NCERT Textbook - पद Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - पद Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


dkO; [kaM
ân; fla/q efr lhi lekukA
Lokfr lkjnk dgfga lqtkukA
tks cj"kb cj ckfj fopk:A
gksafg dfor eqDrkefu pk:AA
& rqylhnkl
Page 2


dkO; [kaM
ân; fla/q efr lhi lekukA
Lokfr lkjnk dgfga lqtkukA
tks cj"kb cj ckfj fopk:A
gksafg dfor eqDrkefu pk:AA
& rqylhnkl
lu~ 1857 osQ ckxh lSfudksa dk dkSeh xhr
ge  gSa  blosQ  ekfyd  ¯gnqLrku  gekjk
ikd oru gS dkSe dk tUur ls Hkh I;kjk
;s  gS  gekjh  fefYd;r  ¯gnqLrku  gekjk
bldh  :gkfu;r  ls  jks'ku  gS  tx  lkjk
fdruh dnhe fdruk ubZe] lc nqfu;k ls U;kjk
djrh gS tj[ks”k ftls xaxks&tequ dh /kjk
mQij   cI
+
kQhZyk   ioZr   igjsnkj   gekjk
uhps lkfgy ij ctrk] lkxj dk uDdkjk
bldh  [kkusa  mxy  jgha  lksuk  ghjk  ikjk
bldh  'kku&'kkSdr  dk  nqfu;k  esa  t;dkjk
vk;k  fiQjaxh  nwj  ls  ,slk  earj  ekjk
ywVk  nksuksa  gkFk  ls  I;kjk  oru  gekjk
vkt 'kghnksa us gS rqedks vgys oru yydkjk
rksM+ks  xqykeh  dh  ”kathjsa  cjlkvks  vaxkjk
¯gnw eqlyeka fl[k gekjk HkkbZ HkkbZ I;kjk
;g gS vktknh dk >aMk bls lyke gekjkAA
1857 1857
tax&,&vk”kknh osQ 'kghnksa dks lyke
Page 3


dkO; [kaM
ân; fla/q efr lhi lekukA
Lokfr lkjnk dgfga lqtkukA
tks cj"kb cj ckfj fopk:A
gksafg dfor eqDrkefu pk:AA
& rqylhnkl
lu~ 1857 osQ ckxh lSfudksa dk dkSeh xhr
ge  gSa  blosQ  ekfyd  ¯gnqLrku  gekjk
ikd oru gS dkSe dk tUur ls Hkh I;kjk
;s  gS  gekjh  fefYd;r  ¯gnqLrku  gekjk
bldh  :gkfu;r  ls  jks'ku  gS  tx  lkjk
fdruh dnhe fdruk ubZe] lc nqfu;k ls U;kjk
djrh gS tj[ks”k ftls xaxks&tequ dh /kjk
mQij   cI
+
kQhZyk   ioZr   igjsnkj   gekjk
uhps lkfgy ij ctrk] lkxj dk uDdkjk
bldh  [kkusa  mxy  jgha  lksuk  ghjk  ikjk
bldh  'kku&'kkSdr  dk  nqfu;k  esa  t;dkjk
vk;k  fiQjaxh  nwj  ls  ,slk  earj  ekjk
ywVk  nksuksa  gkFk  ls  I;kjk  oru  gekjk
vkt 'kghnksa us gS rqedks vgys oru yydkjk
rksM+ks  xqykeh  dh  ”kathjsa  cjlkvks  vaxkjk
¯gnw eqlyeka fl[k gekjk HkkbZ HkkbZ I;kjk
;g gS vktknh dk >aMk bls lyke gekjkAA
1857 1857
tax&,&vk”kknh osQ 'kghnksa dks lyke
lw
jnkl dk tUe lu~ 1478 esa ekuk tkrk gSA ,d ekU;rk
osQ vuqlkj mudk tUe eFkqjk osQ fudV jQudrk ;k
js.kqdk {ks=k esa gqvk tcfd nwljh ekU;rk osQ vuqlkj mudk
tUe&LFkku fnYyh osQ ikl lhgh ekuk tkrk gSA egkizHkq
oYyHkkpk;Z osQ f'k"; lwjnkl v"VNki osQ dfo;ksa esa lokZfèkd
izfl¼ gSaA os eFkqjk vkSj o`ankou osQ chp xmQ?kkV ij jgrs
Fks vkSj JhukFk th osQ eafnj esa Hktu&dhrZu djrs FksA lu~
1583 esa ikjlkSyh esa mudk fuèku gqvkA
muosQ rhu xzaFkksa lwjlkxj] lkfgR; ygjh vkSj lwj
lkjkoyh esa lwjlkxj gh lokZfèkd yksdfiz; gqvkA [ksrh
vkSj i'kqikyu okys Hkkjrh; lekt dk nSfud varjax fp=k
vkSj euq"; dh LokHkkfod o`fÙk;ksa dk fp=k.k lwj dh dfork
esa feyrk gSA lwj ^okRlY;* vkSj ^ Ük`axkj*  osQ Js"B dfo
ekus tkrs gSaA Ñ".k vkSj xksfi;ksa dk izse lgt ekuoh; izse
dh izfr"Bk djrk gSA lwj us ekuo izse dh xkSjoxkFkk osQ
ekè;e ls lkekU; euq";ksa dks ghurk cksèk ls eqDr fd;k]
muesa thus dh yyd iSnk dhA
mudh dfork esa cztHkk"kk dk fu[kjk gqvk :i gSA og
pyh vk jgh yksdxhrksa dh ijaijk dh gh Js"B dM+h gSA
lwjnkl
1
Page 4


dkO; [kaM
ân; fla/q efr lhi lekukA
Lokfr lkjnk dgfga lqtkukA
tks cj"kb cj ckfj fopk:A
gksafg dfor eqDrkefu pk:AA
& rqylhnkl
lu~ 1857 osQ ckxh lSfudksa dk dkSeh xhr
ge  gSa  blosQ  ekfyd  ¯gnqLrku  gekjk
ikd oru gS dkSe dk tUur ls Hkh I;kjk
;s  gS  gekjh  fefYd;r  ¯gnqLrku  gekjk
bldh  :gkfu;r  ls  jks'ku  gS  tx  lkjk
fdruh dnhe fdruk ubZe] lc nqfu;k ls U;kjk
djrh gS tj[ks”k ftls xaxks&tequ dh /kjk
mQij   cI
+
kQhZyk   ioZr   igjsnkj   gekjk
uhps lkfgy ij ctrk] lkxj dk uDdkjk
bldh  [kkusa  mxy  jgha  lksuk  ghjk  ikjk
bldh  'kku&'kkSdr  dk  nqfu;k  esa  t;dkjk
vk;k  fiQjaxh  nwj  ls  ,slk  earj  ekjk
ywVk  nksuksa  gkFk  ls  I;kjk  oru  gekjk
vkt 'kghnksa us gS rqedks vgys oru yydkjk
rksM+ks  xqykeh  dh  ”kathjsa  cjlkvks  vaxkjk
¯gnw eqlyeka fl[k gekjk HkkbZ HkkbZ I;kjk
;g gS vktknh dk >aMk bls lyke gekjkAA
1857 1857
tax&,&vk”kknh osQ 'kghnksa dks lyke
lw
jnkl dk tUe lu~ 1478 esa ekuk tkrk gSA ,d ekU;rk
osQ vuqlkj mudk tUe eFkqjk osQ fudV jQudrk ;k
js.kqdk {ks=k esa gqvk tcfd nwljh ekU;rk osQ vuqlkj mudk
tUe&LFkku fnYyh osQ ikl lhgh ekuk tkrk gSA egkizHkq
oYyHkkpk;Z osQ f'k"; lwjnkl v"VNki osQ dfo;ksa esa lokZfèkd
izfl¼ gSaA os eFkqjk vkSj o`ankou osQ chp xmQ?kkV ij jgrs
Fks vkSj JhukFk th osQ eafnj esa Hktu&dhrZu djrs FksA lu~
1583 esa ikjlkSyh esa mudk fuèku gqvkA
muosQ rhu xzaFkksa lwjlkxj] lkfgR; ygjh vkSj lwj
lkjkoyh esa lwjlkxj gh lokZfèkd yksdfiz; gqvkA [ksrh
vkSj i'kqikyu okys Hkkjrh; lekt dk nSfud varjax fp=k
vkSj euq"; dh LokHkkfod o`fÙk;ksa dk fp=k.k lwj dh dfork
esa feyrk gSA lwj ^okRlY;* vkSj ^ Ük`axkj*  osQ Js"B dfo
ekus tkrs gSaA Ñ".k vkSj xksfi;ksa dk izse lgt ekuoh; izse
dh izfr"Bk djrk gSA lwj us ekuo izse dh xkSjoxkFkk osQ
ekè;e ls lkekU; euq";ksa dks ghurk cksèk ls eqDr fd;k]
muesa thus dh yyd iSnk dhA
mudh dfork esa cztHkk"kk dk fu[kjk gqvk :i gSA og
pyh vk jgh yksdxhrksa dh ijaijk dh gh Js"B dM+h gSA
lwjnkl
1
f{kfrt
4
;gk¡ lwjlkxj osQ Hkzejxhr ls pkj in fy, x, gSaA Ñ".k us eFkqjk tkus osQ ckn
Lo;a u ykSVdj m¼o osQ tfj, xksfi;ksa osQ ikl lans'k Hkstk FkkA m¼o us fuxZq.k
czã ,oa ;ksx dk mins'k nsdj xksfi;ksa dh fojg osnuk dks 'kkar djus dk iz;kl
fd;kA xksfi;k¡ Kku ekxZ dh ctk; izse ekxZ dks ilan djrh FkhaA bl dkj.k mUgsa
m¼o dk 'kq"d lans'k ilan ugha vk;kA rHkh ogk¡ ,d HkkSajk vk igq¡pkA ;gha ls
Hkzejxhr dk izkjaHk gksrk gSA xksfi;ksa us Hkzej osQ cgkus m¼o ij O;aX; ck.k NksM+sA
igys in esa xksfi;ksa dh ;g f'kdk;r okf”kc yxrh gS fd ;fn m¼o dHkh Lusg
osQ èkkxs ls c¡èks gksrs rks os fojg dh osnuk dks vuqHkwr vo'; dj ikrsA nwljs in
esa xksfi;ksa dh ;g LohdkjksfDr fd muosQ eu dh vfHkyk"kk,¡ eu esa gh jg xb±]
Ñ".k osQ izfr muosQ izse dh xgjkbZ dks vfHkO;Dr djrh gSA rhljs in esa os m¼o
dh ;ksx lkèkuk dks dM+oh ddM+h tSlk crkdj vius ,dfu"B izse esa n`<+ fo'okl
izdV djrh gSaA pkSFks in esa m¼o dks rkuk ekjrh gSa fd o`Q".k us vc jktuhfr
i<+ yh gSA var esa xksfi;ksa }kjk m¼o dks jktèkeZ (iztk dk fgr) ;kn fnyk;k tkuk
lwjnkl dh yksdèkfeZrk dks n'kkZrk gSA
Page 5


dkO; [kaM
ân; fla/q efr lhi lekukA
Lokfr lkjnk dgfga lqtkukA
tks cj"kb cj ckfj fopk:A
gksafg dfor eqDrkefu pk:AA
& rqylhnkl
lu~ 1857 osQ ckxh lSfudksa dk dkSeh xhr
ge  gSa  blosQ  ekfyd  ¯gnqLrku  gekjk
ikd oru gS dkSe dk tUur ls Hkh I;kjk
;s  gS  gekjh  fefYd;r  ¯gnqLrku  gekjk
bldh  :gkfu;r  ls  jks'ku  gS  tx  lkjk
fdruh dnhe fdruk ubZe] lc nqfu;k ls U;kjk
djrh gS tj[ks”k ftls xaxks&tequ dh /kjk
mQij   cI
+
kQhZyk   ioZr   igjsnkj   gekjk
uhps lkfgy ij ctrk] lkxj dk uDdkjk
bldh  [kkusa  mxy  jgha  lksuk  ghjk  ikjk
bldh  'kku&'kkSdr  dk  nqfu;k  esa  t;dkjk
vk;k  fiQjaxh  nwj  ls  ,slk  earj  ekjk
ywVk  nksuksa  gkFk  ls  I;kjk  oru  gekjk
vkt 'kghnksa us gS rqedks vgys oru yydkjk
rksM+ks  xqykeh  dh  ”kathjsa  cjlkvks  vaxkjk
¯gnw eqlyeka fl[k gekjk HkkbZ HkkbZ I;kjk
;g gS vktknh dk >aMk bls lyke gekjkAA
1857 1857
tax&,&vk”kknh osQ 'kghnksa dks lyke
lw
jnkl dk tUe lu~ 1478 esa ekuk tkrk gSA ,d ekU;rk
osQ vuqlkj mudk tUe eFkqjk osQ fudV jQudrk ;k
js.kqdk {ks=k esa gqvk tcfd nwljh ekU;rk osQ vuqlkj mudk
tUe&LFkku fnYyh osQ ikl lhgh ekuk tkrk gSA egkizHkq
oYyHkkpk;Z osQ f'k"; lwjnkl v"VNki osQ dfo;ksa esa lokZfèkd
izfl¼ gSaA os eFkqjk vkSj o`ankou osQ chp xmQ?kkV ij jgrs
Fks vkSj JhukFk th osQ eafnj esa Hktu&dhrZu djrs FksA lu~
1583 esa ikjlkSyh esa mudk fuèku gqvkA
muosQ rhu xzaFkksa lwjlkxj] lkfgR; ygjh vkSj lwj
lkjkoyh esa lwjlkxj gh lokZfèkd yksdfiz; gqvkA [ksrh
vkSj i'kqikyu okys Hkkjrh; lekt dk nSfud varjax fp=k
vkSj euq"; dh LokHkkfod o`fÙk;ksa dk fp=k.k lwj dh dfork
esa feyrk gSA lwj ^okRlY;* vkSj ^ Ük`axkj*  osQ Js"B dfo
ekus tkrs gSaA Ñ".k vkSj xksfi;ksa dk izse lgt ekuoh; izse
dh izfr"Bk djrk gSA lwj us ekuo izse dh xkSjoxkFkk osQ
ekè;e ls lkekU; euq";ksa dks ghurk cksèk ls eqDr fd;k]
muesa thus dh yyd iSnk dhA
mudh dfork esa cztHkk"kk dk fu[kjk gqvk :i gSA og
pyh vk jgh yksdxhrksa dh ijaijk dh gh Js"B dM+h gSA
lwjnkl
1
f{kfrt
4
;gk¡ lwjlkxj osQ Hkzejxhr ls pkj in fy, x, gSaA Ñ".k us eFkqjk tkus osQ ckn
Lo;a u ykSVdj m¼o osQ tfj, xksfi;ksa osQ ikl lans'k Hkstk FkkA m¼o us fuxZq.k
czã ,oa ;ksx dk mins'k nsdj xksfi;ksa dh fojg osnuk dks 'kkar djus dk iz;kl
fd;kA xksfi;k¡ Kku ekxZ dh ctk; izse ekxZ dks ilan djrh FkhaA bl dkj.k mUgsa
m¼o dk 'kq"d lans'k ilan ugha vk;kA rHkh ogk¡ ,d HkkSajk vk igq¡pkA ;gha ls
Hkzejxhr dk izkjaHk gksrk gSA xksfi;ksa us Hkzej osQ cgkus m¼o ij O;aX; ck.k NksM+sA
igys in esa xksfi;ksa dh ;g f'kdk;r okf”kc yxrh gS fd ;fn m¼o dHkh Lusg
osQ èkkxs ls c¡èks gksrs rks os fojg dh osnuk dks vuqHkwr vo'; dj ikrsA nwljs in
esa xksfi;ksa dh ;g LohdkjksfDr fd muosQ eu dh vfHkyk"kk,¡ eu esa gh jg xb±]
Ñ".k osQ izfr muosQ izse dh xgjkbZ dks vfHkO;Dr djrh gSA rhljs in esa os m¼o
dh ;ksx lkèkuk dks dM+oh ddM+h tSlk crkdj vius ,dfu"B izse esa n`<+ fo'okl
izdV djrh gSaA pkSFks in esa m¼o dks rkuk ekjrh gSa fd o`Q".k us vc jktuhfr
i<+ yh gSA var esa xksfi;ksa }kjk m¼o dks jktèkeZ (iztk dk fgr) ;kn fnyk;k tkuk
lwjnkl dh yksdèkfeZrk dks n'kkZrk gSA
lwjnkl
5
in
(1)
ÅèkkS] rqe gkS vfr cM+HkkxhA
vijl jgr lusg rxk rSa] ukfgu eu vuqjkxhA
iqjbfu ikr jgr ty Hkhrj] rk jl nsg u nkxhA
T;kSa ty ekg¡ rsy dh xkxfj] cw¡n u rkdkSa ykxhA
izhfr&unh eSa ikm¡ u cksjÔkS] n`f"V u :i ijkxhA
^lwjnkl* vcyk ge Hkksjh] xqj pk¡Vh T;kSa ikxhAA
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