVk lwrh oL=k rS;kj dj jgs gSaA ;gk¡ ls oqQN nwjh ij LokeheykbZ esa LFkifr
vFkok ewfrZdkj mÙke dkaL; ewfrZ;k¡ rFkk yacs] lqanj ?kaVk&èkkrq osQ nhi cuk
jgs gSaA
eafnj uxj vkSj rhFkZ osaQnz
ratkowj ,d eafnj uxj dk Hkh mnkgj.k gSA eafnj uxj uxjhdj.k dk ,d
vR;ar egÙoiw.kZ izfr:i izLrqr djrs gSaA uxjhdj.k uxjksa osQ fodkl dh
izfØ;k gSA eafnj vdlj lekt vkSj vFkZO;oLFkk nksuksa osQ fy, gh vR;ar
egÙoiw.kZ gksrs FksA 'kkld] fofHkUu nsoh&nsorkvksa osQ izfr viuk HkfDr Hkko
n'kkZus osQ fy, eafnj cukrs FksA os eafnjksa dks Hkwfe ,oa èku vuqnku esa nsrs
Fks_ ftudh vk; ls èkkfeZd vuq"Bku] fofèk&foèkku ls laiUu fd, tkrs Fks]
rhFkZ;kf=k;ksa rFkk iqjksfgr&iafMrksa dks Hkkstu djk;k tkrk Fkk vkSj ioksZRlo
euk, tkrs FksA eafnj osQ n'kZukFkhZ Hkh nku&nf{k.kk fn;k djrs FksA
vkiosQ er esa yksx
ratkowj dks ,d egku
uxj D;ksa ekurs Fks\
Page 3


75 uxj] O;kikjh vkSj f'kYihtu
,d eè;;qxhu uxj dh ;k=kk ij vk;k dksbZ ;k=kh] ml uxj osQ ckjs esa
oSQlh vkdka{kk,¡ j[krk gksxk\ ;g bl ckr ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd og uxj
fdl izdkj dk Fkk&D;k og ,d eafnj uxj Fkk ;k ,d iz'kklfud osaQnz]
,d okf.kfT;d 'kgj] ,d iÙku uxj vFkok fdlh vU; izdkj dk 'kgj
FkkA oLrqr% dbZ uxj rks ,d lkFk vusd izdkj osQ Fksµos iz'kklfud uxj
rFkk eafnj uxj gksus osQ lkFk&lkFk okf.kfT;d dk;Zdykiksa vkSj f'kYi
mRiknu osQ osaQnz Hkh FksA
uxj] O;kikjh vkSj
f'kYihtu 6
ekufp=k&1
eè; vkSj nf{k.k Hkkjr
esa O;kikj vkSj f'kYidkjh
mRiknu osQ oqQN izeq[k
osaQnz
76 gekjs vrhr – II
?
iz'kklfud osaQnz
vè;k; 2 esa vkius pksy oa'k osQ ckjs esa i<+kA vkb,] ge viuh dYiuk
osQ ?kksM+s ij lokj gksdj pksy jktkvksa dh jktèkkuh ratkowj] tSlkfd og
,d g”kkj o"kZ igys Fkk] dh ;k=kk ij pysaA
o"kZ esa ckjgksa eghus cgus okyh dkosjh unh bl lqanj uxj osQ ikl cgrh
gSA jktk jktjkt pksy }kjk fufeZr jktjkts'oj eafnj dh ?kafV;k¡ ctrh gqbZ
lqukbZ nsrh gSaA yksx uxj osQ okLrqdkj oqaQtjeYyu jktjkt is:FkPpu dh
okLrqdyk dh iz'kalk djrs gq, ugha FkdrsA gesa okLrqdkj dk uke blfy,
irk gS D;ksafd mlus xoZ ls vius uke dks eafnj dh nhokj ij mRdh.kZ
fd;kA eafnj osQ Hkhrj ,d fo'kky f'ko¯yx LFkkfir gSA
bl eafnj osQ vykok uxj esa vusd jktegy gSa] ftuesa dbZ eaMi cus
gq, gSaA jktk yksx bu eaMiksa esa viuk njckj yxkrs gSaA ;gha ls os vius
vèkhuLFkksa osQ fy, vkns'k tkjh djrs gSaA uxj esa lSU; f'kfoj Hkh cus gSaA
uxj mu ck”kkjksa dh gypy ls Hkjk gqvk gS_ tgk¡ vukt] elkyksa]
diM+ksa vkSj vkHkw"k.kksa dh fcØh gks jgh gSA uxj osQ fy, ty dh vkiwfrZ
o¡qQvksa vkSj rkykcksa ls gksrh gSA ratkowj vkSj mlosQ fudVorhZ uxj mjS;wj osQ
lkyh; cqudj eafnj osQ mRlo osQ fy, >aMs&>afM;k¡ cukus dk diM+k] jktk
vkSj vfHktkr oxZ osQ fy, cf<+;k lwrh oL=k vkSj tulkèkkj.k osQ fy,
eksVk lwrh oL=k rS;kj dj jgs gSaA ;gk¡ ls oqQN nwjh ij LokeheykbZ esa LFkifr
vFkok ewfrZdkj mÙke dkaL; ewfrZ;k¡ rFkk yacs] lqanj ?kaVk&èkkrq osQ nhi cuk
jgs gSaA
eafnj uxj vkSj rhFkZ osaQnz
ratkowj ,d eafnj uxj dk Hkh mnkgj.k gSA eafnj uxj uxjhdj.k dk ,d
vR;ar egÙoiw.kZ izfr:i izLrqr djrs gSaA uxjhdj.k uxjksa osQ fodkl dh
izfØ;k gSA eafnj vdlj lekt vkSj vFkZO;oLFkk nksuksa osQ fy, gh vR;ar
egÙoiw.kZ gksrs FksA 'kkld] fofHkUu nsoh&nsorkvksa osQ izfr viuk HkfDr Hkko
n'kkZus osQ fy, eafnj cukrs FksA os eafnjksa dks Hkwfe ,oa èku vuqnku esa nsrs
Fks_ ftudh vk; ls èkkfeZd vuq"Bku] fofèk&foèkku ls laiUu fd, tkrs Fks]
rhFkZ;kf=k;ksa rFkk iqjksfgr&iafMrksa dks Hkkstu djk;k tkrk Fkk vkSj ioksZRlo
euk, tkrs FksA eafnj osQ n'kZukFkhZ Hkh nku&nf{k.kk fn;k djrs FksA
vkiosQ er esa yksx
ratkowj dks ,d egku
uxj D;ksa ekurs Fks\
77 uxj] O;kikjh vkSj f'kYihtu
dk¡lk] ?kaVk&èkkrq vkSj ^yqIrekse* rduhd
dk¡lk ,d feJèkkrq gksrh gS] tks rk¡cs vkSj jk¡xs (fVu) osQ esy
ls curh gSA ?kaVk&èkkrq esa jk¡xs dk vuqikr fdlh Hkh vU;
fdLe osQ dk¡ls ls vfèkd gksrk gSA ;g ?kaVs tSlh èofu
mRiUu djrh gSA
pksydkyhu dkaL; ewfrZ;k¡ (vè;k;&2 ns[ksa) ^yqIrekse*
rduhd ls cukbZ tkrh FkhaA bl izfofèk osQ varxZr loZizFke
ekse dh ,d izfrek cukbZ tkrh FkhA bls fpduh fe^h ls iwjh
rjg yhi dj lw[kus osQ fy, NksM+ fn;k tkrk FkkA tc og
iwjh rjg lw[k tkrh Fkh rks mls xeZ fd;k tkrk Fkk vkSj
mlosQ fe^h osQ vkoj.k esa ,d NksVk&lk Nsn cuk dj ml
Nsn osQ jkLrs lkjk fi?kyk gqvk ekse ckgj fudky fy;k tkrk
FkkA fiQj fpduh fe^h osQ [kkyh lk¡ps esa mlh Nsn osQ jkLrs
fi?kyh gqbZ èkkrq Hkj nh tkrh FkhA tc og èkkrq BaMh gksdj
Bksl gks tkrh Fkh] rks fpduh fe^h osQ vkoj.k dks lkoèkkuhiwoZd
gVk fn;k tkrk Fkk vkSj mlesa ls fudyh izfrek dks lkI
+
kQ
djosQ pedk fn;k tkrk FkkA
vkiosQ fopkj ls bl izfofèk osQ iz;ksx osQ D;k&D;k
YkkHk Fks\
eafnj osQ drkZ&èkrkZZ eafnj osQ èku dks O;kikj ,oa lkgwdkjh esa yxkrs
FksA 'kuS% 'kuS%] le; osQ lkFk] cM+h la[;k esa iqjksfgr&iqtkjh] dkexkj]
f'kYih] O;kikjh vkfn eafnj rFkk mlosQ n'kZukfFkZ;ksa ,oa rhFkZ;kf=k;ksa dh
vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus osQ fy, eafnj osQ vkl&ikl clrs x,A bl
izdkj eafnj uxjksa dk fodkl gqvkA blh jhfr ls eafnjksa ds pkjksa vksj
vusd uxjksa dk vkfoZHkko gqvk] tSlsµeè; izns'k esa fHkYyLokfeu
(Hkhylk ;k fofn'kk) vkSj xqtjkr esa lkseukFkA oqQN vU; egÙoiw.kZ
eafnj uxjµrfeyukMq esa dkaphiqje rFkk enqjS vkSj vkaèkz izns'k esa
fr#ifr gSaA
rhFkZLFky Hkh èkhjs&èkhjs uxjksa osQ :i esa fodflr gks x,A o`ankou
(mÙkj izns'k) vkSj fr#oUueykbZ (rfeyukMq) ,sls uxjksa osQ nks mnkgj.k
gSaA vtesj (jktLFkku)] ckjgoha 'krkCnh esa pkSgku jktkvksa dh jktèkkuh
Fkk vkSj vkxs pydj eqxyksa osQ 'kklu esa og ^lwck* eq[;ky; cu x;kA
;g uxj èkkfeZd lg&vfLrRo dk ,d mRÑ"V mnkgj.k izLrqr djrk gSA
lqizfl¼ lwiQh lar [ok”kk eqbuqíhu fp'rh (vè;k; 8 Hkh ns[ksa) ;gk¡
ckjgoha 'krkCnh esa cl x, Fks vkSj muosQ n'kZukFkhZ ,oa J¼kyq lHkh
?
fp=k 1
dkaL; ew£r] ftlesa o`Q".k
dks ukx&jk{kl dkfy;k
dks dkcw djrs fn[kk;k
x;k gSA
Page 4


75 uxj] O;kikjh vkSj f'kYihtu
,d eè;;qxhu uxj dh ;k=kk ij vk;k dksbZ ;k=kh] ml uxj osQ ckjs esa
oSQlh vkdka{kk,¡ j[krk gksxk\ ;g bl ckr ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd og uxj
fdl izdkj dk Fkk&D;k og ,d eafnj uxj Fkk ;k ,d iz'kklfud osaQnz]
,d okf.kfT;d 'kgj] ,d iÙku uxj vFkok fdlh vU; izdkj dk 'kgj
FkkA oLrqr% dbZ uxj rks ,d lkFk vusd izdkj osQ Fksµos iz'kklfud uxj
rFkk eafnj uxj gksus osQ lkFk&lkFk okf.kfT;d dk;Zdykiksa vkSj f'kYi
mRiknu osQ osaQnz Hkh FksA
uxj] O;kikjh vkSj
f'kYihtu 6
ekufp=k&1
eè; vkSj nf{k.k Hkkjr
esa O;kikj vkSj f'kYidkjh
mRiknu osQ oqQN izeq[k
osaQnz
76 gekjs vrhr – II
?
iz'kklfud osaQnz
vè;k; 2 esa vkius pksy oa'k osQ ckjs esa i<+kA vkb,] ge viuh dYiuk
osQ ?kksM+s ij lokj gksdj pksy jktkvksa dh jktèkkuh ratkowj] tSlkfd og
,d g”kkj o"kZ igys Fkk] dh ;k=kk ij pysaA
o"kZ esa ckjgksa eghus cgus okyh dkosjh unh bl lqanj uxj osQ ikl cgrh
gSA jktk jktjkt pksy }kjk fufeZr jktjkts'oj eafnj dh ?kafV;k¡ ctrh gqbZ
lqukbZ nsrh gSaA yksx uxj osQ okLrqdkj oqaQtjeYyu jktjkt is:FkPpu dh
okLrqdyk dh iz'kalk djrs gq, ugha FkdrsA gesa okLrqdkj dk uke blfy,
irk gS D;ksafd mlus xoZ ls vius uke dks eafnj dh nhokj ij mRdh.kZ
fd;kA eafnj osQ Hkhrj ,d fo'kky f'ko¯yx LFkkfir gSA
bl eafnj osQ vykok uxj esa vusd jktegy gSa] ftuesa dbZ eaMi cus
gq, gSaA jktk yksx bu eaMiksa esa viuk njckj yxkrs gSaA ;gha ls os vius
vèkhuLFkksa osQ fy, vkns'k tkjh djrs gSaA uxj esa lSU; f'kfoj Hkh cus gSaA
uxj mu ck”kkjksa dh gypy ls Hkjk gqvk gS_ tgk¡ vukt] elkyksa]
diM+ksa vkSj vkHkw"k.kksa dh fcØh gks jgh gSA uxj osQ fy, ty dh vkiwfrZ
o¡qQvksa vkSj rkykcksa ls gksrh gSA ratkowj vkSj mlosQ fudVorhZ uxj mjS;wj osQ
lkyh; cqudj eafnj osQ mRlo osQ fy, >aMs&>afM;k¡ cukus dk diM+k] jktk
vkSj vfHktkr oxZ osQ fy, cf<+;k lwrh oL=k vkSj tulkèkkj.k osQ fy,
eksVk lwrh oL=k rS;kj dj jgs gSaA ;gk¡ ls oqQN nwjh ij LokeheykbZ esa LFkifr
vFkok ewfrZdkj mÙke dkaL; ewfrZ;k¡ rFkk yacs] lqanj ?kaVk&èkkrq osQ nhi cuk
jgs gSaA
eafnj uxj vkSj rhFkZ osaQnz
ratkowj ,d eafnj uxj dk Hkh mnkgj.k gSA eafnj uxj uxjhdj.k dk ,d
vR;ar egÙoiw.kZ izfr:i izLrqr djrs gSaA uxjhdj.k uxjksa osQ fodkl dh
izfØ;k gSA eafnj vdlj lekt vkSj vFkZO;oLFkk nksuksa osQ fy, gh vR;ar
egÙoiw.kZ gksrs FksA 'kkld] fofHkUu nsoh&nsorkvksa osQ izfr viuk HkfDr Hkko
n'kkZus osQ fy, eafnj cukrs FksA os eafnjksa dks Hkwfe ,oa èku vuqnku esa nsrs
Fks_ ftudh vk; ls èkkfeZd vuq"Bku] fofèk&foèkku ls laiUu fd, tkrs Fks]
rhFkZ;kf=k;ksa rFkk iqjksfgr&iafMrksa dks Hkkstu djk;k tkrk Fkk vkSj ioksZRlo
euk, tkrs FksA eafnj osQ n'kZukFkhZ Hkh nku&nf{k.kk fn;k djrs FksA
vkiosQ er esa yksx
ratkowj dks ,d egku
uxj D;ksa ekurs Fks\
77 uxj] O;kikjh vkSj f'kYihtu
dk¡lk] ?kaVk&èkkrq vkSj ^yqIrekse* rduhd
dk¡lk ,d feJèkkrq gksrh gS] tks rk¡cs vkSj jk¡xs (fVu) osQ esy
ls curh gSA ?kaVk&èkkrq esa jk¡xs dk vuqikr fdlh Hkh vU;
fdLe osQ dk¡ls ls vfèkd gksrk gSA ;g ?kaVs tSlh èofu
mRiUu djrh gSA
pksydkyhu dkaL; ewfrZ;k¡ (vè;k;&2 ns[ksa) ^yqIrekse*
rduhd ls cukbZ tkrh FkhaA bl izfofèk osQ varxZr loZizFke
ekse dh ,d izfrek cukbZ tkrh FkhA bls fpduh fe^h ls iwjh
rjg yhi dj lw[kus osQ fy, NksM+ fn;k tkrk FkkA tc og
iwjh rjg lw[k tkrh Fkh rks mls xeZ fd;k tkrk Fkk vkSj
mlosQ fe^h osQ vkoj.k esa ,d NksVk&lk Nsn cuk dj ml
Nsn osQ jkLrs lkjk fi?kyk gqvk ekse ckgj fudky fy;k tkrk
FkkA fiQj fpduh fe^h osQ [kkyh lk¡ps esa mlh Nsn osQ jkLrs
fi?kyh gqbZ èkkrq Hkj nh tkrh FkhA tc og èkkrq BaMh gksdj
Bksl gks tkrh Fkh] rks fpduh fe^h osQ vkoj.k dks lkoèkkuhiwoZd
gVk fn;k tkrk Fkk vkSj mlesa ls fudyh izfrek dks lkI
+
kQ
djosQ pedk fn;k tkrk FkkA
vkiosQ fopkj ls bl izfofèk osQ iz;ksx osQ D;k&D;k
YkkHk Fks\
eafnj osQ drkZ&èkrkZZ eafnj osQ èku dks O;kikj ,oa lkgwdkjh esa yxkrs
FksA 'kuS% 'kuS%] le; osQ lkFk] cM+h la[;k esa iqjksfgr&iqtkjh] dkexkj]
f'kYih] O;kikjh vkfn eafnj rFkk mlosQ n'kZukfFkZ;ksa ,oa rhFkZ;kf=k;ksa dh
vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus osQ fy, eafnj osQ vkl&ikl clrs x,A bl
izdkj eafnj uxjksa dk fodkl gqvkA blh jhfr ls eafnjksa ds pkjksa vksj
vusd uxjksa dk vkfoZHkko gqvk] tSlsµeè; izns'k esa fHkYyLokfeu
(Hkhylk ;k fofn'kk) vkSj xqtjkr esa lkseukFkA oqQN vU; egÙoiw.kZ
eafnj uxjµrfeyukMq esa dkaphiqje rFkk enqjS vkSj vkaèkz izns'k esa
fr#ifr gSaA
rhFkZLFky Hkh èkhjs&èkhjs uxjksa osQ :i esa fodflr gks x,A o`ankou
(mÙkj izns'k) vkSj fr#oUueykbZ (rfeyukMq) ,sls uxjksa osQ nks mnkgj.k
gSaA vtesj (jktLFkku)] ckjgoha 'krkCnh esa pkSgku jktkvksa dh jktèkkuh
Fkk vkSj vkxs pydj eqxyksa osQ 'kklu esa og ^lwck* eq[;ky; cu x;kA
;g uxj èkkfeZd lg&vfLrRo dk ,d mRÑ"V mnkgj.k izLrqr djrk gSA
lqizfl¼ lwiQh lar [ok”kk eqbuqíhu fp'rh (vè;k; 8 Hkh ns[ksa) ;gk¡
ckjgoha 'krkCnh esa cl x, Fks vkSj muosQ n'kZukFkhZ ,oa J¼kyq lHkh
?
fp=k 1
dkaL; ew£r] ftlesa o`Q".k
dks ukx&jk{kl dkfy;k
dks dkcw djrs fn[kk;k
x;k gSA
78 gekjs vrhr – II
iaFkksa&erksa osQ gqvk djrs FksA vtesj osQ ikl gh iq"dj ljksoj gS] tgk¡
izkphudky ls gh rhFkZ;k=kh vkrs jgs gSaA
NksVs uxjksa dk latky
vkBoha 'krkCnh ls gh migk}hi esa vusd NksVs&NksVs uxjksa dk latky&lk
fcNus yxk FkkA laHkor% mudk izknqHkkZo cM+s&cM+s xk¡oksa ls gqvk FkkA muesa
vkerkSj ij ,d eaMfidk (ckn esa ftls ^eaMh* dgk tkus yxk) gksrh Fkh]
tgk¡ vkl&ikl osQ xk¡o okys viuh mit cspus osQ fy, ykrs FksA muesa
,slh xfy;k¡ Fkah] tgk¡ nqdkusa ,oa ck”kkj Fks ftUgsa ^g^^* (ckn esa ^gkV* dgk
tkus yxk) dgk tkrk FkkA blosQ vykok fHkUu&fHkUu izdkj osQ dkjhxjksa
rFkk f'kfYi;ksa] tSlsµoqQEgkjksa] rsfy;ksa] 'kDdj cukus okyksa] rkM+h cukus
okyksa] lqukjksa] ykSgkjksa] iRFkj rksM+us okyksa vkfn osQ vyx&vyx ck”kkj gksrs
FksA oqQN O;kikjh rks uxj esa LFkk;h :i ls cldj viuk dkjksckj djrs Fks]
tcfd oqQN vU; O;kikjh uxj&uxj ?kwedj Ø;&foØ; fd;k djrs FksA
vkl&ikl vkSj nwjnjk”k osQ O;kikjh bu uxjksa essa LFkkuh; mit [kjhnus vkSj
nwjorhZ LFkkuksa osQ mRikn] tSlsµ?kksM+s] ued] diwj] osQlj] iku&lqikjh vkSj
dkyh fepZ tSls elkys cspus osQ fy, vkrs FksA
?
vius f”kys osQ uxjksa dh
lwph cuk,¡ vkSj mudk
iz'kklfud osaQæksa] eafnj
uxjksa@rhFkZ osaQnzksa osQ :i
esa oxhZdj.k djsaA
fp=k 2
uxj dk ,d ck”kkj
Page 5


75 uxj] O;kikjh vkSj f'kYihtu
,d eè;;qxhu uxj dh ;k=kk ij vk;k dksbZ ;k=kh] ml uxj osQ ckjs esa
oSQlh vkdka{kk,¡ j[krk gksxk\ ;g bl ckr ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd og uxj
fdl izdkj dk Fkk&D;k og ,d eafnj uxj Fkk ;k ,d iz'kklfud osaQnz]
,d okf.kfT;d 'kgj] ,d iÙku uxj vFkok fdlh vU; izdkj dk 'kgj
FkkA oLrqr% dbZ uxj rks ,d lkFk vusd izdkj osQ Fksµos iz'kklfud uxj
rFkk eafnj uxj gksus osQ lkFk&lkFk okf.kfT;d dk;Zdykiksa vkSj f'kYi
mRiknu osQ osaQnz Hkh FksA
uxj] O;kikjh vkSj
f'kYihtu 6
ekufp=k&1
eè; vkSj nf{k.k Hkkjr
esa O;kikj vkSj f'kYidkjh
mRiknu osQ oqQN izeq[k
osaQnz
76 gekjs vrhr – II
?
iz'kklfud osaQnz
vè;k; 2 esa vkius pksy oa'k osQ ckjs esa i<+kA vkb,] ge viuh dYiuk
osQ ?kksM+s ij lokj gksdj pksy jktkvksa dh jktèkkuh ratkowj] tSlkfd og
,d g”kkj o"kZ igys Fkk] dh ;k=kk ij pysaA
o"kZ esa ckjgksa eghus cgus okyh dkosjh unh bl lqanj uxj osQ ikl cgrh
gSA jktk jktjkt pksy }kjk fufeZr jktjkts'oj eafnj dh ?kafV;k¡ ctrh gqbZ
lqukbZ nsrh gSaA yksx uxj osQ okLrqdkj oqaQtjeYyu jktjkt is:FkPpu dh
okLrqdyk dh iz'kalk djrs gq, ugha FkdrsA gesa okLrqdkj dk uke blfy,
irk gS D;ksafd mlus xoZ ls vius uke dks eafnj dh nhokj ij mRdh.kZ
fd;kA eafnj osQ Hkhrj ,d fo'kky f'ko¯yx LFkkfir gSA
bl eafnj osQ vykok uxj esa vusd jktegy gSa] ftuesa dbZ eaMi cus
gq, gSaA jktk yksx bu eaMiksa esa viuk njckj yxkrs gSaA ;gha ls os vius
vèkhuLFkksa osQ fy, vkns'k tkjh djrs gSaA uxj esa lSU; f'kfoj Hkh cus gSaA
uxj mu ck”kkjksa dh gypy ls Hkjk gqvk gS_ tgk¡ vukt] elkyksa]
diM+ksa vkSj vkHkw"k.kksa dh fcØh gks jgh gSA uxj osQ fy, ty dh vkiwfrZ
o¡qQvksa vkSj rkykcksa ls gksrh gSA ratkowj vkSj mlosQ fudVorhZ uxj mjS;wj osQ
lkyh; cqudj eafnj osQ mRlo osQ fy, >aMs&>afM;k¡ cukus dk diM+k] jktk
vkSj vfHktkr oxZ osQ fy, cf<+;k lwrh oL=k vkSj tulkèkkj.k osQ fy,
eksVk lwrh oL=k rS;kj dj jgs gSaA ;gk¡ ls oqQN nwjh ij LokeheykbZ esa LFkifr
vFkok ewfrZdkj mÙke dkaL; ewfrZ;k¡ rFkk yacs] lqanj ?kaVk&èkkrq osQ nhi cuk
jgs gSaA
eafnj uxj vkSj rhFkZ osaQnz
ratkowj ,d eafnj uxj dk Hkh mnkgj.k gSA eafnj uxj uxjhdj.k dk ,d
vR;ar egÙoiw.kZ izfr:i izLrqr djrs gSaA uxjhdj.k uxjksa osQ fodkl dh
izfØ;k gSA eafnj vdlj lekt vkSj vFkZO;oLFkk nksuksa osQ fy, gh vR;ar
egÙoiw.kZ gksrs FksA 'kkld] fofHkUu nsoh&nsorkvksa osQ izfr viuk HkfDr Hkko
n'kkZus osQ fy, eafnj cukrs FksA os eafnjksa dks Hkwfe ,oa èku vuqnku esa nsrs
Fks_ ftudh vk; ls èkkfeZd vuq"Bku] fofèk&foèkku ls laiUu fd, tkrs Fks]
rhFkZ;kf=k;ksa rFkk iqjksfgr&iafMrksa dks Hkkstu djk;k tkrk Fkk vkSj ioksZRlo
euk, tkrs FksA eafnj osQ n'kZukFkhZ Hkh nku&nf{k.kk fn;k djrs FksA
vkiosQ er esa yksx
ratkowj dks ,d egku
uxj D;ksa ekurs Fks\
77 uxj] O;kikjh vkSj f'kYihtu
dk¡lk] ?kaVk&èkkrq vkSj ^yqIrekse* rduhd
dk¡lk ,d feJèkkrq gksrh gS] tks rk¡cs vkSj jk¡xs (fVu) osQ esy
ls curh gSA ?kaVk&èkkrq esa jk¡xs dk vuqikr fdlh Hkh vU;
fdLe osQ dk¡ls ls vfèkd gksrk gSA ;g ?kaVs tSlh èofu
mRiUu djrh gSA
pksydkyhu dkaL; ewfrZ;k¡ (vè;k;&2 ns[ksa) ^yqIrekse*
rduhd ls cukbZ tkrh FkhaA bl izfofèk osQ varxZr loZizFke
ekse dh ,d izfrek cukbZ tkrh FkhA bls fpduh fe^h ls iwjh
rjg yhi dj lw[kus osQ fy, NksM+ fn;k tkrk FkkA tc og
iwjh rjg lw[k tkrh Fkh rks mls xeZ fd;k tkrk Fkk vkSj
mlosQ fe^h osQ vkoj.k esa ,d NksVk&lk Nsn cuk dj ml
Nsn osQ jkLrs lkjk fi?kyk gqvk ekse ckgj fudky fy;k tkrk
FkkA fiQj fpduh fe^h osQ [kkyh lk¡ps esa mlh Nsn osQ jkLrs
fi?kyh gqbZ èkkrq Hkj nh tkrh FkhA tc og èkkrq BaMh gksdj
Bksl gks tkrh Fkh] rks fpduh fe^h osQ vkoj.k dks lkoèkkuhiwoZd
gVk fn;k tkrk Fkk vkSj mlesa ls fudyh izfrek dks lkI
+
kQ
djosQ pedk fn;k tkrk FkkA
vkiosQ fopkj ls bl izfofèk osQ iz;ksx osQ D;k&D;k
YkkHk Fks\
eafnj osQ drkZ&èkrkZZ eafnj osQ èku dks O;kikj ,oa lkgwdkjh esa yxkrs
FksA 'kuS% 'kuS%] le; osQ lkFk] cM+h la[;k esa iqjksfgr&iqtkjh] dkexkj]
f'kYih] O;kikjh vkfn eafnj rFkk mlosQ n'kZukfFkZ;ksa ,oa rhFkZ;kf=k;ksa dh
vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus osQ fy, eafnj osQ vkl&ikl clrs x,A bl
izdkj eafnj uxjksa dk fodkl gqvkA blh jhfr ls eafnjksa ds pkjksa vksj
vusd uxjksa dk vkfoZHkko gqvk] tSlsµeè; izns'k esa fHkYyLokfeu
(Hkhylk ;k fofn'kk) vkSj xqtjkr esa lkseukFkA oqQN vU; egÙoiw.kZ
eafnj uxjµrfeyukMq esa dkaphiqje rFkk enqjS vkSj vkaèkz izns'k esa
fr#ifr gSaA
rhFkZLFky Hkh èkhjs&èkhjs uxjksa osQ :i esa fodflr gks x,A o`ankou
(mÙkj izns'k) vkSj fr#oUueykbZ (rfeyukMq) ,sls uxjksa osQ nks mnkgj.k
gSaA vtesj (jktLFkku)] ckjgoha 'krkCnh esa pkSgku jktkvksa dh jktèkkuh
Fkk vkSj vkxs pydj eqxyksa osQ 'kklu esa og ^lwck* eq[;ky; cu x;kA
;g uxj èkkfeZd lg&vfLrRo dk ,d mRÑ"V mnkgj.k izLrqr djrk gSA
lqizfl¼ lwiQh lar [ok”kk eqbuqíhu fp'rh (vè;k; 8 Hkh ns[ksa) ;gk¡
ckjgoha 'krkCnh esa cl x, Fks vkSj muosQ n'kZukFkhZ ,oa J¼kyq lHkh
?
fp=k 1
dkaL; ew£r] ftlesa o`Q".k
dks ukx&jk{kl dkfy;k
dks dkcw djrs fn[kk;k
x;k gSA
78 gekjs vrhr – II
iaFkksa&erksa osQ gqvk djrs FksA vtesj osQ ikl gh iq"dj ljksoj gS] tgk¡
izkphudky ls gh rhFkZ;k=kh vkrs jgs gSaA
NksVs uxjksa dk latky
vkBoha 'krkCnh ls gh migk}hi esa vusd NksVs&NksVs uxjksa dk latky&lk
fcNus yxk FkkA laHkor% mudk izknqHkkZo cM+s&cM+s xk¡oksa ls gqvk FkkA muesa
vkerkSj ij ,d eaMfidk (ckn esa ftls ^eaMh* dgk tkus yxk) gksrh Fkh]
tgk¡ vkl&ikl osQ xk¡o okys viuh mit cspus osQ fy, ykrs FksA muesa
,slh xfy;k¡ Fkah] tgk¡ nqdkusa ,oa ck”kkj Fks ftUgsa ^g^^* (ckn esa ^gkV* dgk
tkus yxk) dgk tkrk FkkA blosQ vykok fHkUu&fHkUu izdkj osQ dkjhxjksa
rFkk f'kfYi;ksa] tSlsµoqQEgkjksa] rsfy;ksa] 'kDdj cukus okyksa] rkM+h cukus
okyksa] lqukjksa] ykSgkjksa] iRFkj rksM+us okyksa vkfn osQ vyx&vyx ck”kkj gksrs
FksA oqQN O;kikjh rks uxj esa LFkk;h :i ls cldj viuk dkjksckj djrs Fks]
tcfd oqQN vU; O;kikjh uxj&uxj ?kwedj Ø;&foØ; fd;k djrs FksA
vkl&ikl vkSj nwjnjk”k osQ O;kikjh bu uxjksa essa LFkkuh; mit [kjhnus vkSj
nwjorhZ LFkkuksa osQ mRikn] tSlsµ?kksM+s] ued] diwj] osQlj] iku&lqikjh vkSj
dkyh fepZ tSls elkys cspus osQ fy, vkrs FksA
?
vius f”kys osQ uxjksa dh
lwph cuk,¡ vkSj mudk
iz'kklfud osaQæksa] eafnj
uxjksa@rhFkZ osaQnzksa osQ :i
esa oxhZdj.k djsaA
fp=k 2
uxj dk ,d ck”kkj
79 uxj] O;kikjh vkSj f'kYihtu
?
fp=k 3
ydM+h ij uDdk'kh
djrk gqvk ,d dkjhxj
vkerkSj ij dksbZ lkear ;kuh ijorhZ dky dk ”kehankj bu uxjksa esa ;k
buosQ vkl&ikl fdyscanh dj egy cuk ysrk FkkA ,sls lkear O;kikfj;ksa]
f'kYidkjksa rFkk muosQ O;kikj dh oLrqvksa ij dj yxkrs Fks vkSj dHkh&dHkh
bu djksa osQ laxzg.k dk ^vfèkdkj* mu LFkkuh; eafnjksa dks ^iznku* dj nsrs Fks]
ftudk fuekZ.k Lo;a muosQ }kjk ;k èkuk<~; O;kikfj;ksa }kjk djk;k x;k gksrk
FkkA ,sls ^vfèkdkjksa* dk mYys[k vfHkys[kksa esa fd;k x;k gS tks vkt Hkh
ik, tkrs gSaA
ck”kkjksa ij dj
;g jktLFkku ls izkIr ,d nloha 'krkCnh osQ vfHkys[k dk lkjka'k gSA ftlesa
os 'kqYd fn, x, gSa tks eafnj izkfèkdkfj;ksa }kjk oLrqvksa osQ :i esa olwy fd,
tk ldrs gSaA
'kDdj vkSj xqM+] jax] èkkxk] :bZ] ukfj;y] ued] lqikjh] eD[ku] fry
osQ rsy ij vkSj diM+s ij dj yxk, tkrs FksA
blosQ vykok] O;kifj;ksa ij] èkkrq dh phtsa cspus okyksa] vklodksa] rsy]
i'kqpkjs vkSj vukt osQ cksjksa ij Hkh dj yxk, tkrs FksA
buesa ls oqQN dj rks oLrq :i esa vkSj oqQN vU; udn :i esa olwys
tkrs FksA
vkt ck”kkj ij yxus okys djksa osQ ckjs esa oqQN vkSj tkudkjh izkIr
djsaµbUgsa dkSu bd_k djrk gS] os fdl izdkj olwy fd, tkrs gSa
vkSj mudk iz;ksx fdl dke osQ fy, gksrk gSA
cM+s vkSj NksVs O;kikjh
O;kikjh dbZ izdkj osQ gqvk djrs FksA muesa catkjs yksx (nsf[k, vè;k; 7)
Hkh 'kkfey FksA dbZ O;kikjh] fo'ks"k :i ls ?kksM+ksa osQ O;kikjh vius la?k
cukrs Fks] ftudk ,d eqf[k;k gksrk Fkk vkSj og eqf[k;k mudh vksj ls
?kksM+s [kjhnus osQ bPNqd ;ks¼kvksa ls ckrphr djrk FkkA
pw¡fd O;kikfj;ksa dks vusd jkT;ksa rFkk taxyksa ls gksdj xq”kjuk iM+rk
FkkA blfy, os vkerkSj ij dkf- iQys cukdj ,d lkFk ;k=kk djrs Fks vkSj
vius fgrksa dh j{kk osQ fy, O;kikj&la?k (fxYM) cukrs FksA nf{k.k Hkkjr
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Free

,

Sample Paper

,

MCQs

,

video lectures

,

Semester Notes

,

Objective type Questions

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

study material

,

ppt

,

व्यापारी और शिल्पीजन Notes | EduRev

,

व्यापारी और शिल्पीजन Notes | EduRev

,

Viva Questions

,

NCERT Textbook - नगर

,

NCERT Textbook - नगर

,

Summary

,

past year papers

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

practice quizzes

,

mock tests for examination

,

Extra Questions

,

Exam

,

Important questions

,

pdf

,

व्यापारी और शिल्पीजन Notes | EduRev

,

NCERT Textbook - नगर

;