NCERT Textbook - साखी Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - साखी Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


i| [kaM
,d jk"Vªh; vfLerk vkSj jk"Vªh; pfj=k dk fodkl Hkk"kk osQ
lkFk vfHkUu :i ls tqM+k gksrk gSA Hkk"kk dks dksbZ x<+rk ugha]
og rks gok&ikuh dh rjg lgt Hkko ls cg ldrh gSA
vKs;
Page 2


i| [kaM
,d jk"Vªh; vfLerk vkSj jk"Vªh; pfj=k dk fodkl Hkk"kk osQ
lkFk vfHkUu :i ls tqM+k gksrk gSA Hkk"kk dks dksbZ x<+rk ugha]
og rks gok&ikuh dh rjg lgt Hkko ls cg ldrh gSA
vKs;
dchj
(1398-1518)
dchj dk tUe 1398 esa dk'kh esa gqvk ekuk tkrk gSA xqjQ jkekuan osQ f'k";
dchj us 120 o"kZ dh vk;q ikbZA thou osQ vafre oqQN o"kZ exgj esa fcrk,
vkSj ogha fpjfunzk esa yhu gks x,A
dchj dk vkfoHkkZo ,sls le; esa gqvk Fkk tc jktuhfrd] èkkfeZd vkSj
lkekftd Økafr;k¡ vius pje ij FkhaA dchj Økarn'khZ dfo FksA mudh dfork
esa xgjh lkekftd psruk izdV gksrh gSA mudh dfork lgt gh eeZ dks Nw
ysrh gSA ,d vksj /eZ osQ ckákMacjksa ij mUgksaus xgjh vkSj rh[kh pksV dh gS
rks nwljh vksj vkRek&ijekRek osQ fojg&feyu osQ Hkkoiw.kZ xhr xk, gSaA dchj
'kkL=kh; Kku dh vis{kk vuqHko Kku dks vfèkd egÙo nsrs FksA mudk fo'okl
lRlax esa Fkk vkSj os ekurs Fks fd bZ'oj ,d gS] og fufoZdkj gS] v:i gSA
dchj dh Hkk"kk iwohZ tuin dh Hkk"kk FkhA mUgksaus tupsruk vkSj tuHkkoukvksa
dks vius lcn vkSj lkf[k;ksa osQ ekè;e ls tu&tu rd igq¡pk;kA
Page 3


i| [kaM
,d jk"Vªh; vfLerk vkSj jk"Vªh; pfj=k dk fodkl Hkk"kk osQ
lkFk vfHkUu :i ls tqM+k gksrk gSA Hkk"kk dks dksbZ x<+rk ugha]
og rks gok&ikuh dh rjg lgt Hkko ls cg ldrh gSA
vKs;
dchj
(1398-1518)
dchj dk tUe 1398 esa dk'kh esa gqvk ekuk tkrk gSA xqjQ jkekuan osQ f'k";
dchj us 120 o"kZ dh vk;q ikbZA thou osQ vafre oqQN o"kZ exgj esa fcrk,
vkSj ogha fpjfunzk esa yhu gks x,A
dchj dk vkfoHkkZo ,sls le; esa gqvk Fkk tc jktuhfrd] èkkfeZd vkSj
lkekftd Økafr;k¡ vius pje ij FkhaA dchj Økarn'khZ dfo FksA mudh dfork
esa xgjh lkekftd psruk izdV gksrh gSA mudh dfork lgt gh eeZ dks Nw
ysrh gSA ,d vksj /eZ osQ ckákMacjksa ij mUgksaus xgjh vkSj rh[kh pksV dh gS
rks nwljh vksj vkRek&ijekRek osQ fojg&feyu osQ Hkkoiw.kZ xhr xk, gSaA dchj
'kkL=kh; Kku dh vis{kk vuqHko Kku dks vfèkd egÙo nsrs FksA mudk fo'okl
lRlax esa Fkk vkSj os ekurs Fks fd bZ'oj ,d gS] og fufoZdkj gS] v:i gSA
dchj dh Hkk"kk iwohZ tuin dh Hkk"kk FkhA mUgksaus tupsruk vkSj tuHkkoukvksa
dks vius lcn vkSj lkf[k;ksa osQ ekè;e ls tu&tu rd igq¡pk;kA
4 / Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
^lk[kh* 'kCn ^lk{kh* 'kCn dk gh rn~Hko :i gSA lk{kh 'kCn lk{; lss cuk gS
ftldk vFkZ gksrk gSµizR;{k KkuA ;g izR;{k Kku xqjQ f'k"; dks iznku djrk
gSA lar laiznk; esa vuqHko Kku dh gh egÙkk gS] 'kkL=kh; Kku dh ughaA dchj
dk vuqHko {ks=k foLr`r FkkA dchj txg&txg Hkze.k dj izR;{k Kku izkIr djrs
FksA vr% muosQ }kjk jfpr lkf[k;ksa esa voèkh] jktLFkkuh] Hkkstiqjh vkSj iatkch
Hkk"kkvksa osQ 'kCnksa dk izHkko Li"V fn[kkbZ iM+rk gSA blh dkj.k mudh Hkk"kk
dks ^ipesy f[kpM+h* dgk tkrk gSA dchj dh Hkk"kk dks lèkqDdM+h Hkh dgk
tkrk gSA
^lk[kh* oLrqr% nksgk Nan gh gS ftldk y{k.k gS 13 vkSj 11 osQ foJke
ls 24 ek=kkA izLrqr ikB dh lkf[k;k¡ izek.k gSa fd lR; dh lk{kh nsrk gqvk gh
xqjQ f'k"; dks thou osQ rRoKku dh f'k{kk nsrk gSA ;g f'k{kk ftruh izHkkoiw.kZ
gksrh gS mruh gh ;kn jg tkus ;ksX; HkhA
Page 4


i| [kaM
,d jk"Vªh; vfLerk vkSj jk"Vªh; pfj=k dk fodkl Hkk"kk osQ
lkFk vfHkUu :i ls tqM+k gksrk gSA Hkk"kk dks dksbZ x<+rk ugha]
og rks gok&ikuh dh rjg lgt Hkko ls cg ldrh gSA
vKs;
dchj
(1398-1518)
dchj dk tUe 1398 esa dk'kh esa gqvk ekuk tkrk gSA xqjQ jkekuan osQ f'k";
dchj us 120 o"kZ dh vk;q ikbZA thou osQ vafre oqQN o"kZ exgj esa fcrk,
vkSj ogha fpjfunzk esa yhu gks x,A
dchj dk vkfoHkkZo ,sls le; esa gqvk Fkk tc jktuhfrd] èkkfeZd vkSj
lkekftd Økafr;k¡ vius pje ij FkhaA dchj Økarn'khZ dfo FksA mudh dfork
esa xgjh lkekftd psruk izdV gksrh gSA mudh dfork lgt gh eeZ dks Nw
ysrh gSA ,d vksj /eZ osQ ckákMacjksa ij mUgksaus xgjh vkSj rh[kh pksV dh gS
rks nwljh vksj vkRek&ijekRek osQ fojg&feyu osQ Hkkoiw.kZ xhr xk, gSaA dchj
'kkL=kh; Kku dh vis{kk vuqHko Kku dks vfèkd egÙo nsrs FksA mudk fo'okl
lRlax esa Fkk vkSj os ekurs Fks fd bZ'oj ,d gS] og fufoZdkj gS] v:i gSA
dchj dh Hkk"kk iwohZ tuin dh Hkk"kk FkhA mUgksaus tupsruk vkSj tuHkkoukvksa
dks vius lcn vkSj lkf[k;ksa osQ ekè;e ls tu&tu rd igq¡pk;kA
4 / Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
^lk[kh* 'kCn ^lk{kh* 'kCn dk gh rn~Hko :i gSA lk{kh 'kCn lk{; lss cuk gS
ftldk vFkZ gksrk gSµizR;{k KkuA ;g izR;{k Kku xqjQ f'k"; dks iznku djrk
gSA lar laiznk; esa vuqHko Kku dh gh egÙkk gS] 'kkL=kh; Kku dh ughaA dchj
dk vuqHko {ks=k foLr`r FkkA dchj txg&txg Hkze.k dj izR;{k Kku izkIr djrs
FksA vr% muosQ }kjk jfpr lkf[k;ksa esa voèkh] jktLFkkuh] Hkkstiqjh vkSj iatkch
Hkk"kkvksa osQ 'kCnksa dk izHkko Li"V fn[kkbZ iM+rk gSA blh dkj.k mudh Hkk"kk
dks ^ipesy f[kpM+h* dgk tkrk gSA dchj dh Hkk"kk dks lèkqDdM+h Hkh dgk
tkrk gSA
^lk[kh* oLrqr% nksgk Nan gh gS ftldk y{k.k gS 13 vkSj 11 osQ foJke
ls 24 ek=kkA izLrqr ikB dh lkf[k;k¡ izek.k gSa fd lR; dh lk{kh nsrk gqvk gh
xqjQ f'k"; dks thou osQ rRoKku dh f'k{kk nsrk gSA ;g f'k{kk ftruh izHkkoiw.kZ
gksrh gS mruh gh ;kn jg tkus ;ksX; HkhA
lk[kh / 5
lk[kh
,slh  ck¡.kh  cksfy;s]  eu  dk  vkik  [kksbA
viuk ru lhry djS] vkSju dkSa lq[k gksbAA
dLrwjh  oqaQMfy  clS]  e`x  <¡w<S  cu  ek¡fgA
,slSa ?kfV ?kfV jk¡e gS] nqfu;k¡ ns[kS uk¡¯gAA
tc eSa Fkk rc gfj ugha] vc gfj gSa eSa uk¡fgA
lc v¡fèk;kjk fefV x;k] tc nhid ns[;k ek¡fgAA
lqf[k;k  lc  lalkj  gS]  [kk;S  v:  lksoSA
nqf[k;k  nkl  dchj  gS]  tkxS  v:  jksoSAA
fcjg Hkqoaxe ru clS] ea=k u ykxS dksbA
jke fc;ksxh uk ftoS] ftoS rks ckSjk gksbAA
¯und  usM+k  jkf[k;s]  vk¡xf.k  oqQVh  c¡èkkbA
fcu lkc.k ik¡.kha fcuk] fujey djS lqHkkbAA
iksFkh if<+ if<+ tx eqok] iafMr Hk;k u dksbA
,soSQ vf"kj iho dk] i<+S lq iafMr gksbAA
ge ?kj tkY;k vki.kk¡] fy;k eqjkM+k gkfFkA
vc ?kj tkykSa rkl dk] ts pyS gekjs lkfFkAA
 lanHkZ % dchj xzaFkkoyh] ckcw ';kelqanj nkl
Page 5


i| [kaM
,d jk"Vªh; vfLerk vkSj jk"Vªh; pfj=k dk fodkl Hkk"kk osQ
lkFk vfHkUu :i ls tqM+k gksrk gSA Hkk"kk dks dksbZ x<+rk ugha]
og rks gok&ikuh dh rjg lgt Hkko ls cg ldrh gSA
vKs;
dchj
(1398-1518)
dchj dk tUe 1398 esa dk'kh esa gqvk ekuk tkrk gSA xqjQ jkekuan osQ f'k";
dchj us 120 o"kZ dh vk;q ikbZA thou osQ vafre oqQN o"kZ exgj esa fcrk,
vkSj ogha fpjfunzk esa yhu gks x,A
dchj dk vkfoHkkZo ,sls le; esa gqvk Fkk tc jktuhfrd] èkkfeZd vkSj
lkekftd Økafr;k¡ vius pje ij FkhaA dchj Økarn'khZ dfo FksA mudh dfork
esa xgjh lkekftd psruk izdV gksrh gSA mudh dfork lgt gh eeZ dks Nw
ysrh gSA ,d vksj /eZ osQ ckákMacjksa ij mUgksaus xgjh vkSj rh[kh pksV dh gS
rks nwljh vksj vkRek&ijekRek osQ fojg&feyu osQ Hkkoiw.kZ xhr xk, gSaA dchj
'kkL=kh; Kku dh vis{kk vuqHko Kku dks vfèkd egÙo nsrs FksA mudk fo'okl
lRlax esa Fkk vkSj os ekurs Fks fd bZ'oj ,d gS] og fufoZdkj gS] v:i gSA
dchj dh Hkk"kk iwohZ tuin dh Hkk"kk FkhA mUgksaus tupsruk vkSj tuHkkoukvksa
dks vius lcn vkSj lkf[k;ksa osQ ekè;e ls tu&tu rd igq¡pk;kA
4 / Li'kZ
ikB izos'k
^lk[kh* 'kCn ^lk{kh* 'kCn dk gh rn~Hko :i gSA lk{kh 'kCn lk{; lss cuk gS
ftldk vFkZ gksrk gSµizR;{k KkuA ;g izR;{k Kku xqjQ f'k"; dks iznku djrk
gSA lar laiznk; esa vuqHko Kku dh gh egÙkk gS] 'kkL=kh; Kku dh ughaA dchj
dk vuqHko {ks=k foLr`r FkkA dchj txg&txg Hkze.k dj izR;{k Kku izkIr djrs
FksA vr% muosQ }kjk jfpr lkf[k;ksa esa voèkh] jktLFkkuh] Hkkstiqjh vkSj iatkch
Hkk"kkvksa osQ 'kCnksa dk izHkko Li"V fn[kkbZ iM+rk gSA blh dkj.k mudh Hkk"kk
dks ^ipesy f[kpM+h* dgk tkrk gSA dchj dh Hkk"kk dks lèkqDdM+h Hkh dgk
tkrk gSA
^lk[kh* oLrqr% nksgk Nan gh gS ftldk y{k.k gS 13 vkSj 11 osQ foJke
ls 24 ek=kkA izLrqr ikB dh lkf[k;k¡ izek.k gSa fd lR; dh lk{kh nsrk gqvk gh
xqjQ f'k"; dks thou osQ rRoKku dh f'k{kk nsrk gSA ;g f'k{kk ftruh izHkkoiw.kZ
gksrh gS mruh gh ;kn jg tkus ;ksX; HkhA
lk[kh / 5
lk[kh
,slh  ck¡.kh  cksfy;s]  eu  dk  vkik  [kksbA
viuk ru lhry djS] vkSju dkSa lq[k gksbAA
dLrwjh  oqaQMfy  clS]  e`x  <¡w<S  cu  ek¡fgA
,slSa ?kfV ?kfV jk¡e gS] nqfu;k¡ ns[kS uk¡¯gAA
tc eSa Fkk rc gfj ugha] vc gfj gSa eSa uk¡fgA
lc v¡fèk;kjk fefV x;k] tc nhid ns[;k ek¡fgAA
lqf[k;k  lc  lalkj  gS]  [kk;S  v:  lksoSA
nqf[k;k  nkl  dchj  gS]  tkxS  v:  jksoSAA
fcjg Hkqoaxe ru clS] ea=k u ykxS dksbA
jke fc;ksxh uk ftoS] ftoS rks ckSjk gksbAA
¯und  usM+k  jkf[k;s]  vk¡xf.k  oqQVh  c¡èkkbA
fcu lkc.k ik¡.kha fcuk] fujey djS lqHkkbAA
iksFkh if<+ if<+ tx eqok] iafMr Hk;k u dksbA
,soSQ vf"kj iho dk] i<+S lq iafMr gksbAA
ge ?kj tkY;k vki.kk¡] fy;k eqjkM+k gkfFkA
vc ?kj tkykSa rkl dk] ts pyS gekjs lkfFkAA
 lanHkZ % dchj xzaFkkoyh] ckcw ';kelqanj nkl
6 / Li'kZ
iz'u&vH;kl
(d) fuEufyf[kr iz'uksa osQ mÙkj nhft,µ
1- ehBh ok.kh cksyus ls vkSjksa dks lq[k vkSj vius ru dks 'khryrk oSQls izkIr gksrh gS\
2- nhid fn[kkbZ nsus ij v¡fèk;kjk oSQls feV tkrk gS\ lk[kh osQ lanHkZ esa Li"V dhft,A
3- bZ'oj d.k&d.k eas O;kIr gS] ij ge mls D;ksa ugha ns[k ikrs\
4- lalkj esa lq[kh O;fDr dkSu gS vkSj nq[kh dkSu\ ;gk¡ ^lksuk* vkSj ^tkxuk* fdlosQ izrhd gSa\ bldk
iz;ksx ;gk¡ D;ksa fd;k x;k gS\ Li"V dhft,A
5- vius LoHkko dks fueZy j[kus osQ fy, dchj us D;k mik; lq>k;k gS\
6- ^,soSQ vf"kj iho dk] i<+S lq iafMr gksb*µbl iafDr }kjk dfo D;k dguk pkgrk gS\
7- dchj dh m¼`r lkf[k;ksa dh Hkk"kk dh fo'ks"krk Li"V dhft,A
([k) fuEufyf[kr dk Hkko Li"V dhft,µ
1- fcjg Hkqoaxe ru clS] ea=k u ykxS dksbA
2- dLrwjh oqaQMfy clS] e`x <w¡<S cu ek¡fgA
3- tc eSa Fkk rc gfj ugha] vc gfj gSa eSa uk¡fgA
4- iksFkh if<+ if<+ tx eqok] iafMr Hk;k u dksbA
Hkk"kk vè;;u
1- ikB esa vk, fuEufyf[kr 'kCnksa osQ izpfyr :i mnkgj.k osQ vuqlkj fyf[k,µ
mnkgj.kµ ftoS  & thuk
vkSju] ek¡fg] ns[;k] Hkqoaxe] usM+k] vk¡xf.k] lkc.k] eqok] iho] tkykSa] rklA
;ksX;rk foLrkj
1- ^lkèkq esa ¯unk lgu djus ls fou;'khyrk vkrh gS* rFkk ^O;fDr dks ehBh o dY;k.kdkjh ok.kh cksyuh
pkfg,*µbu fo"k;ksa ij d{kk esa ifjppkZ vk;ksftr dhft,A
2- dLrwjh osQ fo"k; eas tkudkjh izkIr dhft,A
ifj;kstuk dk;Z
1- ehBh ok.kh @ cksyh lacaèkh o bZ'oj izse lacaèkh nksgksa dk ladyu dj pkVZ ij fy[kdj fHkfÙk if=kdk ij
yxkb,A
2- dchj dh lkf[k;ksa dks ;kn dhft, vkSj d{kk esa vaR;k{kjh esa mudk iz;ksx dhft,A
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