NCERT Textbook: पाठ 15 - अब कहाँ दूसरे के दुख से दुखी होने वाले, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 15 - अब कहाँ दूसरे के दुख से दुखी होने वाले, सपर्श II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


funk I
+
kQk”kyh
(1938)
12 vDrwcj 1938 dks fnYyh esa tUes funk I
+
kQk”kyh dk cpiu Xokfy;j esa
chrkA funk I
+
kQk”kyh mnwZ dh lkBksÙkjh ih<+h osQ egÙoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA vke
cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa vkSj ljyrk ls fdlh osQ Hkh fnyksfnekx esa ?kj dj losQ]
,slh dfork djus esa bUgsa egkjr gkfly gSA ogh funk I
+
kQk”kyh viuh x|
jpukvksa esa 'ksj&vks&'kk;jh fijksdj cgqr oqQN dks FkksM+s esa dg nsus osQ ekeys esa
vius fdLe osQ vosQys gh x|dkj gSaA
funk I
+
kQk”kyh dh yÝ
+
tksa dk iqy uked dfork dh igyh iqLrd vkbZA
'kk;jh dh fdrkc [kks;k gqvk lk oqQN osQ fy, 1999 osQ lkfgR; vdknseh
iqjLdkj ls lEekfur funk I
+
kQk”kyh dh vkRedFkk dk igyk Hkkx nhokjksa osQ chp
vkSj nwljk nhokjksa osQ ikj 'kh"kZd ls izdkf'kr gks pqdk gSA bu fnuksa fI
+
kQYe m|ksx
ls lac¼ gSaA ;gk¡ rek'kk esjs vkxs fdrkc esa ladfyr ,d va'k izLrqr gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


funk I
+
kQk”kyh
(1938)
12 vDrwcj 1938 dks fnYyh esa tUes funk I
+
kQk”kyh dk cpiu Xokfy;j esa
chrkA funk I
+
kQk”kyh mnwZ dh lkBksÙkjh ih<+h osQ egÙoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA vke
cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa vkSj ljyrk ls fdlh osQ Hkh fnyksfnekx esa ?kj dj losQ]
,slh dfork djus esa bUgsa egkjr gkfly gSA ogh funk I
+
kQk”kyh viuh x|
jpukvksa esa 'ksj&vks&'kk;jh fijksdj cgqr oqQN dks FkksM+s esa dg nsus osQ ekeys esa
vius fdLe osQ vosQys gh x|dkj gSaA
funk I
+
kQk”kyh dh yÝ
+
tksa dk iqy uked dfork dh igyh iqLrd vkbZA
'kk;jh dh fdrkc [kks;k gqvk lk oqQN osQ fy, 1999 osQ lkfgR; vdknseh
iqjLdkj ls lEekfur funk I
+
kQk”kyh dh vkRedFkk dk igyk Hkkx nhokjksa osQ chp
vkSj nwljk nhokjksa osQ ikj 'kh"kZd ls izdkf'kr gks pqdk gSA bu fnuksa fI
+
kQYe m|ksx
ls lac¼ gSaA ;gk¡ rek'kk esjs vkxs fdrkc esa ladfyr ,d va'k izLrqr gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
oqQnjr us ;g /jrh mu reke tho/kfj;ksa osQ fy, vrk iQjekbZ Fkh ftUgsa [kqn
mlh us tUe fn;k FkkA ysfdu gqvk ;g fd vkneh uke osQ oqQnjr osQ lcls
v”khe dfj'es us /hjs&/hjs iwjh /jrh dks gh viuh tkxhj cuk fy;k vkSj
vU; reke thoèkkfj;ksa dks njcnj dj fn;kA urhtk ;g gqvk fd vU;
thoèkkfj;ksa dh ;k rks uLysa [kRe gksrh xb± ;k mUgsa viuk BkSj&fBdkuk NksM+dj
dgha vkSj tkuk iM+k ;k fiQj vkt Hkh os ,d vkf'k;kus dh ryk'k esa ekjs&ekjs
fiQj jgs gSaA
bruk Hkj gqvk jgk gksrk rc Hkh xuher gksrh] ysfdu vkneh uke osQ bl
tho dh lc oqQN lesV ysus dh Hkw[k ;gha iwjh ugha gqbZA vc og vU; izkf.k;ksa
dks gh ugha [kqn viuh tkr dks Hkh csn[ky djus ls ”kjk Hkh ijgs”k ugha djrkA
vkye ;g gS fd mls u rks fdlh osQ lq[k&nq[k dh ¯prk gS] u fdlh dks
lgkjk ;k lg;ksx nsus dh ea'kk ghA ;dhu u vkrk gks rks bl ikB dks i<+ tkb,
vkSj lkFk gh ;kn dhft,xk vius vklikl osQ yksxksa dksA cgqr laHko gS bls
i<+rs gq, ,sls cgqr yksx ;kn vk,¡ tks dHkh u dHkh fdlh u fdlh osQ izfr
oSlk gh cjrko djrs jgs gksaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


funk I
+
kQk”kyh
(1938)
12 vDrwcj 1938 dks fnYyh esa tUes funk I
+
kQk”kyh dk cpiu Xokfy;j esa
chrkA funk I
+
kQk”kyh mnwZ dh lkBksÙkjh ih<+h osQ egÙoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA vke
cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa vkSj ljyrk ls fdlh osQ Hkh fnyksfnekx esa ?kj dj losQ]
,slh dfork djus esa bUgsa egkjr gkfly gSA ogh funk I
+
kQk”kyh viuh x|
jpukvksa esa 'ksj&vks&'kk;jh fijksdj cgqr oqQN dks FkksM+s esa dg nsus osQ ekeys esa
vius fdLe osQ vosQys gh x|dkj gSaA
funk I
+
kQk”kyh dh yÝ
+
tksa dk iqy uked dfork dh igyh iqLrd vkbZA
'kk;jh dh fdrkc [kks;k gqvk lk oqQN osQ fy, 1999 osQ lkfgR; vdknseh
iqjLdkj ls lEekfur funk I
+
kQk”kyh dh vkRedFkk dk igyk Hkkx nhokjksa osQ chp
vkSj nwljk nhokjksa osQ ikj 'kh"kZd ls izdkf'kr gks pqdk gSA bu fnuksa fI
+
kQYe m|ksx
ls lac¼ gSaA ;gk¡ rek'kk esjs vkxs fdrkc esa ladfyr ,d va'k izLrqr gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
oqQnjr us ;g /jrh mu reke tho/kfj;ksa osQ fy, vrk iQjekbZ Fkh ftUgsa [kqn
mlh us tUe fn;k FkkA ysfdu gqvk ;g fd vkneh uke osQ oqQnjr osQ lcls
v”khe dfj'es us /hjs&/hjs iwjh /jrh dks gh viuh tkxhj cuk fy;k vkSj
vU; reke thoèkkfj;ksa dks njcnj dj fn;kA urhtk ;g gqvk fd vU;
thoèkkfj;ksa dh ;k rks uLysa [kRe gksrh xb± ;k mUgsa viuk BkSj&fBdkuk NksM+dj
dgha vkSj tkuk iM+k ;k fiQj vkt Hkh os ,d vkf'k;kus dh ryk'k esa ekjs&ekjs
fiQj jgs gSaA
bruk Hkj gqvk jgk gksrk rc Hkh xuher gksrh] ysfdu vkneh uke osQ bl
tho dh lc oqQN lesV ysus dh Hkw[k ;gha iwjh ugha gqbZA vc og vU; izkf.k;ksa
dks gh ugha [kqn viuh tkr dks Hkh csn[ky djus ls ”kjk Hkh ijgs”k ugha djrkA
vkye ;g gS fd mls u rks fdlh osQ lq[k&nq[k dh ¯prk gS] u fdlh dks
lgkjk ;k lg;ksx nsus dh ea'kk ghA ;dhu u vkrk gks rks bl ikB dks i<+ tkb,
vkSj lkFk gh ;kn dhft,xk vius vklikl osQ yksxksa dksA cgqr laHko gS bls
i<+rs gq, ,sls cgqr yksx ;kn vk,¡ tks dHkh u dHkh fdlh u fdlh osQ izfr
oSlk gh cjrko djrs jgs gksaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
vc dgk¡ nwljs osQ nq[k ls nq[kh gksus okys
ckbfcy osQ lksyksesu ftUgsa oqQjvku esa lqyseku dgk x;k gS] bZlk ls 1025 o"kZ iwoZ ,d ckn'kkg
FksA dgk x;k gS] og osQoy ekuo tkfr osQ gh jktk ugha Fks] lkjs NksVs&cM+s i'kq&i{kh osQ Hkh gkfde
FksA og bu lcdh Hkk"kk Hkh tkurs FksA ,d nIkQk lqyseku vius y'dj osQ lkFk ,d jkLrs ls xq”kj
jgs FksA jkLrs esa oqQN phafV;ksa us ?kksM+ksa dh Vkiksa dh vkok”k lquh rks Mj dj ,d&nwljs ls dgk]
^vki tYnh ls vius&vius fcyksa esa pyks] I
+
kQkSt vk jgh gSA* lqyseku mudh ckrsa lqudj FkksM+h
nwj ij #d x, vkSj phafV;ksa ls cksys] ^?kcjkvks ugha] lqyseku dks [kqnk us lcdk j[kokyk cuk;k
gSA eSa fdlh osQ fy, eqlhcr ugha gw¡] lcosQ fy, eqgCcr gw¡A*
phafV;ksa us muosQ fy, bZ'oj ls nqvk dh vkSj lqyseku viuh
eaf”ky dh vksj c<+ x,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


funk I
+
kQk”kyh
(1938)
12 vDrwcj 1938 dks fnYyh esa tUes funk I
+
kQk”kyh dk cpiu Xokfy;j esa
chrkA funk I
+
kQk”kyh mnwZ dh lkBksÙkjh ih<+h osQ egÙoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA vke
cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa vkSj ljyrk ls fdlh osQ Hkh fnyksfnekx esa ?kj dj losQ]
,slh dfork djus esa bUgsa egkjr gkfly gSA ogh funk I
+
kQk”kyh viuh x|
jpukvksa esa 'ksj&vks&'kk;jh fijksdj cgqr oqQN dks FkksM+s esa dg nsus osQ ekeys esa
vius fdLe osQ vosQys gh x|dkj gSaA
funk I
+
kQk”kyh dh yÝ
+
tksa dk iqy uked dfork dh igyh iqLrd vkbZA
'kk;jh dh fdrkc [kks;k gqvk lk oqQN osQ fy, 1999 osQ lkfgR; vdknseh
iqjLdkj ls lEekfur funk I
+
kQk”kyh dh vkRedFkk dk igyk Hkkx nhokjksa osQ chp
vkSj nwljk nhokjksa osQ ikj 'kh"kZd ls izdkf'kr gks pqdk gSA bu fnuksa fI
+
kQYe m|ksx
ls lac¼ gSaA ;gk¡ rek'kk esjs vkxs fdrkc esa ladfyr ,d va'k izLrqr gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
oqQnjr us ;g /jrh mu reke tho/kfj;ksa osQ fy, vrk iQjekbZ Fkh ftUgsa [kqn
mlh us tUe fn;k FkkA ysfdu gqvk ;g fd vkneh uke osQ oqQnjr osQ lcls
v”khe dfj'es us /hjs&/hjs iwjh /jrh dks gh viuh tkxhj cuk fy;k vkSj
vU; reke thoèkkfj;ksa dks njcnj dj fn;kA urhtk ;g gqvk fd vU;
thoèkkfj;ksa dh ;k rks uLysa [kRe gksrh xb± ;k mUgsa viuk BkSj&fBdkuk NksM+dj
dgha vkSj tkuk iM+k ;k fiQj vkt Hkh os ,d vkf'k;kus dh ryk'k esa ekjs&ekjs
fiQj jgs gSaA
bruk Hkj gqvk jgk gksrk rc Hkh xuher gksrh] ysfdu vkneh uke osQ bl
tho dh lc oqQN lesV ysus dh Hkw[k ;gha iwjh ugha gqbZA vc og vU; izkf.k;ksa
dks gh ugha [kqn viuh tkr dks Hkh csn[ky djus ls ”kjk Hkh ijgs”k ugha djrkA
vkye ;g gS fd mls u rks fdlh osQ lq[k&nq[k dh ¯prk gS] u fdlh dks
lgkjk ;k lg;ksx nsus dh ea'kk ghA ;dhu u vkrk gks rks bl ikB dks i<+ tkb,
vkSj lkFk gh ;kn dhft,xk vius vklikl osQ yksxksa dksA cgqr laHko gS bls
i<+rs gq, ,sls cgqr yksx ;kn vk,¡ tks dHkh u dHkh fdlh u fdlh osQ izfr
oSlk gh cjrko djrs jgs gksaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
vc dgk¡ nwljs osQ nq[k ls nq[kh gksus okys
ckbfcy osQ lksyksesu ftUgsa oqQjvku esa lqyseku dgk x;k gS] bZlk ls 1025 o"kZ iwoZ ,d ckn'kkg
FksA dgk x;k gS] og osQoy ekuo tkfr osQ gh jktk ugha Fks] lkjs NksVs&cM+s i'kq&i{kh osQ Hkh gkfde
FksA og bu lcdh Hkk"kk Hkh tkurs FksA ,d nIkQk lqyseku vius y'dj osQ lkFk ,d jkLrs ls xq”kj
jgs FksA jkLrs esa oqQN phafV;ksa us ?kksM+ksa dh Vkiksa dh vkok”k lquh rks Mj dj ,d&nwljs ls dgk]
^vki tYnh ls vius&vius fcyksa esa pyks] I
+
kQkSt vk jgh gSA* lqyseku mudh ckrsa lqudj FkksM+h
nwj ij #d x, vkSj phafV;ksa ls cksys] ^?kcjkvks ugha] lqyseku dks [kqnk us lcdk j[kokyk cuk;k
gSA eSa fdlh osQ fy, eqlhcr ugha gw¡] lcosQ fy, eqgCcr gw¡A*
phafV;ksa us muosQ fy, bZ'oj ls nqvk dh vkSj lqyseku viuh
eaf”ky dh vksj c<+ x,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
112 / Li'kZ
,slh ,d ?kVuk dk f”kØ ¯l/h Hkk"kk osQ egkdfo 'ks[k v;k”k us viuh vkRedFkk esa fd;k
gSA mUgksaus fy[kk gSµ^,d fnu muosQ firk oqQ,¡ ls ugkdj ykSVsA ek¡ us Hkkstu ijkslkA mUgksaus tSls
gh jksVh dk dkSj rksM+kA mudh u”kj viuh cktw ij iM+hA ogk¡ ,d dkyk P;ksaVk jsax jgk FkkA og
Hkkstu NksM+dj mB [kM+s gq,A* ek¡ us iwNk] ^D;k ckr gS\ Hkkstu vPNk ugha yxk\* 'ks[k v;k”k
osQ firk cksys] ^ugha] ;g ckr ugha gSA eSaus ,d ?kj okys dks cs?kj dj fn;k gSA ml cs?kj dks oqQ,¡
ij mlosQ ?kj NksM+us tk jgk gw¡A*
ckbfcy vkSj nwljs ikou xzaFkksa eas uwg uke osQ ,d iSxacj dk f”kØ feyrk gSA mudk vlyh
uke y'kdj Fkk] ysfdu vjc us mudks uwg osQ ydc ls ;kn fd;k gSA og blfy, fd vki lkjh
mez jksrs jgsA bldk dkj.k ,d ”k[eh oqQÙkk FkkA uwg osQ lkeus ls ,d ckj ,d ?kk;y oqQÙkk xq”kjkA
uwg us mls nqRdkjrs gq, dgk] ^nwj gks tk xans oqQÙks!* bLyke esa oqQÙkksa dks xank le>k tkrk gSA oqQÙks
us mudh nqRdkj lqudj tokc fn;k---^u eSa viuh e”khZ ls oqQÙkk gw¡] u rqe viuh ilan ls bulku
gksA cukus okyk lcdk rks ogh ,d gSA*
e^h ls e^h feys]
[kks osQ lHkh fu'kkuA
fdlesa fdruk dkSu gS]
oSQls  gks  igpkuAA
uwg us tc mldh ckr lquh vkSj nq[kh gks eqír rd jksrs jgsA ^egkHkkjr* esa ;qf/f"Bj dk tks
var rd lkFk fuHkkrk u”kj vkrk gS] og Hkh izrhdkRed :i esa ,d oqQÙkk gh FkkA lc lkFk NksM+rs
x, rks osQoy ogh muosQ ,dkar dks 'kkar dj jgk FkkA
nqfu;k oSQls otwn esa vkbZ\ igys D;k Fkh\ fdl fcanq ls bldh ;k=kk 'kq: gqbZ\ bu iz'uksa osQ
mÙkj foKku viuh rjg ls nsrk gS] /kfeZd xzaFk viuh&viuh rjg lsA lalkj dh jpuk Hkys gh oSQls
gqbZ gks ysfdu /jrh fdlh ,d dh ugha gSA iaNh] ekuo] i'kq] unh] ioZr] leanj vkfn dh blesa
cjkcj dh fgLlsnkjh gSA ;g vkSj ckr gS fd bl fgLlsnkjh esa ekuo tkfr us viuh cqf¼ ls cM+h&cM+h
nhokjsa [kM+h dj nh gSaA igys iwjk lalkj ,d ifjokj osQ leku Fkk vc VqdM+ksa esa c¡Vdj ,d&nwljs
ls nwj gks pqdk gSA igys cM+s&cM+s nkykuksa&vk¡xuksa esa lc fey&tqydj jgrs Fks vc NksVs&NksVs fMCcs
tSls ?kjksa esa thou fleVus yxk gSA c<+rh gqbZ vkckfn;ksa us leanj dks ihNs ljdkuk 'kq: dj fn;k
gS] isM+ksa dks jkLrksa ls gVkuk 'kq: dj fn;k gS] iSQyrs gq, iznw"k.k us iafN;ksa dks cfLr;ksa ls Hkxkuk 'kq:
dj fn;k gSA ck:nksa dh fouk'kyhykvksa us okrkoj.k dks lrkuk 'kq: dj fn;kA vc xjeh esa ”;knk
xjeh] csoDr dh cjlkrsa] ”ky”kys] lSykc] rwI
+
kQku vkSj fur u, jksx] ekuo vkSj izÑfr osQ blh
vlarqyu osQ ifj.kke gSaA uspj dh lgu'kfDr dh ,d lhek gksrh gSA uspj osQ xqLls dk ,d uewuk
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


funk I
+
kQk”kyh
(1938)
12 vDrwcj 1938 dks fnYyh esa tUes funk I
+
kQk”kyh dk cpiu Xokfy;j esa
chrkA funk I
+
kQk”kyh mnwZ dh lkBksÙkjh ih<+h osQ egÙoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA vke
cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa vkSj ljyrk ls fdlh osQ Hkh fnyksfnekx esa ?kj dj losQ]
,slh dfork djus esa bUgsa egkjr gkfly gSA ogh funk I
+
kQk”kyh viuh x|
jpukvksa esa 'ksj&vks&'kk;jh fijksdj cgqr oqQN dks FkksM+s esa dg nsus osQ ekeys esa
vius fdLe osQ vosQys gh x|dkj gSaA
funk I
+
kQk”kyh dh yÝ
+
tksa dk iqy uked dfork dh igyh iqLrd vkbZA
'kk;jh dh fdrkc [kks;k gqvk lk oqQN osQ fy, 1999 osQ lkfgR; vdknseh
iqjLdkj ls lEekfur funk I
+
kQk”kyh dh vkRedFkk dk igyk Hkkx nhokjksa osQ chp
vkSj nwljk nhokjksa osQ ikj 'kh"kZd ls izdkf'kr gks pqdk gSA bu fnuksa fI
+
kQYe m|ksx
ls lac¼ gSaA ;gk¡ rek'kk esjs vkxs fdrkc esa ladfyr ,d va'k izLrqr gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ikB izos'k
oqQnjr us ;g /jrh mu reke tho/kfj;ksa osQ fy, vrk iQjekbZ Fkh ftUgsa [kqn
mlh us tUe fn;k FkkA ysfdu gqvk ;g fd vkneh uke osQ oqQnjr osQ lcls
v”khe dfj'es us /hjs&/hjs iwjh /jrh dks gh viuh tkxhj cuk fy;k vkSj
vU; reke thoèkkfj;ksa dks njcnj dj fn;kA urhtk ;g gqvk fd vU;
thoèkkfj;ksa dh ;k rks uLysa [kRe gksrh xb± ;k mUgsa viuk BkSj&fBdkuk NksM+dj
dgha vkSj tkuk iM+k ;k fiQj vkt Hkh os ,d vkf'k;kus dh ryk'k esa ekjs&ekjs
fiQj jgs gSaA
bruk Hkj gqvk jgk gksrk rc Hkh xuher gksrh] ysfdu vkneh uke osQ bl
tho dh lc oqQN lesV ysus dh Hkw[k ;gha iwjh ugha gqbZA vc og vU; izkf.k;ksa
dks gh ugha [kqn viuh tkr dks Hkh csn[ky djus ls ”kjk Hkh ijgs”k ugha djrkA
vkye ;g gS fd mls u rks fdlh osQ lq[k&nq[k dh ¯prk gS] u fdlh dks
lgkjk ;k lg;ksx nsus dh ea'kk ghA ;dhu u vkrk gks rks bl ikB dks i<+ tkb,
vkSj lkFk gh ;kn dhft,xk vius vklikl osQ yksxksa dksA cgqr laHko gS bls
i<+rs gq, ,sls cgqr yksx ;kn vk,¡ tks dHkh u dHkh fdlh u fdlh osQ izfr
oSlk gh cjrko djrs jgs gksaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
vc dgk¡ nwljs osQ nq[k ls nq[kh gksus okys
ckbfcy osQ lksyksesu ftUgsa oqQjvku esa lqyseku dgk x;k gS] bZlk ls 1025 o"kZ iwoZ ,d ckn'kkg
FksA dgk x;k gS] og osQoy ekuo tkfr osQ gh jktk ugha Fks] lkjs NksVs&cM+s i'kq&i{kh osQ Hkh gkfde
FksA og bu lcdh Hkk"kk Hkh tkurs FksA ,d nIkQk lqyseku vius y'dj osQ lkFk ,d jkLrs ls xq”kj
jgs FksA jkLrs esa oqQN phafV;ksa us ?kksM+ksa dh Vkiksa dh vkok”k lquh rks Mj dj ,d&nwljs ls dgk]
^vki tYnh ls vius&vius fcyksa esa pyks] I
+
kQkSt vk jgh gSA* lqyseku mudh ckrsa lqudj FkksM+h
nwj ij #d x, vkSj phafV;ksa ls cksys] ^?kcjkvks ugha] lqyseku dks [kqnk us lcdk j[kokyk cuk;k
gSA eSa fdlh osQ fy, eqlhcr ugha gw¡] lcosQ fy, eqgCcr gw¡A*
phafV;ksa us muosQ fy, bZ'oj ls nqvk dh vkSj lqyseku viuh
eaf”ky dh vksj c<+ x,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
112 / Li'kZ
,slh ,d ?kVuk dk f”kØ ¯l/h Hkk"kk osQ egkdfo 'ks[k v;k”k us viuh vkRedFkk esa fd;k
gSA mUgksaus fy[kk gSµ^,d fnu muosQ firk oqQ,¡ ls ugkdj ykSVsA ek¡ us Hkkstu ijkslkA mUgksaus tSls
gh jksVh dk dkSj rksM+kA mudh u”kj viuh cktw ij iM+hA ogk¡ ,d dkyk P;ksaVk jsax jgk FkkA og
Hkkstu NksM+dj mB [kM+s gq,A* ek¡ us iwNk] ^D;k ckr gS\ Hkkstu vPNk ugha yxk\* 'ks[k v;k”k
osQ firk cksys] ^ugha] ;g ckr ugha gSA eSaus ,d ?kj okys dks cs?kj dj fn;k gSA ml cs?kj dks oqQ,¡
ij mlosQ ?kj NksM+us tk jgk gw¡A*
ckbfcy vkSj nwljs ikou xzaFkksa eas uwg uke osQ ,d iSxacj dk f”kØ feyrk gSA mudk vlyh
uke y'kdj Fkk] ysfdu vjc us mudks uwg osQ ydc ls ;kn fd;k gSA og blfy, fd vki lkjh
mez jksrs jgsA bldk dkj.k ,d ”k[eh oqQÙkk FkkA uwg osQ lkeus ls ,d ckj ,d ?kk;y oqQÙkk xq”kjkA
uwg us mls nqRdkjrs gq, dgk] ^nwj gks tk xans oqQÙks!* bLyke esa oqQÙkksa dks xank le>k tkrk gSA oqQÙks
us mudh nqRdkj lqudj tokc fn;k---^u eSa viuh e”khZ ls oqQÙkk gw¡] u rqe viuh ilan ls bulku
gksA cukus okyk lcdk rks ogh ,d gSA*
e^h ls e^h feys]
[kks osQ lHkh fu'kkuA
fdlesa fdruk dkSu gS]
oSQls  gks  igpkuAA
uwg us tc mldh ckr lquh vkSj nq[kh gks eqír rd jksrs jgsA ^egkHkkjr* esa ;qf/f"Bj dk tks
var rd lkFk fuHkkrk u”kj vkrk gS] og Hkh izrhdkRed :i esa ,d oqQÙkk gh FkkA lc lkFk NksM+rs
x, rks osQoy ogh muosQ ,dkar dks 'kkar dj jgk FkkA
nqfu;k oSQls otwn esa vkbZ\ igys D;k Fkh\ fdl fcanq ls bldh ;k=kk 'kq: gqbZ\ bu iz'uksa osQ
mÙkj foKku viuh rjg ls nsrk gS] /kfeZd xzaFk viuh&viuh rjg lsA lalkj dh jpuk Hkys gh oSQls
gqbZ gks ysfdu /jrh fdlh ,d dh ugha gSA iaNh] ekuo] i'kq] unh] ioZr] leanj vkfn dh blesa
cjkcj dh fgLlsnkjh gSA ;g vkSj ckr gS fd bl fgLlsnkjh esa ekuo tkfr us viuh cqf¼ ls cM+h&cM+h
nhokjsa [kM+h dj nh gSaA igys iwjk lalkj ,d ifjokj osQ leku Fkk vc VqdM+ksa esa c¡Vdj ,d&nwljs
ls nwj gks pqdk gSA igys cM+s&cM+s nkykuksa&vk¡xuksa esa lc fey&tqydj jgrs Fks vc NksVs&NksVs fMCcs
tSls ?kjksa esa thou fleVus yxk gSA c<+rh gqbZ vkckfn;ksa us leanj dks ihNs ljdkuk 'kq: dj fn;k
gS] isM+ksa dks jkLrksa ls gVkuk 'kq: dj fn;k gS] iSQyrs gq, iznw"k.k us iafN;ksa dks cfLr;ksa ls Hkxkuk 'kq:
dj fn;k gSA ck:nksa dh fouk'kyhykvksa us okrkoj.k dks lrkuk 'kq: dj fn;kA vc xjeh esa ”;knk
xjeh] csoDr dh cjlkrsa] ”ky”kys] lSykc] rwI
+
kQku vkSj fur u, jksx] ekuo vkSj izÑfr osQ blh
vlarqyu osQ ifj.kke gSaA uspj dh lgu'kfDr dh ,d lhek gksrh gSA uspj osQ xqLls dk ,d uewuk
© NCERT
not to be republished
vc dgk¡ nwljs osQ nq[k ls nq[kh gksus okys/ 113
oqQN lky igys cacbZ
 
(eaqcbZ) esa ns[kus dks feyk Fkk vkSj ;g uewuk bruk Mjkouk Fkk fd cacbZ fuoklh
Mjdj vius&vius iwtk&LFky esa vius [kqnkvksa ls izkFkZuk djus yxs FksA
dbZ lkyksa ls cM+s&cMs+ fcYMj leanj dks ihNs èkosQy dj mldh ”kehu dks gfFk;k jgs FksA
cspkjk leanj yxkrkj fleVrk tk jgk FkkA igys mlus viuh iSQyh gqbZ Vk¡xsa lesVha] FkksM+k fleVdj
cSB x;kA fiQj txg de iM+h rks mdM¡ Â? cSB x;kA fiQj [kM+k gks x;k---tc [kM+s jgus dh txg
de iM+h rks mls xqLlk vk x;kA tks ftruk cM+k gksrk gS mls mruk gh de xqLlk vkrk gSA ijarq
vkrk gS rks jksduk eqf'dy gks tkrk gS] vkSj ;gh gqvk] mlus ,d jkr viuh ygjksa ij nkSM+rs gq,
rhu tgk”kksa dks mBkdj cPpksa dh xsan dh rjg rhu fn'kkvksa esa isaQd fn;kA ,d oyhZ osQ leanj
osQ fdukjs ij vkdj fxjk] nwljk ckanzk esa dkVZj jksM osQ lkeus vkSaèks eq¡g vkSj rhljk xsV&os&vkWI
+
kQ
bafM;k ij VwV&iwQVdj lSykfu;ksa dk u”kkjk cuk ckotwn dksf'k'k] os fiQj ls pyus&fiQjus osQ
dkfcy ugha gks losQA
esjh ek¡ dgrh Fkh] lwjt <ys vk¡xu osQ isM+ksa ls iÙks er rksM+ks] isM+ jks,¡xsA nh;k&cÙkh osQ
oDr iwQyksa dks er rksM+ks] iwQy cíqvk nsrs gSaA--- nfj;k ij tkvks rks mls lyke fd;k djks] og
[kq'k gksrk gSA dcwrjksa dks er lrk;k djks] os g”kjr eqgEen dks v”kh”k gSaA mUgksaus mUgsa viuh
e”kkj osQ uhys xqacn ij ?kksalys cukus dh b”kk”kr ns j[kh gSA eqxsZ dks ijs'kku ugha fd;k djks]
og eqYyk th ls igys eksgYys esa v”kku nsdj lcdks losjs txkrk gSµ
lc dh iwtk ,d&lh] vyx&vyx gS jhrA
efLtn tk, ekSyoh] dks;y xk, xhrAA
Xokfy;j esa gekjk ,d edku Fkk] ml edku osQ nkyku esa nks jks'kunku FksA mlesa dcwrj osQ
,d tksM+s us ?kksalyk cuk fy;k FkkA ,d ckj fcYyh us mpddj nks esa ls ,d vaMk rksM+ fn;kA
esjh ek¡ us ns[kk rks mls nq[k gqvkA mlus LVwy ij p<+dj nwljs vaMs dks cpkus dh dksf'k'k dhA
ysfdu bl dksf'k'k esa nwljk vaMk mlh osQ gkFk ls fxjdj VwV x;kA dcwrj ijs'kkuh esa bèkj&mèkj
iQM+iQM+k jgs FksA mudh vk¡[kksa esa nq[k ns[kdj esjh ek¡ dh vk¡[kksa esa vk¡lw vk x,A bl xqukg dks
[kqnk ls eqvkI
+
kQ djkus osQ fy, mlus iwjs fnu jks”kk j[kkA fnu&Hkj oqQN [kk;k&fi;k ughaA flI
+
kZQ jksrh
jgh vkSj ckj&ckj uekt i<+&i<+dj [kqnk ls bl xyrh dks eqvkI
+
kQ djus dh nqvk ek¡xrh jghA
Xokfy;j ls cacbZ dh nwjh us lalkj dks dkI
+
kQh oqQN cny fn;k gSA olksZok esa tgk¡ vkt esjk
?kj gS] igys ;gk¡ nwj rd taxy FkkA isM+ Fks] ifjans Fks vkSj nwljs tkuoj FksA vc ;gk¡ leanj osQ
fdukjs yach&pkSM+h cLrh cu xbZ gSA bl cLrh us u tkus fdrus ifjanksa&pfjanksa ls mudk ?kj Nhu
fy;k gSA buesa ls oqQN 'kgj NksM+dj pys x, gSaA tks ugha tk losQ gSa mUgksaus ;gk¡&ogk¡ Msjk Mky
fy;k gSA buesa ls nks dcwrjksa us esjs ÝySV osQ ,d epku esa ?kksalyk cuk fy;k gSA cPps vHkh NksVs
© NCERT
not to be republished
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