NCERT Textbook: पाठ 14 - एक कहानी यह भी, क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 14 - एक कहानी यह भी, क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


e
Uuw HkaMkjh dk tUe lu~ 1931 esa xk¡o Hkkuiqjk] f”kyk
eanlkSj (eè; izns'k) esa gqvk ijarq mudh baVj rd dh
f'k{kk&nh{kk gqbZ jktLFkku osQ vtesj 'kgj esaA ckn esa mUgksaus
¯gnh esa ,e-,- fd;kA fnYyh osQ fejkaMk gkml dkWfyt esa
vè;kiu dk;Z ls vodk'k izkfIr osQ ckn vktdy fnYyh esa
gh jgdj Lora=k ys[ku dj jgh gSaA
Lokra=;ksÙkj ¯gnh dFkk lkfgR; dh izeq[k gLrk{kj eUuw
HkaMkjh dh izeq[k jpuk,¡ gSaµ,d IysV lSykc] eSa gkj xbZ]
;gh lp gS] f=k'kaoqQ (dgkuh&laxzg)_ vkidk caVh] egkHkkst
(miU;kl)A blosQ vykok mUgksaus fI
+
kQYe ,oa Vsyhfo”ku
èkkjkokfgdksa osQ fy, iVdFkk,¡ Hkh fy[kh gSaA mudh lkfgfR;d
miyfC/;ksa osQ fy, ¯gnh vdkneh osQ f'k[kj lEeku lfgr
mUgas vusd iqjLdkj izkIr gks pqosQ gSa ftuesa Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk
ifj"kn~] dksydkrk] jktLFkku laxhr ukVd vdkneh] mÙkj
izns'k ¯gnh laLFkku osQ iqjLdkj 'kkfey gSaA
eUuw HkaMkjh dh dgkfu;k¡ gksa ;k miU;kl muesa Hkk"kk vkSj
f'kYi dh lknxh rFkk izkekf.kd vuqHkwfr feyrh gSA mudh
jpukvksa esa L=kh&eu ls tqM+h vuqHkwfr;ksa dh vfHkO;fDr Hkh
ns[kh tk ldrh gSA
eUuw HkaMkjh
14
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e
Uuw HkaMkjh dk tUe lu~ 1931 esa xk¡o Hkkuiqjk] f”kyk
eanlkSj (eè; izns'k) esa gqvk ijarq mudh baVj rd dh
f'k{kk&nh{kk gqbZ jktLFkku osQ vtesj 'kgj esaA ckn esa mUgksaus
¯gnh esa ,e-,- fd;kA fnYyh osQ fejkaMk gkml dkWfyt esa
vè;kiu dk;Z ls vodk'k izkfIr osQ ckn vktdy fnYyh esa
gh jgdj Lora=k ys[ku dj jgh gSaA
Lokra=;ksÙkj ¯gnh dFkk lkfgR; dh izeq[k gLrk{kj eUuw
HkaMkjh dh izeq[k jpuk,¡ gSaµ,d IysV lSykc] eSa gkj xbZ]
;gh lp gS] f=k'kaoqQ (dgkuh&laxzg)_ vkidk caVh] egkHkkst
(miU;kl)A blosQ vykok mUgksaus fI
+
kQYe ,oa Vsyhfo”ku
èkkjkokfgdksa osQ fy, iVdFkk,¡ Hkh fy[kh gSaA mudh lkfgfR;d
miyfC/;ksa osQ fy, ¯gnh vdkneh osQ f'k[kj lEeku lfgr
mUgas vusd iqjLdkj izkIr gks pqosQ gSa ftuesa Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk
ifj"kn~] dksydkrk] jktLFkku laxhr ukVd vdkneh] mÙkj
izns'k ¯gnh laLFkku osQ iqjLdkj 'kkfey gSaA
eUuw HkaMkjh dh dgkfu;k¡ gksa ;k miU;kl muesa Hkk"kk vkSj
f'kYi dh lknxh rFkk izkekf.kd vuqHkwfr feyrh gSA mudh
jpukvksa esa L=kh&eu ls tqM+h vuqHkwfr;ksa dh vfHkO;fDr Hkh
ns[kh tk ldrh gSA
eUuw HkaMkjh
14
f{kfrt
92
,d dgkuh ;g Hkh osQ lanHkZ esa lcls igys rks ge ;g tku ysa fd eUuw HkaMkjh
us ikfjHkkf"kd vFkZ esa dksbZ flyflysokj vkRedFkk ugha fy[kh gSA vius vkRedF;
esa mUgksaus mu O;fDr;ksa vkSj ?kVukvksa osQ ckjs esa fy[kk gS tks muosQ ys[kdh; thou
ls tqM+s gq, gSaA ladfyr va'k esa eUuw th osQ fd'kksj thou ls tqM+h ?kVukvksa osQ lkFk
muosQ firkth vkSj mudh dkWfyt dh izkè;kfidk 'khyk vxzoky dk O;fDrRo
fo'ks"k rkSj ij mHkjdj vk;k gS] ftUgksaus vkxs pydj muosQ ys[kdh; O;fDrRo osQ
fuekZ.k esa egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkbZA ysf[kdk us ;gk¡ cgqr gh [kwclwjrh ls lk/kj.k
yM+dh osQ vlk/kj.k cuus osQ izkjafHkd iM+koksa dks izdV fd;k gSA lu~ *46&*47
dh vk”kknh dh vk¡/h us eUuw th dks Hkh vNwrk ugha NksM+kA NksVs 'kgj dh ;qok gksrh
yM+dh us vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ esa ftl rjg Hkkxhnkjh dh mlesa mldk mRlkg] vkst]
laxBu&{kerk vkSj fojks/ djus dk rjhdk ns[krs gh curk gSA
Page 3


e
Uuw HkaMkjh dk tUe lu~ 1931 esa xk¡o Hkkuiqjk] f”kyk
eanlkSj (eè; izns'k) esa gqvk ijarq mudh baVj rd dh
f'k{kk&nh{kk gqbZ jktLFkku osQ vtesj 'kgj esaA ckn esa mUgksaus
¯gnh esa ,e-,- fd;kA fnYyh osQ fejkaMk gkml dkWfyt esa
vè;kiu dk;Z ls vodk'k izkfIr osQ ckn vktdy fnYyh esa
gh jgdj Lora=k ys[ku dj jgh gSaA
Lokra=;ksÙkj ¯gnh dFkk lkfgR; dh izeq[k gLrk{kj eUuw
HkaMkjh dh izeq[k jpuk,¡ gSaµ,d IysV lSykc] eSa gkj xbZ]
;gh lp gS] f=k'kaoqQ (dgkuh&laxzg)_ vkidk caVh] egkHkkst
(miU;kl)A blosQ vykok mUgksaus fI
+
kQYe ,oa Vsyhfo”ku
èkkjkokfgdksa osQ fy, iVdFkk,¡ Hkh fy[kh gSaA mudh lkfgfR;d
miyfC/;ksa osQ fy, ¯gnh vdkneh osQ f'k[kj lEeku lfgr
mUgas vusd iqjLdkj izkIr gks pqosQ gSa ftuesa Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk
ifj"kn~] dksydkrk] jktLFkku laxhr ukVd vdkneh] mÙkj
izns'k ¯gnh laLFkku osQ iqjLdkj 'kkfey gSaA
eUuw HkaMkjh dh dgkfu;k¡ gksa ;k miU;kl muesa Hkk"kk vkSj
f'kYi dh lknxh rFkk izkekf.kd vuqHkwfr feyrh gSA mudh
jpukvksa esa L=kh&eu ls tqM+h vuqHkwfr;ksa dh vfHkO;fDr Hkh
ns[kh tk ldrh gSA
eUuw HkaMkjh
14
f{kfrt
92
,d dgkuh ;g Hkh osQ lanHkZ esa lcls igys rks ge ;g tku ysa fd eUuw HkaMkjh
us ikfjHkkf"kd vFkZ esa dksbZ flyflysokj vkRedFkk ugha fy[kh gSA vius vkRedF;
esa mUgksaus mu O;fDr;ksa vkSj ?kVukvksa osQ ckjs esa fy[kk gS tks muosQ ys[kdh; thou
ls tqM+s gq, gSaA ladfyr va'k esa eUuw th osQ fd'kksj thou ls tqM+h ?kVukvksa osQ lkFk
muosQ firkth vkSj mudh dkWfyt dh izkè;kfidk 'khyk vxzoky dk O;fDrRo
fo'ks"k rkSj ij mHkjdj vk;k gS] ftUgksaus vkxs pydj muosQ ys[kdh; O;fDrRo osQ
fuekZ.k esa egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkbZA ysf[kdk us ;gk¡ cgqr gh [kwclwjrh ls lk/kj.k
yM+dh osQ vlk/kj.k cuus osQ izkjafHkd iM+koksa dks izdV fd;k gSA lu~ *46&*47
dh vk”kknh dh vk¡/h us eUuw th dks Hkh vNwrk ugha NksM+kA NksVs 'kgj dh ;qok gksrh
yM+dh us vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ esa ftl rjg Hkkxhnkjh dh mlesa mldk mRlkg] vkst]
laxBu&{kerk vkSj fojks/ djus dk rjhdk ns[krs gh curk gSA
eUuw HkaMkjh
93
,d dgkuh ;g Hkh
tUeh rks eè; izns'k osQ Hkkuiqjk xk¡o esa Fkh] ysfdu esjh ;knksa dk flyflyk 'kq: gksrk gS
vtesj osQ czãiqjh eksgYys osQ ml nks&eaf”kyk edku ls] ftldh mQijh eaf”ky esa firkth
dk lkezkT; Fkk] tgk¡ os fugk;r vO;ofLFkr <ax ls iSQyh&fc[kjh iqLrdksa&if=kdkvksa vkSj
v[kckjksa osQ chp ;k rks oqQN i<+rs jgrs Fks ;k fiQj ^fMDVs'ku* nsrs jgrs FksA uhps ge lc
HkkbZ&cfguksa osQ lkFk jgrh Fkha gekjh csi<+h&fy[kh O;fDrRofoghu ek¡---losjs ls 'kke rd
ge lcdh bPNkvksa vkSj firk th dh vkKkvksa dk ikyu djus osQ fy, lnSo rRijA
vtesj ls igys firk th bankSj esa Fks tgk¡ mudh cM+h izfr"Bk Fkh] lEeku Fkk] uke FkkA
dkaxzsl osQ lkFk&lkFk os lekt&lqèkkj osQ dkeksa ls Hkh tqM+s gq, FksA f'k{kk osQ os osQoy
mins'k gh ugha nsrs Fks] cfYd mu fnuksa vkB&vkB] nl&nl fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks vius ?kj
j[kdj i<+k;k gS ftuesa ls dbZ rks ckn esa mQ¡ps&m¡Qps vksgnksa ij igq¡psA ;s mudh [kq'kgkyh
osQ fnu Fks vkSj mu fnukas mudh nfj;kfnyh osQ ppsZ Hkh de ugha FksA ,d vksj os csgn
dksey vkSj laosnu'khy O;fDr Fks rks nwljh vksj csgn ozQksèkh vkSj vgaoknhA
ij ;g lc rks eSaus osQoy lqukA ns[kk] rc rks bu xq.kksa osQ HkXuko'ks"kksa dks <ksrs firk
FksA ,d cgqr cM+s vkfFkZd >VosQ osQ dkj.k os bankSj ls vtesj vk x, Fks] tgk¡ mUgksaus
vius vosQys osQ cy&cwrs vkSj gkSlys ls vaxzs”kh&¯gnh 'kCndks'k (fo"k;okj) osQ vèkwjs dke
dks vkxs c<+kuk 'kq: fd;k tks viuh rjg dk igyk vkSj vosQyk 'kCndks'k FkkA blus mUgsa
;'k vkSj izfr"Bk rks cgqr nh] ij vFkZ ugha vkSj 'kk;n fxjrh vkfFkZd fLFkfr us gh muosQ
O;fDrRo osQ lkjs ldkjkRed igyqqvksa dks fupksM+uk 'kq: dj fn;kA floqQM+rh vkfFkZd
fLFkfr osQ dkj.k vkSj vfèkd foLiQkfjr mudk vga mUgsa bl ckr rd dh vuqefr ugha
nsrk Fkk fd os de&ls&de vius cPpksa dks rks viuh vkfFkZd foo'krkvksa dk Hkkxhnkj
cuk,¡A uokch vknrsa] vèkwjh egRokdka{kk,¡] ges'kk 'kh"kZ ij jgus osQ ckn gkf'k, ij ljdrs
pys tkus dh ;kruk ozQksèk cudj ges'kk ek¡ dks o¡Qikrh&FkjFkjkrh jgrh FkhaA viuksa osQ gkFkksa
fo'okl?kkr dh tkus oSQlh xgjh pksVsa gkssaxh os ftUgksaus vk¡[k ew¡ndj lcdk fo'okl djus
Page 4


e
Uuw HkaMkjh dk tUe lu~ 1931 esa xk¡o Hkkuiqjk] f”kyk
eanlkSj (eè; izns'k) esa gqvk ijarq mudh baVj rd dh
f'k{kk&nh{kk gqbZ jktLFkku osQ vtesj 'kgj esaA ckn esa mUgksaus
¯gnh esa ,e-,- fd;kA fnYyh osQ fejkaMk gkml dkWfyt esa
vè;kiu dk;Z ls vodk'k izkfIr osQ ckn vktdy fnYyh esa
gh jgdj Lora=k ys[ku dj jgh gSaA
Lokra=;ksÙkj ¯gnh dFkk lkfgR; dh izeq[k gLrk{kj eUuw
HkaMkjh dh izeq[k jpuk,¡ gSaµ,d IysV lSykc] eSa gkj xbZ]
;gh lp gS] f=k'kaoqQ (dgkuh&laxzg)_ vkidk caVh] egkHkkst
(miU;kl)A blosQ vykok mUgksaus fI
+
kQYe ,oa Vsyhfo”ku
èkkjkokfgdksa osQ fy, iVdFkk,¡ Hkh fy[kh gSaA mudh lkfgfR;d
miyfC/;ksa osQ fy, ¯gnh vdkneh osQ f'k[kj lEeku lfgr
mUgas vusd iqjLdkj izkIr gks pqosQ gSa ftuesa Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk
ifj"kn~] dksydkrk] jktLFkku laxhr ukVd vdkneh] mÙkj
izns'k ¯gnh laLFkku osQ iqjLdkj 'kkfey gSaA
eUuw HkaMkjh dh dgkfu;k¡ gksa ;k miU;kl muesa Hkk"kk vkSj
f'kYi dh lknxh rFkk izkekf.kd vuqHkwfr feyrh gSA mudh
jpukvksa esa L=kh&eu ls tqM+h vuqHkwfr;ksa dh vfHkO;fDr Hkh
ns[kh tk ldrh gSA
eUuw HkaMkjh
14
f{kfrt
92
,d dgkuh ;g Hkh osQ lanHkZ esa lcls igys rks ge ;g tku ysa fd eUuw HkaMkjh
us ikfjHkkf"kd vFkZ esa dksbZ flyflysokj vkRedFkk ugha fy[kh gSA vius vkRedF;
esa mUgksaus mu O;fDr;ksa vkSj ?kVukvksa osQ ckjs esa fy[kk gS tks muosQ ys[kdh; thou
ls tqM+s gq, gSaA ladfyr va'k esa eUuw th osQ fd'kksj thou ls tqM+h ?kVukvksa osQ lkFk
muosQ firkth vkSj mudh dkWfyt dh izkè;kfidk 'khyk vxzoky dk O;fDrRo
fo'ks"k rkSj ij mHkjdj vk;k gS] ftUgksaus vkxs pydj muosQ ys[kdh; O;fDrRo osQ
fuekZ.k esa egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkbZA ysf[kdk us ;gk¡ cgqr gh [kwclwjrh ls lk/kj.k
yM+dh osQ vlk/kj.k cuus osQ izkjafHkd iM+koksa dks izdV fd;k gSA lu~ *46&*47
dh vk”kknh dh vk¡/h us eUuw th dks Hkh vNwrk ugha NksM+kA NksVs 'kgj dh ;qok gksrh
yM+dh us vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ esa ftl rjg Hkkxhnkjh dh mlesa mldk mRlkg] vkst]
laxBu&{kerk vkSj fojks/ djus dk rjhdk ns[krs gh curk gSA
eUuw HkaMkjh
93
,d dgkuh ;g Hkh
tUeh rks eè; izns'k osQ Hkkuiqjk xk¡o esa Fkh] ysfdu esjh ;knksa dk flyflyk 'kq: gksrk gS
vtesj osQ czãiqjh eksgYys osQ ml nks&eaf”kyk edku ls] ftldh mQijh eaf”ky esa firkth
dk lkezkT; Fkk] tgk¡ os fugk;r vO;ofLFkr <ax ls iSQyh&fc[kjh iqLrdksa&if=kdkvksa vkSj
v[kckjksa osQ chp ;k rks oqQN i<+rs jgrs Fks ;k fiQj ^fMDVs'ku* nsrs jgrs FksA uhps ge lc
HkkbZ&cfguksa osQ lkFk jgrh Fkha gekjh csi<+h&fy[kh O;fDrRofoghu ek¡---losjs ls 'kke rd
ge lcdh bPNkvksa vkSj firk th dh vkKkvksa dk ikyu djus osQ fy, lnSo rRijA
vtesj ls igys firk th bankSj esa Fks tgk¡ mudh cM+h izfr"Bk Fkh] lEeku Fkk] uke FkkA
dkaxzsl osQ lkFk&lkFk os lekt&lqèkkj osQ dkeksa ls Hkh tqM+s gq, FksA f'k{kk osQ os osQoy
mins'k gh ugha nsrs Fks] cfYd mu fnuksa vkB&vkB] nl&nl fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks vius ?kj
j[kdj i<+k;k gS ftuesa ls dbZ rks ckn esa mQ¡ps&m¡Qps vksgnksa ij igq¡psA ;s mudh [kq'kgkyh
osQ fnu Fks vkSj mu fnukas mudh nfj;kfnyh osQ ppsZ Hkh de ugha FksA ,d vksj os csgn
dksey vkSj laosnu'khy O;fDr Fks rks nwljh vksj csgn ozQksèkh vkSj vgaoknhA
ij ;g lc rks eSaus osQoy lqukA ns[kk] rc rks bu xq.kksa osQ HkXuko'ks"kksa dks <ksrs firk
FksA ,d cgqr cM+s vkfFkZd >VosQ osQ dkj.k os bankSj ls vtesj vk x, Fks] tgk¡ mUgksaus
vius vosQys osQ cy&cwrs vkSj gkSlys ls vaxzs”kh&¯gnh 'kCndks'k (fo"k;okj) osQ vèkwjs dke
dks vkxs c<+kuk 'kq: fd;k tks viuh rjg dk igyk vkSj vosQyk 'kCndks'k FkkA blus mUgsa
;'k vkSj izfr"Bk rks cgqr nh] ij vFkZ ugha vkSj 'kk;n fxjrh vkfFkZd fLFkfr us gh muosQ
O;fDrRo osQ lkjs ldkjkRed igyqqvksa dks fupksM+uk 'kq: dj fn;kA floqQM+rh vkfFkZd
fLFkfr osQ dkj.k vkSj vfèkd foLiQkfjr mudk vga mUgsa bl ckr rd dh vuqefr ugha
nsrk Fkk fd os de&ls&de vius cPpksa dks rks viuh vkfFkZd foo'krkvksa dk Hkkxhnkj
cuk,¡A uokch vknrsa] vèkwjh egRokdka{kk,¡] ges'kk 'kh"kZ ij jgus osQ ckn gkf'k, ij ljdrs
pys tkus dh ;kruk ozQksèk cudj ges'kk ek¡ dks o¡Qikrh&FkjFkjkrh jgrh FkhaA viuksa osQ gkFkksa
fo'okl?kkr dh tkus oSQlh xgjh pksVsa gkssaxh os ftUgksaus vk¡[k ew¡ndj lcdk fo'okl djus
f{kfrt
94
okys firk dks ckn osQ fnuksa esa bruk 'kDdh cuk fn;k Fkk fd tc&rc ge yksx Hkh mldh
pisV esa vkrs gh jgrsA
ij ;g fir`&xkFkk eSa blfy, ugha xk jgh fd eq>s mudk xkSjo&xku djuk gS] cfYd
eSa rks ;g ns[kuk pkgrh gw¡ fd muosQ O;fDrRo dh dkSu&lh [kwch vkSj [kkfe;k¡ esjs
O;fDrRo osQ rkus&ckus esa xq¡Fkh gqbZ gSa ;k fd vutkus&vupkgs fd, muosQ O;ogkj us esjs
Hkhrj fdu xzafFk;ksaa dks tUe ns fn;kA eSa dkyh gw¡A cpiu esa nqcyh vkSj efj;y Hkh FkhA
xksjk jax firk th dh de”kksjh Fkh lks cpiu esa eq>ls nks lky cM+h] [kwc xksjh] LoLFk vkSj
g¡leq[k cfgu lq'khyk ls gj ckr esa rqyuk vkSj fiQj mldh iz'kalk us gh] D;k esjs Hkhrj
,sls xgjs ghu&Hkko dh xzafFk iSnk ugha dj nh fd uke] lEeku vkSj izfr"Bk ikus osQ cko”kwn
vkt rd eSa mlls mcj ugha ikbZ\ vkt Hkh ifjp; djokrs le; tc dksbZ oqQN fo'ks"krk
yxkdj esjh ys[kdh; miyfCèk;ksa dk f”kozQ djus yxrk gS rks eSa ladksp ls fleV gh ugha
tkrh cfYd xM+us&xM+us dks gks vkrh gw¡A 'kk;n vpsru dh fdlh irZ osQ uhps nch blh
ghu&Hkkouk osQ pyrs eSa viuh fdlh Hkh miyfCèk ij Hkjkslk ugha dj ikrh---lc oqQN eq>s
rqDdk gh yxrk gSA firk th osQ ftl 'kDdh LoHkko ij eSa dHkh HkUuk&HkUuk tkrh Fkh]
vkt ,dk,d vius [kafMr fo'oklksa dh O;Fkk osQ uhps eq>s muosQ 'kDdh LoHkko dh
>yd gh fn[kkbZ nsrh gS---cgqr ^viuksa* osQ gkFkksa fo'okl?kkr dh xgjh O;Fkk ls mitk
'kdA gks'k l¡Hkkyus osQ ckn ls gh ftu firk th ls fdlh&u&fdlh ckr ij ges'kk esjh
VDdj gh pyrh jgh] os rks u tkus fdrus :iksa esa eq>esa gSa---dgha oqaQBkvksa osQ :i esa] dgha
izfrfØ;k osQ :i esa rks dgha izfrPNk;k osQ :i esaA osQoy ckgjh fHkUurk osQ vkèkkj ij
viuh ijaijk vkSj ihf<+;ksa dks udkjus okyksa dks D;k lpeqp bl ckr dk fcyoqQy
vglkl ugha gksrk fd mudk vklUu vrhr fdl dnj muosQ Hkhrj tM+ tek, cSBk jgrk
gS! le; dk izokg Hkys gh gesa nwljh fn'kkvksa esa cgkdj ys tk,---fLFkfr;ksa dk ncko Hkys
gh gekjk :i cny ns] gesa iwjh rjg mlls eqDr rks ugha gh dj ldrk!
firk osQ Bhd foijhr Fkha gekjh csi<+h&fy[kh ek¡A èkjrh ls oqQN ”;knk gh èkS;Z vkSj
lgu'kfDr Fkh 'kk;n muesaA firk th dh gj ”;knrh dks viuk izkI; vkSj cPpksa dh gj
mfpr&vuqfpr I
+
kQjekb'k vkSj f”kn dks viuk I
+
kQtZ le>dj cMs+ lgt Hkko ls Lohdkj
djrh Fkha osA mUgksaus ¯”knxh Hkj vius fy, oqQN ek¡xk ugha] pkgk ugha---osQoy fn;k gh
fn;kA ge HkkbZ&cfguksa dk lkjk yxko ('kk;n lgkuqHkwfr ls mitk) ek¡ osQ lkFk Fkk ysfdu
fugk;r vlgk; eTkcwjh esa fyiVk mudk ;g R;kx dHkh esjk vkn'kZ ugha cu ldk---u
mudk R;kx] u mudh lfg".kqrkA [kSj] tks Hkh gks] vc ;g iSr`d&iqjk.k ;gha lekIr dj
vius ij ykSVrh gw¡A
Page 5


e
Uuw HkaMkjh dk tUe lu~ 1931 esa xk¡o Hkkuiqjk] f”kyk
eanlkSj (eè; izns'k) esa gqvk ijarq mudh baVj rd dh
f'k{kk&nh{kk gqbZ jktLFkku osQ vtesj 'kgj esaA ckn esa mUgksaus
¯gnh esa ,e-,- fd;kA fnYyh osQ fejkaMk gkml dkWfyt esa
vè;kiu dk;Z ls vodk'k izkfIr osQ ckn vktdy fnYyh esa
gh jgdj Lora=k ys[ku dj jgh gSaA
Lokra=;ksÙkj ¯gnh dFkk lkfgR; dh izeq[k gLrk{kj eUuw
HkaMkjh dh izeq[k jpuk,¡ gSaµ,d IysV lSykc] eSa gkj xbZ]
;gh lp gS] f=k'kaoqQ (dgkuh&laxzg)_ vkidk caVh] egkHkkst
(miU;kl)A blosQ vykok mUgksaus fI
+
kQYe ,oa Vsyhfo”ku
èkkjkokfgdksa osQ fy, iVdFkk,¡ Hkh fy[kh gSaA mudh lkfgfR;d
miyfC/;ksa osQ fy, ¯gnh vdkneh osQ f'k[kj lEeku lfgr
mUgas vusd iqjLdkj izkIr gks pqosQ gSa ftuesa Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk
ifj"kn~] dksydkrk] jktLFkku laxhr ukVd vdkneh] mÙkj
izns'k ¯gnh laLFkku osQ iqjLdkj 'kkfey gSaA
eUuw HkaMkjh dh dgkfu;k¡ gksa ;k miU;kl muesa Hkk"kk vkSj
f'kYi dh lknxh rFkk izkekf.kd vuqHkwfr feyrh gSA mudh
jpukvksa esa L=kh&eu ls tqM+h vuqHkwfr;ksa dh vfHkO;fDr Hkh
ns[kh tk ldrh gSA
eUuw HkaMkjh
14
f{kfrt
92
,d dgkuh ;g Hkh osQ lanHkZ esa lcls igys rks ge ;g tku ysa fd eUuw HkaMkjh
us ikfjHkkf"kd vFkZ esa dksbZ flyflysokj vkRedFkk ugha fy[kh gSA vius vkRedF;
esa mUgksaus mu O;fDr;ksa vkSj ?kVukvksa osQ ckjs esa fy[kk gS tks muosQ ys[kdh; thou
ls tqM+s gq, gSaA ladfyr va'k esa eUuw th osQ fd'kksj thou ls tqM+h ?kVukvksa osQ lkFk
muosQ firkth vkSj mudh dkWfyt dh izkè;kfidk 'khyk vxzoky dk O;fDrRo
fo'ks"k rkSj ij mHkjdj vk;k gS] ftUgksaus vkxs pydj muosQ ys[kdh; O;fDrRo osQ
fuekZ.k esa egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkbZA ysf[kdk us ;gk¡ cgqr gh [kwclwjrh ls lk/kj.k
yM+dh osQ vlk/kj.k cuus osQ izkjafHkd iM+koksa dks izdV fd;k gSA lu~ *46&*47
dh vk”kknh dh vk¡/h us eUuw th dks Hkh vNwrk ugha NksM+kA NksVs 'kgj dh ;qok gksrh
yM+dh us vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ esa ftl rjg Hkkxhnkjh dh mlesa mldk mRlkg] vkst]
laxBu&{kerk vkSj fojks/ djus dk rjhdk ns[krs gh curk gSA
eUuw HkaMkjh
93
,d dgkuh ;g Hkh
tUeh rks eè; izns'k osQ Hkkuiqjk xk¡o esa Fkh] ysfdu esjh ;knksa dk flyflyk 'kq: gksrk gS
vtesj osQ czãiqjh eksgYys osQ ml nks&eaf”kyk edku ls] ftldh mQijh eaf”ky esa firkth
dk lkezkT; Fkk] tgk¡ os fugk;r vO;ofLFkr <ax ls iSQyh&fc[kjh iqLrdksa&if=kdkvksa vkSj
v[kckjksa osQ chp ;k rks oqQN i<+rs jgrs Fks ;k fiQj ^fMDVs'ku* nsrs jgrs FksA uhps ge lc
HkkbZ&cfguksa osQ lkFk jgrh Fkha gekjh csi<+h&fy[kh O;fDrRofoghu ek¡---losjs ls 'kke rd
ge lcdh bPNkvksa vkSj firk th dh vkKkvksa dk ikyu djus osQ fy, lnSo rRijA
vtesj ls igys firk th bankSj esa Fks tgk¡ mudh cM+h izfr"Bk Fkh] lEeku Fkk] uke FkkA
dkaxzsl osQ lkFk&lkFk os lekt&lqèkkj osQ dkeksa ls Hkh tqM+s gq, FksA f'k{kk osQ os osQoy
mins'k gh ugha nsrs Fks] cfYd mu fnuksa vkB&vkB] nl&nl fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks vius ?kj
j[kdj i<+k;k gS ftuesa ls dbZ rks ckn esa mQ¡ps&m¡Qps vksgnksa ij igq¡psA ;s mudh [kq'kgkyh
osQ fnu Fks vkSj mu fnukas mudh nfj;kfnyh osQ ppsZ Hkh de ugha FksA ,d vksj os csgn
dksey vkSj laosnu'khy O;fDr Fks rks nwljh vksj csgn ozQksèkh vkSj vgaoknhA
ij ;g lc rks eSaus osQoy lqukA ns[kk] rc rks bu xq.kksa osQ HkXuko'ks"kksa dks <ksrs firk
FksA ,d cgqr cM+s vkfFkZd >VosQ osQ dkj.k os bankSj ls vtesj vk x, Fks] tgk¡ mUgksaus
vius vosQys osQ cy&cwrs vkSj gkSlys ls vaxzs”kh&¯gnh 'kCndks'k (fo"k;okj) osQ vèkwjs dke
dks vkxs c<+kuk 'kq: fd;k tks viuh rjg dk igyk vkSj vosQyk 'kCndks'k FkkA blus mUgsa
;'k vkSj izfr"Bk rks cgqr nh] ij vFkZ ugha vkSj 'kk;n fxjrh vkfFkZd fLFkfr us gh muosQ
O;fDrRo osQ lkjs ldkjkRed igyqqvksa dks fupksM+uk 'kq: dj fn;kA floqQM+rh vkfFkZd
fLFkfr osQ dkj.k vkSj vfèkd foLiQkfjr mudk vga mUgsa bl ckr rd dh vuqefr ugha
nsrk Fkk fd os de&ls&de vius cPpksa dks rks viuh vkfFkZd foo'krkvksa dk Hkkxhnkj
cuk,¡A uokch vknrsa] vèkwjh egRokdka{kk,¡] ges'kk 'kh"kZ ij jgus osQ ckn gkf'k, ij ljdrs
pys tkus dh ;kruk ozQksèk cudj ges'kk ek¡ dks o¡Qikrh&FkjFkjkrh jgrh FkhaA viuksa osQ gkFkksa
fo'okl?kkr dh tkus oSQlh xgjh pksVsa gkssaxh os ftUgksaus vk¡[k ew¡ndj lcdk fo'okl djus
f{kfrt
94
okys firk dks ckn osQ fnuksa esa bruk 'kDdh cuk fn;k Fkk fd tc&rc ge yksx Hkh mldh
pisV esa vkrs gh jgrsA
ij ;g fir`&xkFkk eSa blfy, ugha xk jgh fd eq>s mudk xkSjo&xku djuk gS] cfYd
eSa rks ;g ns[kuk pkgrh gw¡ fd muosQ O;fDrRo dh dkSu&lh [kwch vkSj [kkfe;k¡ esjs
O;fDrRo osQ rkus&ckus esa xq¡Fkh gqbZ gSa ;k fd vutkus&vupkgs fd, muosQ O;ogkj us esjs
Hkhrj fdu xzafFk;ksaa dks tUe ns fn;kA eSa dkyh gw¡A cpiu esa nqcyh vkSj efj;y Hkh FkhA
xksjk jax firk th dh de”kksjh Fkh lks cpiu esa eq>ls nks lky cM+h] [kwc xksjh] LoLFk vkSj
g¡leq[k cfgu lq'khyk ls gj ckr esa rqyuk vkSj fiQj mldh iz'kalk us gh] D;k esjs Hkhrj
,sls xgjs ghu&Hkko dh xzafFk iSnk ugha dj nh fd uke] lEeku vkSj izfr"Bk ikus osQ cko”kwn
vkt rd eSa mlls mcj ugha ikbZ\ vkt Hkh ifjp; djokrs le; tc dksbZ oqQN fo'ks"krk
yxkdj esjh ys[kdh; miyfCèk;ksa dk f”kozQ djus yxrk gS rks eSa ladksp ls fleV gh ugha
tkrh cfYd xM+us&xM+us dks gks vkrh gw¡A 'kk;n vpsru dh fdlh irZ osQ uhps nch blh
ghu&Hkkouk osQ pyrs eSa viuh fdlh Hkh miyfCèk ij Hkjkslk ugha dj ikrh---lc oqQN eq>s
rqDdk gh yxrk gSA firk th osQ ftl 'kDdh LoHkko ij eSa dHkh HkUuk&HkUuk tkrh Fkh]
vkt ,dk,d vius [kafMr fo'oklksa dh O;Fkk osQ uhps eq>s muosQ 'kDdh LoHkko dh
>yd gh fn[kkbZ nsrh gS---cgqr ^viuksa* osQ gkFkksa fo'okl?kkr dh xgjh O;Fkk ls mitk
'kdA gks'k l¡Hkkyus osQ ckn ls gh ftu firk th ls fdlh&u&fdlh ckr ij ges'kk esjh
VDdj gh pyrh jgh] os rks u tkus fdrus :iksa esa eq>esa gSa---dgha oqaQBkvksa osQ :i esa] dgha
izfrfØ;k osQ :i esa rks dgha izfrPNk;k osQ :i esaA osQoy ckgjh fHkUurk osQ vkèkkj ij
viuh ijaijk vkSj ihf<+;ksa dks udkjus okyksa dks D;k lpeqp bl ckr dk fcyoqQy
vglkl ugha gksrk fd mudk vklUu vrhr fdl dnj muosQ Hkhrj tM+ tek, cSBk jgrk
gS! le; dk izokg Hkys gh gesa nwljh fn'kkvksa esa cgkdj ys tk,---fLFkfr;ksa dk ncko Hkys
gh gekjk :i cny ns] gesa iwjh rjg mlls eqDr rks ugha gh dj ldrk!
firk osQ Bhd foijhr Fkha gekjh csi<+h&fy[kh ek¡A èkjrh ls oqQN ”;knk gh èkS;Z vkSj
lgu'kfDr Fkh 'kk;n muesaA firk th dh gj ”;knrh dks viuk izkI; vkSj cPpksa dh gj
mfpr&vuqfpr I
+
kQjekb'k vkSj f”kn dks viuk I
+
kQtZ le>dj cMs+ lgt Hkko ls Lohdkj
djrh Fkha osA mUgksaus ¯”knxh Hkj vius fy, oqQN ek¡xk ugha] pkgk ugha---osQoy fn;k gh
fn;kA ge HkkbZ&cfguksa dk lkjk yxko ('kk;n lgkuqHkwfr ls mitk) ek¡ osQ lkFk Fkk ysfdu
fugk;r vlgk; eTkcwjh esa fyiVk mudk ;g R;kx dHkh esjk vkn'kZ ugha cu ldk---u
mudk R;kx] u mudh lfg".kqrkA [kSj] tks Hkh gks] vc ;g iSr`d&iqjk.k ;gha lekIr dj
vius ij ykSVrh gw¡A
eUuw HkaMkjh
95
ik¡p HkkbZ&cfguksa esa lcls NksVh eSaA lcls cM+h cfgu dh 'kknh osQ le; eSa 'kk;n lkr
lky dh Fkh vkSj mldh ,d èkq¡èkyh&lh ;kn gh esjs eu esa gS] ysfdu vius ls nks lky
cM+h cfgu lq'khyk vkSj eSaus ?kj osQ cM+s ls vk¡xu esa cpiu osQ lkjs [ksy [ksysµlrksfy;k]
y¡xM+h&Vk¡x] idM+e&idM+kbZ] dkyh&Vhyks---rks dejksa esa xqas&xqfM+;ksa osQ C;kg Hkh jpk,]
ikl&iM+ksl dh lgsfy;ksa osQ lkFkA ;ksa [ksyus dks geus Hkkb;ksa osQ lkFk fxYyh&MaMk Hkh
[ksyk vkSj irax mM+kus] dk¡p ihldj ek¡tk lwrus dk dke Hkh fd;k] ysfdu mudh
xfrfofèk;ksa dk nk;jk ?kj osQ ckgj gh vfèkd jgrk Fkk vkSj gekjh lhek Fkh ?kjA gk¡] bruk
”k:j Fkk fd ml ”kekus esa ?kj dh nhokjsa ?kj rd gh lekIr ugha gks tkrh Fkha cfYd iwjs
eksgYys rd iSQyh jgrh Fkha blfy, eksgYys osQ fdlh Hkh ?kj esa tkus ij dksbZ ikcanh ugha
Fkh] cfYd oqQN ?kj rks ifjokj dk fgLlk gh FksA vkt rks eq>s cM+h f'kír osQ lkFk ;g
eglwl gksrk gS fd viuh ¯”knxh [kqn thus osQ bl vkèkqfud ncko us egkuxjksa osQ Ý
+
ySV
esa jgus okyksa dks gekjs bl ijaijkxr ^iM+ksl&dYpj* ls fofPNUu djosQ gesa fdruk
laoqQfpr] vlgk; vkSj vlqjf{kr cuk fn;k gSA esjh de&ls&de ,d ntZu vkjafHkd
dgkfu;ksa osQ ik=k blh eksgYYks osQ gSa tgk¡ eaSus viuh fd'kksjkoLFkk xq”kkj viuh ;qokoLFkk
dk vkjaHk fd;k FkkA ,d&nks dks NksM+dj muesa ls dksbZ Hkh ik=k esjs ifjokj dk ugha gSSA
cl budks ns[krs&lqurs] buosQ chp gh eSa cM+h gqbZ Fkh ysfdu budh Nki esjs eu ij
fdruh xgjh Fkh] bl ckr dk vglkl rks eq>s dgkfu;k¡ fy[krs le; gqvkA brus o"kks± osQ
varjky us Hkh mudh Hkko&Hkafxek] Hkk"kk] fdlh dks Hkh èkq¡èkyk ugha fd;k Fkk vkSj fcuk
fdlh fo'ks"k iz;kl osQ cMs+ lgt Hkko ls os mrjrs pys x, FksA mlh le; osQ nk lkgc
vius O;fDrRo dh vfHkO;fDr osQ fy, vuqowQy ifjfLFkfr;k¡ ikrs gh ^egkHkkst* esa brus
o"kks± ckn oSQls ,dk,d thfor gks mBs] ;g esjs vius fy, Hkh vk'p;Z dk fo"k; Fkk---
,d lq[kn vk'p;Z dkA
ml le; rd gekjs ifjokj esa yM+dh osQ fookg osQ fy, vfuok;Z ;ksX;rk Fkhµmez
esa lksyg o"kZ vkSj f'k{kk esa eSfVªdA lu~~ *44 esa lq'khyk us ;g ;ksX;rk izkIr dh vkSj 'kknh
djosQ dksydkrk pyh xbZA nksuksa cM+s HkkbZ Hkh vkxs i<+kbZ osQ fy, ckgj pys x,A bu yksxkas
dh N=k&Nk;k osQ gVrs gh igyh ckj eq>s u, fljs ls vius o”kwn dk ,glkl gqvkA
firk th dk è;ku Hkh igyh ckj eq> ij osaQfnzr gqvkA yM+fd;ksa dks ftl mez esa LowQyh
f'k{kk osQ lkFk&lkFk lq?kM+ x`fg.kh vkSj oqQ'ky ikd&'kkL=kh cukus osQ uqL[ks tqVk, tkrs Fks]
firk th dk vkxzg jgrk Fkk fd eSa jlksbZ ls nwj gh jgw¡A jlksbZ dks os HkfV;kj[kkuk dgrs
Fks vkSj muosQ fglkc ls ogk¡ jguk viuh {kerk vkSj izfrHkk dks Hk^h esa >ksaduk FkkA ?kj
esa vk, fnu fofHkUu jktuSfrd ikfVZ;ksa osQ tekoM+s gksrs Fks vkSj tedj cglsa gksrh FkhaA
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