NCERT Textbook - नागरिकता Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - नागरिकता Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


geus viuh ckr ukxfjdrk dh lqçfl¼ ifjHkk"kk ls 'kq: djsa fd ukxfjdrk ,d jktuhfrd leqnk; dh iw.kZ
vkSj leku lnL;rk gSA bl vè;k; esa ge ;g Nkuchu djsaxs fd vkt ukxfjdrk dk lgh&lgh vFkZ D;k gS\
blosQ ckn ge mu cglksa vkSj la?k"kks± ij n`f"Vikr djsaxs] tks ^iw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk* dh O;k[;k osQ lanHkZ
py jgs gSaA vxys ifjPNsn esa ukxfjd vkSj jk"Vª osQ chp laca/ rFkk fofHkUu ns'kksa esa LohÑr ukxfjdrk dh
dlkSVh ij ppkZ gksxhA ukxfjdrk osQ yksdrkaf=kd fl¼karksa dk fufgrkFkZ gS fd ukxfjdrk lkoZHkkSe gksuh
pkfg,A D;k bldk ;g vFkZ gS fd çR;sd O;fDr dks fdlh u fdlh jk"Vª dk lnL; eku ysuk pkfg,\ ,slh
gkyr esa ge reke jk"Vªfoghu yskxksa osQ vfLrRo dh O;k[;k dSls djsaxs\ bl eqís ij ckn osQ ifjPNsn esa fopkj
fd;k tk,xkA vkf[kjh ifjPNsn esa oSf'od ukxfjdrk osQ eqís ij fopkj gksxk fd D;k bldk vfLrRo gS vkSj
D;k ;g jk"Vªh; ukxfjdrk dh txg ys ldrh gS\
bl vè;k; dks i<+us osQ ckn
ukxfjdrk osQ vFkZ dh O;k[;k djus vkSj
vkt ftu {ks=kksa esa bl vFkZ dks foLrkj fn;k tk jgk gS ;k pqukSrh nh tk jgh gS] muesa ls oqQN ij fopkj
djus esa leFkZ gkasxs A
vè;k; 6
ukxfjdrk
ifjp;
Page 2


geus viuh ckr ukxfjdrk dh lqçfl¼ ifjHkk"kk ls 'kq: djsa fd ukxfjdrk ,d jktuhfrd leqnk; dh iw.kZ
vkSj leku lnL;rk gSA bl vè;k; esa ge ;g Nkuchu djsaxs fd vkt ukxfjdrk dk lgh&lgh vFkZ D;k gS\
blosQ ckn ge mu cglksa vkSj la?k"kks± ij n`f"Vikr djsaxs] tks ^iw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk* dh O;k[;k osQ lanHkZ
py jgs gSaA vxys ifjPNsn esa ukxfjd vkSj jk"Vª osQ chp laca/ rFkk fofHkUu ns'kksa esa LohÑr ukxfjdrk dh
dlkSVh ij ppkZ gksxhA ukxfjdrk osQ yksdrkaf=kd fl¼karksa dk fufgrkFkZ gS fd ukxfjdrk lkoZHkkSe gksuh
pkfg,A D;k bldk ;g vFkZ gS fd çR;sd O;fDr dks fdlh u fdlh jk"Vª dk lnL; eku ysuk pkfg,\ ,slh
gkyr esa ge reke jk"Vªfoghu yskxksa osQ vfLrRo dh O;k[;k dSls djsaxs\ bl eqís ij ckn osQ ifjPNsn esa fopkj
fd;k tk,xkA vkf[kjh ifjPNsn esa oSf'od ukxfjdrk osQ eqís ij fopkj gksxk fd D;k bldk vfLrRo gS vkSj
D;k ;g jk"Vªh; ukxfjdrk dh txg ys ldrh gS\
bl vè;k; dks i<+us osQ ckn
ukxfjdrk osQ vFkZ dh O;k[;k djus vkSj
vkt ftu {ks=kksa esa bl vFkZ dks foLrkj fn;k tk jgk gS ;k pqukSrh nh tk jgh gS] muesa ls oqQN ij fopkj
djus esa leFkZ gkasxs A
vè;k; 6
ukxfjdrk
ifjp;
78
ukxfjdrk
ukxfjdrk
jktuhfrd fl¼kar
6-1 Hkwfedk
ukxfjdrk dh ifjHkk"kk fdlh jktuhfrd leqnk; dh iw.kZ
vkSj leku lnL;rk osQ :i esa dh xbZ gSA ledkyhu fo'o
esa jk"Vªksa us vius lnL;ksa dks ,d lkewfgd jktuhfrd
igpku osQ lkFk&lkFk oqQN vf/dkj Hkh çnku fd, gaSA
blfy, ge lac¼ jk"Vª osQ vk/kj ij vius dks Hkkjrh;]
tkikuh ;k teZu ekurs gSaA ukxfjd vius jk"Vª ls oqQN
cqfu;knh vfèkdkjksa osQ vykok dgha Hkh ;k=kk djus esa
lg;ksx vkSj lqj{kk dh vis{kk j[krs gSaA
fdlh jk"Vª osQ laiw.kZ lnL; gksus dk egÙo rc Bhd&Bhd
le> esa vk ldrk gS] tc ge nqfu;k Hkj esa mu g”kkjksa
yksxksa dh fLFkfr osQ ckjs esa lksprs gSa] tks nqHkkZX;o'k 'kj.kkFkhZ vkSj voS/ çokfl;ksa osQ
:i esa jgus osQ fy, e”kcwj gaS] D;ksafd mUgsa dksbZ jk"Vª viuh lnL;rk nsus osQ fy, rS;kj
ugha gSA ,sls yksxksa dks dksbZ jk"Vª vfèkdkjksa dh xkjaVh ugha nsrk vkSj os vke rkSj ij
vlqjf{kr gkyr esa thou;kiu djrs gSaA euilan jk"Vª dh iw.kZ lnL;rk muosQ fy, ,slk
y{; gS ftlosQ fy, os la?k"kZ djus dks rS;kj gSa] tSlk fd vkt ge eè;iwoZ osQ
fiQfyLrhuh 'kj.kkfFkZ;ksa osQ
ekeys esa ns[krs gSaA
ukxfjdksa dks çnÙk
vfèkdkjksa dh lqLi"V
çÑfr fofHkUu jk"Vªksa esa
fHkUu&fHkUu gks ldrh
gS] ysfdu vfèkdrj
yksdrkaf=kd ns'kksa us vkt
muesa oqQN jktuhfrd
vfèkdkj 'kkfey fd;s gSaA
mnkgj.kLo:i] ernku]
vfHkO;fDr ;k vkLFkk dh vk”kknh tSls ukxfjd vf/dkj vkSj U;wure etnwjh ;k f'k{kk
ikus ls tqM+s oqQN lkekftd&vkfFkZd vfèkdkjA vf/dkjksa vkSj çfr"Bk dh lekurk
ukxfjdrk osQ cqfu;knh vf/dkjksa esa ls ,d gSA
ukxfjd vkt ftu vf/dkjksa dk iz;ksx djrs gSa mu lHkh dks la?k"kZ osQ ckn gkfly
fd;k x;k gSA turk us viuh Lora=krk vkSj vfèkdkjksa dks eq[kj djus osQ fy, oqQN
Page 3


geus viuh ckr ukxfjdrk dh lqçfl¼ ifjHkk"kk ls 'kq: djsa fd ukxfjdrk ,d jktuhfrd leqnk; dh iw.kZ
vkSj leku lnL;rk gSA bl vè;k; esa ge ;g Nkuchu djsaxs fd vkt ukxfjdrk dk lgh&lgh vFkZ D;k gS\
blosQ ckn ge mu cglksa vkSj la?k"kks± ij n`f"Vikr djsaxs] tks ^iw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk* dh O;k[;k osQ lanHkZ
py jgs gSaA vxys ifjPNsn esa ukxfjd vkSj jk"Vª osQ chp laca/ rFkk fofHkUu ns'kksa esa LohÑr ukxfjdrk dh
dlkSVh ij ppkZ gksxhA ukxfjdrk osQ yksdrkaf=kd fl¼karksa dk fufgrkFkZ gS fd ukxfjdrk lkoZHkkSe gksuh
pkfg,A D;k bldk ;g vFkZ gS fd çR;sd O;fDr dks fdlh u fdlh jk"Vª dk lnL; eku ysuk pkfg,\ ,slh
gkyr esa ge reke jk"Vªfoghu yskxksa osQ vfLrRo dh O;k[;k dSls djsaxs\ bl eqís ij ckn osQ ifjPNsn esa fopkj
fd;k tk,xkA vkf[kjh ifjPNsn esa oSf'od ukxfjdrk osQ eqís ij fopkj gksxk fd D;k bldk vfLrRo gS vkSj
D;k ;g jk"Vªh; ukxfjdrk dh txg ys ldrh gS\
bl vè;k; dks i<+us osQ ckn
ukxfjdrk osQ vFkZ dh O;k[;k djus vkSj
vkt ftu {ks=kksa esa bl vFkZ dks foLrkj fn;k tk jgk gS ;k pqukSrh nh tk jgh gS] muesa ls oqQN ij fopkj
djus esa leFkZ gkasxs A
vè;k; 6
ukxfjdrk
ifjp;
78
ukxfjdrk
ukxfjdrk
jktuhfrd fl¼kar
6-1 Hkwfedk
ukxfjdrk dh ifjHkk"kk fdlh jktuhfrd leqnk; dh iw.kZ
vkSj leku lnL;rk osQ :i esa dh xbZ gSA ledkyhu fo'o
esa jk"Vªksa us vius lnL;ksa dks ,d lkewfgd jktuhfrd
igpku osQ lkFk&lkFk oqQN vf/dkj Hkh çnku fd, gaSA
blfy, ge lac¼ jk"Vª osQ vk/kj ij vius dks Hkkjrh;]
tkikuh ;k teZu ekurs gSaA ukxfjd vius jk"Vª ls oqQN
cqfu;knh vfèkdkjksa osQ vykok dgha Hkh ;k=kk djus esa
lg;ksx vkSj lqj{kk dh vis{kk j[krs gSaA
fdlh jk"Vª osQ laiw.kZ lnL; gksus dk egÙo rc Bhd&Bhd
le> esa vk ldrk gS] tc ge nqfu;k Hkj esa mu g”kkjksa
yksxksa dh fLFkfr osQ ckjs esa lksprs gSa] tks nqHkkZX;o'k 'kj.kkFkhZ vkSj voS/ çokfl;ksa osQ
:i esa jgus osQ fy, e”kcwj gaS] D;ksafd mUgsa dksbZ jk"Vª viuh lnL;rk nsus osQ fy, rS;kj
ugha gSA ,sls yksxksa dks dksbZ jk"Vª vfèkdkjksa dh xkjaVh ugha nsrk vkSj os vke rkSj ij
vlqjf{kr gkyr esa thou;kiu djrs gSaA euilan jk"Vª dh iw.kZ lnL;rk muosQ fy, ,slk
y{; gS ftlosQ fy, os la?k"kZ djus dks rS;kj gSa] tSlk fd vkt ge eè;iwoZ osQ
fiQfyLrhuh 'kj.kkfFkZ;ksa osQ
ekeys esa ns[krs gSaA
ukxfjdksa dks çnÙk
vfèkdkjksa dh lqLi"V
çÑfr fofHkUu jk"Vªksa esa
fHkUu&fHkUu gks ldrh
gS] ysfdu vfèkdrj
yksdrkaf=kd ns'kksa us vkt
muesa oqQN jktuhfrd
vfèkdkj 'kkfey fd;s gSaA
mnkgj.kLo:i] ernku]
vfHkO;fDr ;k vkLFkk dh vk”kknh tSls ukxfjd vf/dkj vkSj U;wure etnwjh ;k f'k{kk
ikus ls tqM+s oqQN lkekftd&vkfFkZd vfèkdkjA vf/dkjksa vkSj çfr"Bk dh lekurk
ukxfjdrk osQ cqfu;knh vf/dkjksa esa ls ,d gSA
ukxfjd vkt ftu vf/dkjksa dk iz;ksx djrs gSa mu lHkh dks la?k"kZ osQ ckn gkfly
fd;k x;k gSA turk us viuh Lora=krk vkSj vfèkdkjksa dks eq[kj djus osQ fy, oqQN
79
ukxfjdrk
ukxfjdrk
jktuhfrd fl¼kar
çkjafHkd la?k"kZa 'kfDr'kkyh jktra=kksa osQ f[kykiQ NsM+s FksA vusd
;wjksih; ns'kksa esa ,sls la?k"kZ gq,A muesa ls oqQN fgald la?k"kZ Fks]
tSls 1789 dh Úkalhlh ØkafrA ,f'k;k vkSj vçQhdk osQ vusd
mifuos'kksa esa leku ukxfjdrk dh ek¡x vkSifuosf'kd 'kkldksa
ls Lora=krk gkfly djus osQ la?k"kZ dk fgLlk jghA nf{k.k
vçQhdk esa leku ukxfjdrk ikus osQ fy, vçQhdk dh v'osr
vkcknh dks lÙkk:<+ xksjs vYila[;dksa osQ f[kykiQ yack la?k"kZ
djuk iM+kA ;g la?k"kZ 1990 osQ n'kd osQ vkjaHk rd ”kkjh
jgkA iw.kZ lnL;rk vkSj leku vf/dkj ikus dk la?k"kZ fo'o osQ
dbZ fgLlksa esa vkt Hkh ”kkjh gSA vkius ns'k esa efgyk vkanksyu
vkSj nfyr vkanksyu osQ ckjs esa i<+k gksxkA mudk edln gS
viuh ”k:jrksa dh vksj è;ku vkÑ"V dj tuer cnyuk] lkFk
gh leku vf/dkj vkSj volj lqfuf'pr djus osQ fy,
ljdkjh uhfr;ksa dks çHkkfor djukA
ukxfjdrk flI -kZQ jkT;lÙkk vkSj mlosQ lnL;ksa osQ chp osQ laca/ksa dk fu:i.k ugha] cfYd
mlls vfèkd gSA ;g ukxfjdksa osQ vkilh laca/ksa osQ ckjs esa Hkh gSA blesa ukxfjdksa osQ
,d&nwljs osQ çfr vkSj lekt osQ çfr fuf'pr nkf;Ro 'kkfey gSaA buesa flI -kZQ
jk"Vª }kjk Fkksih xbZ dkuwuh ckè;rk,¡ ugha] cfYd leqnk; osQ lgthou esa
fparu&eaFku
l=kgoha ls chloha lnh osQ chp ;wjksi osQ xksjs yksxksa us nf{k.k vÚhdk osQ
yksxksa ij viuk 'kklu dk;e j[kkA 1994 rd nf{k.k vÚhdk esa viukbZ xbZ
uhfr;ksa osQ ckjs esa uhps fn, x, C;kSjs dks if<+,A
'osr yksxksa dks er nsus] pquko yM+us vkSj ljdkj dks pquus dk vfèkdkj
FkkA os laifÙk [kjhnus vkSj ns'k esa dgha Hkh vkus&tkus osQ fy, Lora=k FksA dkys
yksxksa dks ,sls vfèkdkj ugha FksA dkys vkSj xksjs yksxksa osQ fy, i`Fkd eqgYys
vkSj dkyksfu;k¡ clkbZ xbZ FkhaA dkys yksxksa dks vius iM+ksl dh xksjs yksxksa dh
cLrh esa dke djus osQ fy, ^ikl* ysus iM+rs FksA mUgsa xksjksa osQ bykosQ esa vius
ifjokj j[kus dh vuqefr ugha FkhA vyx&vyx jax osQ yksxksa osQ fy, fo|ky;
Hkh vyx&vyx FksA
D;k v'osr yksxksa dks nf{k.k vÚhdk esa iw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk feyh
gqbZ Fkh\ dkj.k lfgr crkb;sA
mQij fn;k x;k C;kSjk gesa nf{k.k vÚhdk esa fHkUu lewgksa osQ varl±caèkksa
osQ ckjs esa D;k crkrk gS\
Page 4


geus viuh ckr ukxfjdrk dh lqçfl¼ ifjHkk"kk ls 'kq: djsa fd ukxfjdrk ,d jktuhfrd leqnk; dh iw.kZ
vkSj leku lnL;rk gSA bl vè;k; esa ge ;g Nkuchu djsaxs fd vkt ukxfjdrk dk lgh&lgh vFkZ D;k gS\
blosQ ckn ge mu cglksa vkSj la?k"kks± ij n`f"Vikr djsaxs] tks ^iw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk* dh O;k[;k osQ lanHkZ
py jgs gSaA vxys ifjPNsn esa ukxfjd vkSj jk"Vª osQ chp laca/ rFkk fofHkUu ns'kksa esa LohÑr ukxfjdrk dh
dlkSVh ij ppkZ gksxhA ukxfjdrk osQ yksdrkaf=kd fl¼karksa dk fufgrkFkZ gS fd ukxfjdrk lkoZHkkSe gksuh
pkfg,A D;k bldk ;g vFkZ gS fd çR;sd O;fDr dks fdlh u fdlh jk"Vª dk lnL; eku ysuk pkfg,\ ,slh
gkyr esa ge reke jk"Vªfoghu yskxksa osQ vfLrRo dh O;k[;k dSls djsaxs\ bl eqís ij ckn osQ ifjPNsn esa fopkj
fd;k tk,xkA vkf[kjh ifjPNsn esa oSf'od ukxfjdrk osQ eqís ij fopkj gksxk fd D;k bldk vfLrRo gS vkSj
D;k ;g jk"Vªh; ukxfjdrk dh txg ys ldrh gS\
bl vè;k; dks i<+us osQ ckn
ukxfjdrk osQ vFkZ dh O;k[;k djus vkSj
vkt ftu {ks=kksa esa bl vFkZ dks foLrkj fn;k tk jgk gS ;k pqukSrh nh tk jgh gS] muesa ls oqQN ij fopkj
djus esa leFkZ gkasxs A
vè;k; 6
ukxfjdrk
ifjp;
78
ukxfjdrk
ukxfjdrk
jktuhfrd fl¼kar
6-1 Hkwfedk
ukxfjdrk dh ifjHkk"kk fdlh jktuhfrd leqnk; dh iw.kZ
vkSj leku lnL;rk osQ :i esa dh xbZ gSA ledkyhu fo'o
esa jk"Vªksa us vius lnL;ksa dks ,d lkewfgd jktuhfrd
igpku osQ lkFk&lkFk oqQN vf/dkj Hkh çnku fd, gaSA
blfy, ge lac¼ jk"Vª osQ vk/kj ij vius dks Hkkjrh;]
tkikuh ;k teZu ekurs gSaA ukxfjd vius jk"Vª ls oqQN
cqfu;knh vfèkdkjksa osQ vykok dgha Hkh ;k=kk djus esa
lg;ksx vkSj lqj{kk dh vis{kk j[krs gSaA
fdlh jk"Vª osQ laiw.kZ lnL; gksus dk egÙo rc Bhd&Bhd
le> esa vk ldrk gS] tc ge nqfu;k Hkj esa mu g”kkjksa
yksxksa dh fLFkfr osQ ckjs esa lksprs gSa] tks nqHkkZX;o'k 'kj.kkFkhZ vkSj voS/ çokfl;ksa osQ
:i esa jgus osQ fy, e”kcwj gaS] D;ksafd mUgsa dksbZ jk"Vª viuh lnL;rk nsus osQ fy, rS;kj
ugha gSA ,sls yksxksa dks dksbZ jk"Vª vfèkdkjksa dh xkjaVh ugha nsrk vkSj os vke rkSj ij
vlqjf{kr gkyr esa thou;kiu djrs gSaA euilan jk"Vª dh iw.kZ lnL;rk muosQ fy, ,slk
y{; gS ftlosQ fy, os la?k"kZ djus dks rS;kj gSa] tSlk fd vkt ge eè;iwoZ osQ
fiQfyLrhuh 'kj.kkfFkZ;ksa osQ
ekeys esa ns[krs gSaA
ukxfjdksa dks çnÙk
vfèkdkjksa dh lqLi"V
çÑfr fofHkUu jk"Vªksa esa
fHkUu&fHkUu gks ldrh
gS] ysfdu vfèkdrj
yksdrkaf=kd ns'kksa us vkt
muesa oqQN jktuhfrd
vfèkdkj 'kkfey fd;s gSaA
mnkgj.kLo:i] ernku]
vfHkO;fDr ;k vkLFkk dh vk”kknh tSls ukxfjd vf/dkj vkSj U;wure etnwjh ;k f'k{kk
ikus ls tqM+s oqQN lkekftd&vkfFkZd vfèkdkjA vf/dkjksa vkSj çfr"Bk dh lekurk
ukxfjdrk osQ cqfu;knh vf/dkjksa esa ls ,d gSA
ukxfjd vkt ftu vf/dkjksa dk iz;ksx djrs gSa mu lHkh dks la?k"kZ osQ ckn gkfly
fd;k x;k gSA turk us viuh Lora=krk vkSj vfèkdkjksa dks eq[kj djus osQ fy, oqQN
79
ukxfjdrk
ukxfjdrk
jktuhfrd fl¼kar
çkjafHkd la?k"kZa 'kfDr'kkyh jktra=kksa osQ f[kykiQ NsM+s FksA vusd
;wjksih; ns'kksa esa ,sls la?k"kZ gq,A muesa ls oqQN fgald la?k"kZ Fks]
tSls 1789 dh Úkalhlh ØkafrA ,f'k;k vkSj vçQhdk osQ vusd
mifuos'kksa esa leku ukxfjdrk dh ek¡x vkSifuosf'kd 'kkldksa
ls Lora=krk gkfly djus osQ la?k"kZ dk fgLlk jghA nf{k.k
vçQhdk esa leku ukxfjdrk ikus osQ fy, vçQhdk dh v'osr
vkcknh dks lÙkk:<+ xksjs vYila[;dksa osQ f[kykiQ yack la?k"kZ
djuk iM+kA ;g la?k"kZ 1990 osQ n'kd osQ vkjaHk rd ”kkjh
jgkA iw.kZ lnL;rk vkSj leku vf/dkj ikus dk la?k"kZ fo'o osQ
dbZ fgLlksa esa vkt Hkh ”kkjh gSA vkius ns'k esa efgyk vkanksyu
vkSj nfyr vkanksyu osQ ckjs esa i<+k gksxkA mudk edln gS
viuh ”k:jrksa dh vksj è;ku vkÑ"V dj tuer cnyuk] lkFk
gh leku vf/dkj vkSj volj lqfuf'pr djus osQ fy,
ljdkjh uhfr;ksa dks çHkkfor djukA
ukxfjdrk flI -kZQ jkT;lÙkk vkSj mlosQ lnL;ksa osQ chp osQ laca/ksa dk fu:i.k ugha] cfYd
mlls vfèkd gSA ;g ukxfjdksa osQ vkilh laca/ksa osQ ckjs esa Hkh gSA blesa ukxfjdksa osQ
,d&nwljs osQ çfr vkSj lekt osQ çfr fuf'pr nkf;Ro 'kkfey gSaA buesa flI -kZQ
jk"Vª }kjk Fkksih xbZ dkuwuh ckè;rk,¡ ugha] cfYd leqnk; osQ lgthou esa
fparu&eaFku
l=kgoha ls chloha lnh osQ chp ;wjksi osQ xksjs yksxksa us nf{k.k vÚhdk osQ
yksxksa ij viuk 'kklu dk;e j[kkA 1994 rd nf{k.k vÚhdk esa viukbZ xbZ
uhfr;ksa osQ ckjs esa uhps fn, x, C;kSjs dks if<+,A
'osr yksxksa dks er nsus] pquko yM+us vkSj ljdkj dks pquus dk vfèkdkj
FkkA os laifÙk [kjhnus vkSj ns'k esa dgha Hkh vkus&tkus osQ fy, Lora=k FksA dkys
yksxksa dks ,sls vfèkdkj ugha FksA dkys vkSj xksjs yksxksa osQ fy, i`Fkd eqgYys
vkSj dkyksfu;k¡ clkbZ xbZ FkhaA dkys yksxksa dks vius iM+ksl dh xksjs yksxksa dh
cLrh esa dke djus osQ fy, ^ikl* ysus iM+rs FksA mUgsa xksjksa osQ bykosQ esa vius
ifjokj j[kus dh vuqefr ugha FkhA vyx&vyx jax osQ yksxksa osQ fy, fo|ky;
Hkh vyx&vyx FksA
D;k v'osr yksxksa dks nf{k.k vÚhdk esa iw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk feyh
gqbZ Fkh\ dkj.k lfgr crkb;sA
mQij fn;k x;k C;kSjk gesa nf{k.k vÚhdk esa fHkUu lewgksa osQ varl±caèkksa
osQ ckjs esa D;k crkrk gS\ 80
ukxfjdrk
ukxfjdrk
jktuhfrd fl¼kar
Hkkxhnkj gksus vkSj ;ksxnku djus dk uSfrd nkf;Ro Hkh 'kkfey gksrk
gSA ukxfjdksa dks ns'k osQ lkaLÑfrd vkSj çkÑfrd lalk/uksa dk
mÙkjkfèkdkjh vkSj U;klh Hkh ekuk tkrk gSA
 fdlh jktuhfrd vo/kj.kk dks le>us dk vPNk rjhdk mu
mnkgj.kksa dh iM+rky djuk gS] ftuesa tkus&ekus vFkks± ij ,sls lewgksa
}kjk lokfy;k fu'kku yxk;k tk jgk gS] tks eglwl djrs gSa fd muesa
mudh ”k:jrksa vkSj vkdka{kkvksa dk [k;ky ugha fd;k x;kA
6-2 laiw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk
vxj vkius dHkh HkhM+ Hkjs jsy osQ fMCcs ;k cl esa liQj fd;k gS
rks vki bl pyu ls voxr gksaxs fd os yksx] tks ços'k ikus osQ fy,
igys 'kk;n ,d&nwljs ls yM+ iM+s Fks] vanj igq¡prs gh nwljksa dks
ckgj j[kus osQ lk>s LokFkZ esa 'kkfey gks tkrs gSaA tYnh gh ^Hkhrjh*
vkSj ^ckgjh* dk foHkktu mHkj
vkrk gS vkSj ^ckgjh* dks [krjs osQ
:i esa ns[kk tkus yxrk gSA
blh rjg dh çfØ;k,¡ le;&le; ij uxjksa] çns'kksa ;k
dHkh&dHkkj rks iwjs jk"Vª esa pyrh gaSA vxj vkthfodk]
fpfdRlk ;k f'k{kk tSlh lqfoèkk,¡ vkSj ty&tehu tSls
çkÑfrd lalk/u lhfer gksa] rc ^ckgjh* yksxksa osQ ços'k
dks jksdus dh ek¡x mBus dh laHkkouk jgrh gS] Hkys gh
os lgukxfjd D;ksa u gksaA vkidks ^eqacbZ eqacbZdj (eqacbZ
okys) osQ fy,* dk ukjk 'kk;n ;kn gks] ftlls ,slh
Hkkouk,¡ çdV gqb±A Hkkjr vkSj fo'o osQ fofHkUu fgLlksa
esa bl rjg osQ vusd la?k"kZ gksrs vk;s gSaA
blls ;g ç'u mBrk gS fd vkf[kj ^laiw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk* dk vlyh vFkZ D;k
gS\ D;k bldk vFkZ ;g gksrk gS fd ukxfjdksa dks ns'k esa tgk¡ Hkh pkgas jgus] i<+us ;k
dke djus dk leku vf/dkj vkSj volj feyuk pkfg,\ D;k bldk vFkZ ;g gS fd
lHkh vehj&xjhc ukxfjdksa dks oqQN cqfu;knh vfèkdkj vkSj lqfo/k,¡ feyuh pkfg,\
bl ifjPNsn esa ge igys bu ç'uksa osQ vk/kj ij ukxfjdrk dk vFkZ [kkstsaxsA
vius ns'k vkSj vU; vusd ns'kksa esa ukxfjdksa dks çnÙk vf/dkjksa esa ,d gS xeukxeu
dh Lora=krkA ;g vf/dkj dkexkjksa osQ fy, fo'ks"k egÙo dk gSA x`g{ks=k esa volj
vius {ks=k osQ ukxfjdksa dh
xfrfof/;ksa osQ oqQN oSls
mnkgj.kksa osQ ckjs esa lkspsa tks
nwljs dh enn djus vFkok
{ks=k dh mUufr ;k fiQj
i;kZoj.k dh j{kk ls lacaf/r
gkasA ,slh oqQN xfrfof/;ksa
dh ,d lwph cuk,¡ tks vkiosQ
gemez ;qokvksa }kjk viukbZ
tk ldrh gSaA
vkvks dqN
djosQ lh[ks
Page 5


geus viuh ckr ukxfjdrk dh lqçfl¼ ifjHkk"kk ls 'kq: djsa fd ukxfjdrk ,d jktuhfrd leqnk; dh iw.kZ
vkSj leku lnL;rk gSA bl vè;k; esa ge ;g Nkuchu djsaxs fd vkt ukxfjdrk dk lgh&lgh vFkZ D;k gS\
blosQ ckn ge mu cglksa vkSj la?k"kks± ij n`f"Vikr djsaxs] tks ^iw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk* dh O;k[;k osQ lanHkZ
py jgs gSaA vxys ifjPNsn esa ukxfjd vkSj jk"Vª osQ chp laca/ rFkk fofHkUu ns'kksa esa LohÑr ukxfjdrk dh
dlkSVh ij ppkZ gksxhA ukxfjdrk osQ yksdrkaf=kd fl¼karksa dk fufgrkFkZ gS fd ukxfjdrk lkoZHkkSe gksuh
pkfg,A D;k bldk ;g vFkZ gS fd çR;sd O;fDr dks fdlh u fdlh jk"Vª dk lnL; eku ysuk pkfg,\ ,slh
gkyr esa ge reke jk"Vªfoghu yskxksa osQ vfLrRo dh O;k[;k dSls djsaxs\ bl eqís ij ckn osQ ifjPNsn esa fopkj
fd;k tk,xkA vkf[kjh ifjPNsn esa oSf'od ukxfjdrk osQ eqís ij fopkj gksxk fd D;k bldk vfLrRo gS vkSj
D;k ;g jk"Vªh; ukxfjdrk dh txg ys ldrh gS\
bl vè;k; dks i<+us osQ ckn
ukxfjdrk osQ vFkZ dh O;k[;k djus vkSj
vkt ftu {ks=kksa esa bl vFkZ dks foLrkj fn;k tk jgk gS ;k pqukSrh nh tk jgh gS] muesa ls oqQN ij fopkj
djus esa leFkZ gkasxs A
vè;k; 6
ukxfjdrk
ifjp;
78
ukxfjdrk
ukxfjdrk
jktuhfrd fl¼kar
6-1 Hkwfedk
ukxfjdrk dh ifjHkk"kk fdlh jktuhfrd leqnk; dh iw.kZ
vkSj leku lnL;rk osQ :i esa dh xbZ gSA ledkyhu fo'o
esa jk"Vªksa us vius lnL;ksa dks ,d lkewfgd jktuhfrd
igpku osQ lkFk&lkFk oqQN vf/dkj Hkh çnku fd, gaSA
blfy, ge lac¼ jk"Vª osQ vk/kj ij vius dks Hkkjrh;]
tkikuh ;k teZu ekurs gSaA ukxfjd vius jk"Vª ls oqQN
cqfu;knh vfèkdkjksa osQ vykok dgha Hkh ;k=kk djus esa
lg;ksx vkSj lqj{kk dh vis{kk j[krs gSaA
fdlh jk"Vª osQ laiw.kZ lnL; gksus dk egÙo rc Bhd&Bhd
le> esa vk ldrk gS] tc ge nqfu;k Hkj esa mu g”kkjksa
yksxksa dh fLFkfr osQ ckjs esa lksprs gSa] tks nqHkkZX;o'k 'kj.kkFkhZ vkSj voS/ çokfl;ksa osQ
:i esa jgus osQ fy, e”kcwj gaS] D;ksafd mUgsa dksbZ jk"Vª viuh lnL;rk nsus osQ fy, rS;kj
ugha gSA ,sls yksxksa dks dksbZ jk"Vª vfèkdkjksa dh xkjaVh ugha nsrk vkSj os vke rkSj ij
vlqjf{kr gkyr esa thou;kiu djrs gSaA euilan jk"Vª dh iw.kZ lnL;rk muosQ fy, ,slk
y{; gS ftlosQ fy, os la?k"kZ djus dks rS;kj gSa] tSlk fd vkt ge eè;iwoZ osQ
fiQfyLrhuh 'kj.kkfFkZ;ksa osQ
ekeys esa ns[krs gSaA
ukxfjdksa dks çnÙk
vfèkdkjksa dh lqLi"V
çÑfr fofHkUu jk"Vªksa esa
fHkUu&fHkUu gks ldrh
gS] ysfdu vfèkdrj
yksdrkaf=kd ns'kksa us vkt
muesa oqQN jktuhfrd
vfèkdkj 'kkfey fd;s gSaA
mnkgj.kLo:i] ernku]
vfHkO;fDr ;k vkLFkk dh vk”kknh tSls ukxfjd vf/dkj vkSj U;wure etnwjh ;k f'k{kk
ikus ls tqM+s oqQN lkekftd&vkfFkZd vfèkdkjA vf/dkjksa vkSj çfr"Bk dh lekurk
ukxfjdrk osQ cqfu;knh vf/dkjksa esa ls ,d gSA
ukxfjd vkt ftu vf/dkjksa dk iz;ksx djrs gSa mu lHkh dks la?k"kZ osQ ckn gkfly
fd;k x;k gSA turk us viuh Lora=krk vkSj vfèkdkjksa dks eq[kj djus osQ fy, oqQN
79
ukxfjdrk
ukxfjdrk
jktuhfrd fl¼kar
çkjafHkd la?k"kZa 'kfDr'kkyh jktra=kksa osQ f[kykiQ NsM+s FksA vusd
;wjksih; ns'kksa esa ,sls la?k"kZ gq,A muesa ls oqQN fgald la?k"kZ Fks]
tSls 1789 dh Úkalhlh ØkafrA ,f'k;k vkSj vçQhdk osQ vusd
mifuos'kksa esa leku ukxfjdrk dh ek¡x vkSifuosf'kd 'kkldksa
ls Lora=krk gkfly djus osQ la?k"kZ dk fgLlk jghA nf{k.k
vçQhdk esa leku ukxfjdrk ikus osQ fy, vçQhdk dh v'osr
vkcknh dks lÙkk:<+ xksjs vYila[;dksa osQ f[kykiQ yack la?k"kZ
djuk iM+kA ;g la?k"kZ 1990 osQ n'kd osQ vkjaHk rd ”kkjh
jgkA iw.kZ lnL;rk vkSj leku vf/dkj ikus dk la?k"kZ fo'o osQ
dbZ fgLlksa esa vkt Hkh ”kkjh gSA vkius ns'k esa efgyk vkanksyu
vkSj nfyr vkanksyu osQ ckjs esa i<+k gksxkA mudk edln gS
viuh ”k:jrksa dh vksj è;ku vkÑ"V dj tuer cnyuk] lkFk
gh leku vf/dkj vkSj volj lqfuf'pr djus osQ fy,
ljdkjh uhfr;ksa dks çHkkfor djukA
ukxfjdrk flI -kZQ jkT;lÙkk vkSj mlosQ lnL;ksa osQ chp osQ laca/ksa dk fu:i.k ugha] cfYd
mlls vfèkd gSA ;g ukxfjdksa osQ vkilh laca/ksa osQ ckjs esa Hkh gSA blesa ukxfjdksa osQ
,d&nwljs osQ çfr vkSj lekt osQ çfr fuf'pr nkf;Ro 'kkfey gSaA buesa flI -kZQ
jk"Vª }kjk Fkksih xbZ dkuwuh ckè;rk,¡ ugha] cfYd leqnk; osQ lgthou esa
fparu&eaFku
l=kgoha ls chloha lnh osQ chp ;wjksi osQ xksjs yksxksa us nf{k.k vÚhdk osQ
yksxksa ij viuk 'kklu dk;e j[kkA 1994 rd nf{k.k vÚhdk esa viukbZ xbZ
uhfr;ksa osQ ckjs esa uhps fn, x, C;kSjs dks if<+,A
'osr yksxksa dks er nsus] pquko yM+us vkSj ljdkj dks pquus dk vfèkdkj
FkkA os laifÙk [kjhnus vkSj ns'k esa dgha Hkh vkus&tkus osQ fy, Lora=k FksA dkys
yksxksa dks ,sls vfèkdkj ugha FksA dkys vkSj xksjs yksxksa osQ fy, i`Fkd eqgYys
vkSj dkyksfu;k¡ clkbZ xbZ FkhaA dkys yksxksa dks vius iM+ksl dh xksjs yksxksa dh
cLrh esa dke djus osQ fy, ^ikl* ysus iM+rs FksA mUgsa xksjksa osQ bykosQ esa vius
ifjokj j[kus dh vuqefr ugha FkhA vyx&vyx jax osQ yksxksa osQ fy, fo|ky;
Hkh vyx&vyx FksA
D;k v'osr yksxksa dks nf{k.k vÚhdk esa iw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk feyh
gqbZ Fkh\ dkj.k lfgr crkb;sA
mQij fn;k x;k C;kSjk gesa nf{k.k vÚhdk esa fHkUu lewgksa osQ varl±caèkksa
osQ ckjs esa D;k crkrk gS\ 80
ukxfjdrk
ukxfjdrk
jktuhfrd fl¼kar
Hkkxhnkj gksus vkSj ;ksxnku djus dk uSfrd nkf;Ro Hkh 'kkfey gksrk
gSA ukxfjdksa dks ns'k osQ lkaLÑfrd vkSj çkÑfrd lalk/uksa dk
mÙkjkfèkdkjh vkSj U;klh Hkh ekuk tkrk gSA
 fdlh jktuhfrd vo/kj.kk dks le>us dk vPNk rjhdk mu
mnkgj.kksa dh iM+rky djuk gS] ftuesa tkus&ekus vFkks± ij ,sls lewgksa
}kjk lokfy;k fu'kku yxk;k tk jgk gS] tks eglwl djrs gSa fd muesa
mudh ”k:jrksa vkSj vkdka{kkvksa dk [k;ky ugha fd;k x;kA
6-2 laiw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk
vxj vkius dHkh HkhM+ Hkjs jsy osQ fMCcs ;k cl esa liQj fd;k gS
rks vki bl pyu ls voxr gksaxs fd os yksx] tks ços'k ikus osQ fy,
igys 'kk;n ,d&nwljs ls yM+ iM+s Fks] vanj igq¡prs gh nwljksa dks
ckgj j[kus osQ lk>s LokFkZ esa 'kkfey gks tkrs gSaA tYnh gh ^Hkhrjh*
vkSj ^ckgjh* dk foHkktu mHkj
vkrk gS vkSj ^ckgjh* dks [krjs osQ
:i esa ns[kk tkus yxrk gSA
blh rjg dh çfØ;k,¡ le;&le; ij uxjksa] çns'kksa ;k
dHkh&dHkkj rks iwjs jk"Vª esa pyrh gaSA vxj vkthfodk]
fpfdRlk ;k f'k{kk tSlh lqfoèkk,¡ vkSj ty&tehu tSls
çkÑfrd lalk/u lhfer gksa] rc ^ckgjh* yksxksa osQ ços'k
dks jksdus dh ek¡x mBus dh laHkkouk jgrh gS] Hkys gh
os lgukxfjd D;ksa u gksaA vkidks ^eqacbZ eqacbZdj (eqacbZ
okys) osQ fy,* dk ukjk 'kk;n ;kn gks] ftlls ,slh
Hkkouk,¡ çdV gqb±A Hkkjr vkSj fo'o osQ fofHkUu fgLlksa
esa bl rjg osQ vusd la?k"kZ gksrs vk;s gSaA
blls ;g ç'u mBrk gS fd vkf[kj ^laiw.kZ vkSj leku lnL;rk* dk vlyh vFkZ D;k
gS\ D;k bldk vFkZ ;g gksrk gS fd ukxfjdksa dks ns'k esa tgk¡ Hkh pkgas jgus] i<+us ;k
dke djus dk leku vf/dkj vkSj volj feyuk pkfg,\ D;k bldk vFkZ ;g gS fd
lHkh vehj&xjhc ukxfjdksa dks oqQN cqfu;knh vfèkdkj vkSj lqfo/k,¡ feyuh pkfg,\
bl ifjPNsn esa ge igys bu ç'uksa osQ vk/kj ij ukxfjdrk dk vFkZ [kkstsaxsA
vius ns'k vkSj vU; vusd ns'kksa esa ukxfjdksa dks çnÙk vf/dkjksa esa ,d gS xeukxeu
dh Lora=krkA ;g vf/dkj dkexkjksa osQ fy, fo'ks"k egÙo dk gSA x`g{ks=k esa volj
vius {ks=k osQ ukxfjdksa dh
xfrfof/;ksa osQ oqQN oSls
mnkgj.kksa osQ ckjs esa lkspsa tks
nwljs dh enn djus vFkok
{ks=k dh mUufr ;k fiQj
i;kZoj.k dh j{kk ls lacaf/r
gkasA ,slh oqQN xfrfof/;ksa
dh ,d lwph cuk,¡ tks vkiosQ
gemez ;qokvksa }kjk viukbZ
tk ldrh gSaA
vkvks dqN
djosQ lh[ks
81
ukxfjdrk
ukxfjdrk
jktuhfrd fl¼kar
miyC/ ugha gksus ij dkexkj jkstxkj
dh ryk'k esa vkizokl dh vksj
ço`Ùk gksrs gSaaA jkstxkj dh ryk'k esa
oqQN yksx ns'k osQ ckgj Hkh tkrs
gSaA gekjs ns'k osQ fofHkUu fgLls esa
oqQ'ky vkSj voqQ'ky e”knwjksa osQ
fy, ck”kkj fodflr gq, gSaA
mnkgj.k osQ fy,] lwpuk rduhd
osQ vf/drj dehZ caxyksj tSls
'kgjksa dh vksj meM+rs gSaA osQjy
dh uls± iwjs ns'k esa dgha Hkh fey
ldrh gSaA 'kgjksa esa rs”kh ls iuirk
Hkou&fuekZ.k m|ksx ns'k osQ fofHkUu
fgLlksa osQ Jfedksaa dks vkdf"kZr
djrk gSA lM+d vkfn vk/kjHkwr
lajpukvksa dh ifj;kstukvksa esa Hkh
;gh gksrk gSA vkius vius ?kj ;k
LowQy osQ vklikl fofHkUu {ks=k osQ
e”knwjksa dks ns[kk Hkh gksxkA
gkyk¡fd] vf/d la[;k esa jkstxkj
ckgj osQ yksxksa osQ gkFk esa tkus osQ
f[kykiQ vDlj LFkkuh; yksxksa esa
çfrjks/ dh Hkkouk iSnk gks tkrh
gSA oqQN ukSdfj;ksa ;k dkeksa dks
jkT; osQ ewy fuokfl;ksa ;k LFkkuh;
Hkk"kk dks tkuus okys yksxksa rd
lhfer j[kus dh ek¡x mBrh gSA
jktuhfrd ikfVZ;k¡ ;g eqík mBkrh
gSaA ;g çfrjks/ ^ckgjh* osQ f[kykiQ
laxfBr fgalk dk Hkh :i ys ysrk
gSA Hkkjr osQ yxHkx lHkh {ks=k bl
rjg osQ vkanksyuksa ls xqtj pqosQ
gSaA D;k ,sls vkanksyu ges'kk
U;k;laxr gksrs gSa\
EkkfVZu ywFkj fdax
1950 dk n'kd Lka;qDr jkT; vesfjdk osQ vusd nf{k.kh jkT;ksa esa
dkyh vkSj xksjh vkcknh osQ chp cjdjkj fo"kerkvksa osQ f[kykiQ
ukxfjd vf/dkj vkanksyu osQ mHkkj dk lk{kh gSA bl rjg dh
fo"kerk,¡ bu jkT;ksa }kjk i`FkDdj.k dkuwu osQ uke ls pfpZr ,sls
dkuwuksa osQ ”kfj, iksf"kr gksrh Fkha] ftuls dkys yksxksa dks vusd
ukxfjd vkSj jktuhfrd vf/dkjksa ls oafpr fd;k tkrk FkkA mu
dkuwuksa us fofHkUu ukxfjd lqfo/kvksa] tSls jsy] cl] jax'kkyk]
vkokl] gksVy] jsLVqjsaV vkfn esa xksjs vkSj dkys yksxksa osQ fy,
vyx&vyx LFkku fu/kZfjr dj j[ks FksA bu dkuwuksa osQ dkj.k
dkys vkSj xksjs cPpksa osQ LowQy Hkh vyx&vyx FksA
bu dkuwuksa osQ f[kykiQ gq, vkanksyu esa ekfVZu ywFkj fdax
twfu;j vxz.kh dkys usrk FksA mUgksaus buosQ f[kykiQ vusd
vdkV~; roZQ fn,A igyk] vkRe&xkSjo o vkRe&lEeku osQ
ekeys esa fo'o dh gj tkfr ;k o.kZ dk euq"; cjkcj gSA nwljk]
fdax us dgk fd i`FkDdj.k jktuhfr osQ psgjs ij ^lkekftd
dks<+* dh rjg gS D;ksafd ;g mu yksxksa dks xgjs euksoSKkfud
”k[e nsrk gS] tks ,sls dkuwuksa osQ f'kdkj gSaA
fdax us nyhy nh fd i`FkDdj.k dh çFkk xksjs leqnk; osQ
thou dh xq.koÙkk Hkh de djrh gSA os bls mnkgj.kksa ls Li"V
djrs gSaA xksjs leqnk; us vnkyr osQ funsZ'kkuqlkj oqQN lkeqnkf;d
m|kuksa esa dkys yksxksa dks ços'k dh b”kktr nsus osQ ctk; mUgsa can
djus dk i -SQlyk fd;kA blh rjg oqQN cslckWy Vhesa VwV xb±
D;ksafd vf/dkjh dkys f[kykfM+;kas dks Lohdkj djuk ugha pkgrs
FksA rhljh] i`FkDdj.k dkuwu yksxksa osQ chp d`f=ke lhek,¡ [khaprs
gSa vkSj mUgsa ns'k osQ O;kid fgr osQ fy, ,d&nwljs dk lg;ksx
djus ls jksdrs gSaA bu dkj.kksa ls fdax us cgl NsM+h fd mu dkuwuksa
dks [kRe dj fn;k tkuk pkfg,A mUgksaus i`FkDdj.k dkuwuksa osQ
f[kykiQ 'kkafriw.kZ vkSj vfgald çfrjks/ dk vkàku fd;kA mUgksaus
vius ,d Hkk"k.k esa dgk & ^^gesa vius jpukRed çfrjks/ dks
dHkh Hkh 'kkjhfjd fgalk esa <kydj iru dk f'kdkj ugha gksus nsuk
pkfg,A**
81
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