NCERT Textbook: पाठ 17 - संस्कृति , क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 17 - संस्कृति , क्षितिज II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


f{kfrt
126
Hk
nar vkuan dkSlY;k;u dk tUe lu~ 1905 esa iatkc
osQ vackyk f”kys osQ lksgkuk xk¡o esa gqvkA muosQ cpiu
dk uke gjuke nkl FkkA mUgksaus ykgkSj osQ us'kuy dkWfyt
ls ch-,- fd;kA vuU; ¯gnh lsoh dkSlY;k;u th ckS¼
fHk{kq Fks vkSj mUgksaus ns'k&fons'k dh dkI
+
kQh ;k=kk,¡ dha rFkk
ckS¼ /eZ osQ izpkj&izlkj osQ fy, viuk lkjk thou
lefiZr dj fn;kA os xka/h th osQ lkFk yacs vlsZ rd oèkkZ
esa jgsA lu~ 1988 esa mudk fu/u gks x;kA
Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u dh 20 ls vf/d iqLrosaQ
izdkf'kr gSaA ftuesa fHk{kq osQ i=k] tks Hkwy uk ldk] vkg!
,slh nfjnzrk] cgkusckth] ;fn ckck uk gksrs] jsy dk
fVdV] dgk¡ D;k ns[kk vkfn izeq[k gSaA ckS¼/eZ&n'kZu
lacaf/r muosQ ekSfyd vkSj vuwfnr vusd xzaFk gSa ftuesa
tkrd dFkkvksa dk vuqokn fo'ks"k mYys[kuh; gSA
ns'k&fons'k osQ Hkze.k us Hknar th dks vuqHko dh
O;kidrk iznku dh vkSj mudh l`tukRedrk dks Lke`¼
fd;kA mUgksaus ¯gnh lkfgR; lEesyu] iz;kx vkSj jk"Vª Hkk"kk
izpkj lfefr] o/kZ osQ ekè;e ls ns'k&fons'k esa ¯gnh Hkk"kk
osQ izpkj&izlkj dk egÙoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;kA os xka/h th osQ
O;fDrRo ,oa ÑfrRo ls fo'ks"k izHkkfor FksA ljy] lgt
cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa fy[ks muosQ fucaèk] laLej.k vkSj ;k=kk
o`Ùkkar dkI
+
kQh pfpZr jgs gSaA
Hknar vkuan
dkSlY;k;u
17
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


f{kfrt
126
Hk
nar vkuan dkSlY;k;u dk tUe lu~ 1905 esa iatkc
osQ vackyk f”kys osQ lksgkuk xk¡o esa gqvkA muosQ cpiu
dk uke gjuke nkl FkkA mUgksaus ykgkSj osQ us'kuy dkWfyt
ls ch-,- fd;kA vuU; ¯gnh lsoh dkSlY;k;u th ckS¼
fHk{kq Fks vkSj mUgksaus ns'k&fons'k dh dkI
+
kQh ;k=kk,¡ dha rFkk
ckS¼ /eZ osQ izpkj&izlkj osQ fy, viuk lkjk thou
lefiZr dj fn;kA os xka/h th osQ lkFk yacs vlsZ rd oèkkZ
esa jgsA lu~ 1988 esa mudk fu/u gks x;kA
Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u dh 20 ls vf/d iqLrosaQ
izdkf'kr gSaA ftuesa fHk{kq osQ i=k] tks Hkwy uk ldk] vkg!
,slh nfjnzrk] cgkusckth] ;fn ckck uk gksrs] jsy dk
fVdV] dgk¡ D;k ns[kk vkfn izeq[k gSaA ckS¼/eZ&n'kZu
lacaf/r muosQ ekSfyd vkSj vuwfnr vusd xzaFk gSa ftuesa
tkrd dFkkvksa dk vuqokn fo'ks"k mYys[kuh; gSA
ns'k&fons'k osQ Hkze.k us Hknar th dks vuqHko dh
O;kidrk iznku dh vkSj mudh l`tukRedrk dks Lke`¼
fd;kA mUgksaus ¯gnh lkfgR; lEesyu] iz;kx vkSj jk"Vª Hkk"kk
izpkj lfefr] o/kZ osQ ekè;e ls ns'k&fons'k esa ¯gnh Hkk"kk
osQ izpkj&izlkj dk egÙoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;kA os xka/h th osQ
O;fDrRo ,oa ÑfrRo ls fo'ks"k izHkkfor FksA ljy] lgt
cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa fy[ks muosQ fucaèk] laLej.k vkSj ;k=kk
o`Ùkkar dkI
+
kQh pfpZr jgs gSaA
Hknar vkuan
dkSlY;k;u
17
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u
127
LkaLo`Qfr fuca/ gesa lH;rk vkSj laLo`Qfr ls tqM+s vusd tfVy iz'ukas ls Vdjkus dh
izsj.kk nsrk gSA bl fuca/ esa Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u th us vusd mnkgj.k nsdj
;g crkus dk iz;kl fd;k gS fd lH;rk vkSj laLÑfr fdls dgrs gSa] nksuksa ,d
gh oLrq gSa vFkok vyx&vyxA os lH;rk dks laLÑfr dk ifj.kke ekurs gq, dgrs
gSa fd ekuo laLÑfr vfoHkkT; oLrq gSA mUgsa laLÑfr dk c¡Vokjk djus okys yksxksa
ij vk'p;Z gksrk gS vkSj nq[k HkhA mudh n`f"V esa tks euq"; osQ fy, dY;k.kdkjh
ugha gS] og u lH;rk gS vkSj u laLÑfrA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


f{kfrt
126
Hk
nar vkuan dkSlY;k;u dk tUe lu~ 1905 esa iatkc
osQ vackyk f”kys osQ lksgkuk xk¡o esa gqvkA muosQ cpiu
dk uke gjuke nkl FkkA mUgksaus ykgkSj osQ us'kuy dkWfyt
ls ch-,- fd;kA vuU; ¯gnh lsoh dkSlY;k;u th ckS¼
fHk{kq Fks vkSj mUgksaus ns'k&fons'k dh dkI
+
kQh ;k=kk,¡ dha rFkk
ckS¼ /eZ osQ izpkj&izlkj osQ fy, viuk lkjk thou
lefiZr dj fn;kA os xka/h th osQ lkFk yacs vlsZ rd oèkkZ
esa jgsA lu~ 1988 esa mudk fu/u gks x;kA
Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u dh 20 ls vf/d iqLrosaQ
izdkf'kr gSaA ftuesa fHk{kq osQ i=k] tks Hkwy uk ldk] vkg!
,slh nfjnzrk] cgkusckth] ;fn ckck uk gksrs] jsy dk
fVdV] dgk¡ D;k ns[kk vkfn izeq[k gSaA ckS¼/eZ&n'kZu
lacaf/r muosQ ekSfyd vkSj vuwfnr vusd xzaFk gSa ftuesa
tkrd dFkkvksa dk vuqokn fo'ks"k mYys[kuh; gSA
ns'k&fons'k osQ Hkze.k us Hknar th dks vuqHko dh
O;kidrk iznku dh vkSj mudh l`tukRedrk dks Lke`¼
fd;kA mUgksaus ¯gnh lkfgR; lEesyu] iz;kx vkSj jk"Vª Hkk"kk
izpkj lfefr] o/kZ osQ ekè;e ls ns'k&fons'k esa ¯gnh Hkk"kk
osQ izpkj&izlkj dk egÙoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;kA os xka/h th osQ
O;fDrRo ,oa ÑfrRo ls fo'ks"k izHkkfor FksA ljy] lgt
cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa fy[ks muosQ fucaèk] laLej.k vkSj ;k=kk
o`Ùkkar dkI
+
kQh pfpZr jgs gSaA
Hknar vkuan
dkSlY;k;u
17
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u
127
LkaLo`Qfr fuca/ gesa lH;rk vkSj laLo`Qfr ls tqM+s vusd tfVy iz'ukas ls Vdjkus dh
izsj.kk nsrk gSA bl fuca/ esa Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u th us vusd mnkgj.k nsdj
;g crkus dk iz;kl fd;k gS fd lH;rk vkSj laLÑfr fdls dgrs gSa] nksuksa ,d
gh oLrq gSa vFkok vyx&vyxA os lH;rk dks laLÑfr dk ifj.kke ekurs gq, dgrs
gSa fd ekuo laLÑfr vfoHkkT; oLrq gSA mUgsa laLÑfr dk c¡Vokjk djus okys yksxksa
ij vk'p;Z gksrk gS vkSj nq[k HkhA mudh n`f"V esa tks euq"; osQ fy, dY;k.kdkjh
ugha gS] og u lH;rk gS vkSj u laLÑfrA
© NCERT
not to be republished
f{kfrt
128
laLÑfr
tks 'kCn lcls de le> esa vkrs gSa vkSj ftudk mi;ksx gksrk gS lcls vfèkd_ ,sls nks
'kCn gSa lH;rk vkSj laLo`QfrA
bu nks 'kCnksa osQ lkFk tc vusd fo'ks"k.k yx tkrs gSa] mnkgj.k osQ fy, tSls
HkkSfrd&lH;rk vkSj vkè;kfRed&lH;rk] rc nksuksa 'kCnksa dk tks FkksM+k cgqr vFkZ le> esa
vk;k jgrk gS] og Hkh xyr&lyr gks tkrk gSA D;k ;g ,d gh ph”k gS vFkok nks oLrq,¡\
;fn nks gSa rks nksuksa esa D;k varj gS\ ge bls vius rjhosQ ij le>us dh dksf'k'k djsaaA
dYiuk dhft, ml le; dh tc ekuo lekt dk vfXu nsork ls lk{kkr ugha gqvk
FkkA vkt rks ?kj&?kj pwYgk tyrk gSA ftl vkneh us igys igy vkx dk vkfo"dkj fd;k
gksxk] og fdruk cM+k vkfo"drkZ gksxk!
vFkok dYiuk dhft, ml le; dh tc ekuo dks lqbZ&èkkxs dk ifjp; u Fkk] ftl
euq"; osQ fnekx esa igys&igy ckr vkbZ gksxh fd yksgs osQ ,d VqdM+s dks f?kldj mlosQ
,d fljs dks Nsndj vkSj Nsn esa èkkxk fijksdj diM+s osQ nks VqdM+s ,d lkFk tksM+s tk ldrs
gSa] og Hkh fdruk cM+k vkfo"drkZ jgk gksxk!
bUgha nks mnkgj.kksa ij fopkj dhft,_ igys mnkgj.k esa ,d ph”k gS fdlh O;fDr
fo'ks"k dh vkx dk vkfo"dkj dj ldus dh 'kfDr vkSj nwljh ph”k gS vkx dk
vkfo"dkjA blh izdkj nwljs
lqbZ&èkkxs osQ mnkgj.k esa ,d
ph”k gS lqbZ&èkkxs dk vkfo"dkj
dj loQus dh 'kfDr vkSj
nwljh ph”k gS lqbZ&èkkxs dk
vkfo"dkjA
ftl ;ksX;rk] izo`fÙk vFkok
iszj.kk osQ cy ij vkx dk o
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


f{kfrt
126
Hk
nar vkuan dkSlY;k;u dk tUe lu~ 1905 esa iatkc
osQ vackyk f”kys osQ lksgkuk xk¡o esa gqvkA muosQ cpiu
dk uke gjuke nkl FkkA mUgksaus ykgkSj osQ us'kuy dkWfyt
ls ch-,- fd;kA vuU; ¯gnh lsoh dkSlY;k;u th ckS¼
fHk{kq Fks vkSj mUgksaus ns'k&fons'k dh dkI
+
kQh ;k=kk,¡ dha rFkk
ckS¼ /eZ osQ izpkj&izlkj osQ fy, viuk lkjk thou
lefiZr dj fn;kA os xka/h th osQ lkFk yacs vlsZ rd oèkkZ
esa jgsA lu~ 1988 esa mudk fu/u gks x;kA
Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u dh 20 ls vf/d iqLrosaQ
izdkf'kr gSaA ftuesa fHk{kq osQ i=k] tks Hkwy uk ldk] vkg!
,slh nfjnzrk] cgkusckth] ;fn ckck uk gksrs] jsy dk
fVdV] dgk¡ D;k ns[kk vkfn izeq[k gSaA ckS¼/eZ&n'kZu
lacaf/r muosQ ekSfyd vkSj vuwfnr vusd xzaFk gSa ftuesa
tkrd dFkkvksa dk vuqokn fo'ks"k mYys[kuh; gSA
ns'k&fons'k osQ Hkze.k us Hknar th dks vuqHko dh
O;kidrk iznku dh vkSj mudh l`tukRedrk dks Lke`¼
fd;kA mUgksaus ¯gnh lkfgR; lEesyu] iz;kx vkSj jk"Vª Hkk"kk
izpkj lfefr] o/kZ osQ ekè;e ls ns'k&fons'k esa ¯gnh Hkk"kk
osQ izpkj&izlkj dk egÙoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;kA os xka/h th osQ
O;fDrRo ,oa ÑfrRo ls fo'ks"k izHkkfor FksA ljy] lgt
cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa fy[ks muosQ fucaèk] laLej.k vkSj ;k=kk
o`Ùkkar dkI
+
kQh pfpZr jgs gSaA
Hknar vkuan
dkSlY;k;u
17
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u
127
LkaLo`Qfr fuca/ gesa lH;rk vkSj laLo`Qfr ls tqM+s vusd tfVy iz'ukas ls Vdjkus dh
izsj.kk nsrk gSA bl fuca/ esa Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u th us vusd mnkgj.k nsdj
;g crkus dk iz;kl fd;k gS fd lH;rk vkSj laLÑfr fdls dgrs gSa] nksuksa ,d
gh oLrq gSa vFkok vyx&vyxA os lH;rk dks laLÑfr dk ifj.kke ekurs gq, dgrs
gSa fd ekuo laLÑfr vfoHkkT; oLrq gSA mUgsa laLÑfr dk c¡Vokjk djus okys yksxksa
ij vk'p;Z gksrk gS vkSj nq[k HkhA mudh n`f"V esa tks euq"; osQ fy, dY;k.kdkjh
ugha gS] og u lH;rk gS vkSj u laLÑfrA
© NCERT
not to be republished
f{kfrt
128
laLÑfr
tks 'kCn lcls de le> esa vkrs gSa vkSj ftudk mi;ksx gksrk gS lcls vfèkd_ ,sls nks
'kCn gSa lH;rk vkSj laLo`QfrA
bu nks 'kCnksa osQ lkFk tc vusd fo'ks"k.k yx tkrs gSa] mnkgj.k osQ fy, tSls
HkkSfrd&lH;rk vkSj vkè;kfRed&lH;rk] rc nksuksa 'kCnksa dk tks FkksM+k cgqr vFkZ le> esa
vk;k jgrk gS] og Hkh xyr&lyr gks tkrk gSA D;k ;g ,d gh ph”k gS vFkok nks oLrq,¡\
;fn nks gSa rks nksuksa esa D;k varj gS\ ge bls vius rjhosQ ij le>us dh dksf'k'k djsaaA
dYiuk dhft, ml le; dh tc ekuo lekt dk vfXu nsork ls lk{kkr ugha gqvk
FkkA vkt rks ?kj&?kj pwYgk tyrk gSA ftl vkneh us igys igy vkx dk vkfo"dkj fd;k
gksxk] og fdruk cM+k vkfo"drkZ gksxk!
vFkok dYiuk dhft, ml le; dh tc ekuo dks lqbZ&èkkxs dk ifjp; u Fkk] ftl
euq"; osQ fnekx esa igys&igy ckr vkbZ gksxh fd yksgs osQ ,d VqdM+s dks f?kldj mlosQ
,d fljs dks Nsndj vkSj Nsn esa èkkxk fijksdj diM+s osQ nks VqdM+s ,d lkFk tksM+s tk ldrs
gSa] og Hkh fdruk cM+k vkfo"drkZ jgk gksxk!
bUgha nks mnkgj.kksa ij fopkj dhft,_ igys mnkgj.k esa ,d ph”k gS fdlh O;fDr
fo'ks"k dh vkx dk vkfo"dkj dj ldus dh 'kfDr vkSj nwljh ph”k gS vkx dk
vkfo"dkjA blh izdkj nwljs
lqbZ&èkkxs osQ mnkgj.k esa ,d
ph”k gS lqbZ&èkkxs dk vkfo"dkj
dj loQus dh 'kfDr vkSj
nwljh ph”k gS lqbZ&èkkxs dk
vkfo"dkjA
ftl ;ksX;rk] izo`fÙk vFkok
iszj.kk osQ cy ij vkx dk o
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u
129
lqbZ&èkkxs dk vkfo"dkj gqvk] og gS O;fDRk fo'ks"k dh laLo`Qfr_ vkSj ml laLo`Qfr }kjk tks
vkfo"dkj gqvk] tks ph”k mlus vius rFkk nwljksa osQ fy, vkfo"o`Qr dh] mldk uke gS
lH;rkA
ftl O;fDr esa igyh ph”k] ftruh vfèkd o tSlh ifj"o`Qr ek=kk esa gksxh] og O;fDr
mruk gh vfèkd o oSlk gh ifj"o`Qr vkfo"drkZ gksxkA
,d laLo`Qr O;fDr fdlh u;h ph”k dh [kkst djrk gS_ ¯drq mldh larku dks og
vius iwoZt ls vuk;kl gh izkIr gks tkrh gSA ftl O;fDr dh cqf¼ us vFkok mlosQ foosd
us fdlh Hkh u, rF; dk n'kZu fd;k] og O;fDr gh okLrfod laLo`Qr O;fDr gS vkSj
mldh larku ftls vius iwoZt ls og oLrq vuk;kl gh izkIr gks xbZ gS] og vius iwoZt
dh Hkk¡fr lH; Hkys gh cu tk,] laLo`Qr ugha dgyk ldrkA ,d vkèkqfud mnkgj.k ysaA
U;wVu us xqjQRokd"kZ.k osQ fl¼kar dk vkfo"dkj fd;kA og LkaLo`Qr ekuo FkkA vkt osQ ;qx
dk HkkSfrd foKku dk fo|kFkhZ U;wVu osQ xqjQRokd"kZ.k ls rks ifjfpr gS gh_ ysfdu mlosQ
lkFk mls vkSj Hkh vusd ckrksa dk Kku izkIr gS ftuls 'kk;n U;wVu vifjfpr gh jgkA ,slk
gksus ij Hkh ge vkt osQ HkkSfrd foKku osQ fo|kFkhZ dks U;wVu dh vis{kk vfèkd lH;
Hkys gh dg losQ_ ij U;wVu ftruk laLo`Qr ugha dg ldrsA
vkx osQ vkfo"dkj esa dnkfpr isV dh Tokyk dh izsj.kk ,d dkj.k jghA lqbZ&èkkxs
osQ vkfo"dkj esa 'kk;n 'khrks".k ls cpus rFkk 'kjhj dks ltkus dh izo`fÙk dk fo'ks"k gkFk
jgkA vc dYiuk dhft, ml vkneh dh ftldk isV Hkjk gS] ftldk ru <¡dk gS]
ysfdu tc og [kqys vkdk'k osQ uhps lks;k gqvk jkr osQ txexkrs rkjksa dks ns[krk gS]
rks mldks osQoy blfy, uhan ugha vkrh D;ksafd og ;g tkuus osQ fy, ijs'kku gS fd
vkf[kj ;g eksrh Hkjk Fkky D;k gS\ isV Hkjus vkSj ru <¡dus dh bPNk euq"; dh
laLo`Qfr dh tuuh ugha gSA isV Hkjk vkSj ru <¡dk gksus ij Hkh ,slk ekuo tks okLro
esa laLo`Qr gS] fuBYyk ugha cSB ldrkA gekjh lH;rk dk ,d cM+k va'k gesa ,sls
laLo`Qr vknfe;ksa ls gh feyk gS] ftudh psruk ij LFkwy HkkSfrd dkj.kksa dk izHkko izèkku
jgk gS] ¯drq mldk oqQN fgLlk gesa euhf"k;ksa ls Hkh feyk gS fTkUgksaus rF;&fo'ks"k dks
fdlh HkkSfrd izsj.kk osQ o'khHkwr gksdj ugha] cfYd muosQ vius vanj dh lgt laLo`Qfr
osQ gh dkj.k izkIr fd;k gSA jkr osQ rkjksa dks ns[kdj u lks ldus okyk euh"kh gekjs
vkt osQ Kku dk ,slk gh izFke iqjLdrkZ FkkA
HkkSfrd izsj.kk] KkusIlkµD;k ;s nks gh ekuo laLo`Qfr osQ ekrk&firk gSa\ nwljs osQ eq¡g
esa dkSj Mkyus osQ fy, tks vius eq¡g dk dkSj NksM+ nsrk gS] mldks ;g ckr D;ksa vkSj oSQls
lw>rh gS\ jksxh cPps dks lkjh jkr xksn esa fy, tks ekrk cSBh jgrh gS] og vkf[kj ,slk
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


f{kfrt
126
Hk
nar vkuan dkSlY;k;u dk tUe lu~ 1905 esa iatkc
osQ vackyk f”kys osQ lksgkuk xk¡o esa gqvkA muosQ cpiu
dk uke gjuke nkl FkkA mUgksaus ykgkSj osQ us'kuy dkWfyt
ls ch-,- fd;kA vuU; ¯gnh lsoh dkSlY;k;u th ckS¼
fHk{kq Fks vkSj mUgksaus ns'k&fons'k dh dkI
+
kQh ;k=kk,¡ dha rFkk
ckS¼ /eZ osQ izpkj&izlkj osQ fy, viuk lkjk thou
lefiZr dj fn;kA os xka/h th osQ lkFk yacs vlsZ rd oèkkZ
esa jgsA lu~ 1988 esa mudk fu/u gks x;kA
Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u dh 20 ls vf/d iqLrosaQ
izdkf'kr gSaA ftuesa fHk{kq osQ i=k] tks Hkwy uk ldk] vkg!
,slh nfjnzrk] cgkusckth] ;fn ckck uk gksrs] jsy dk
fVdV] dgk¡ D;k ns[kk vkfn izeq[k gSaA ckS¼/eZ&n'kZu
lacaf/r muosQ ekSfyd vkSj vuwfnr vusd xzaFk gSa ftuesa
tkrd dFkkvksa dk vuqokn fo'ks"k mYys[kuh; gSA
ns'k&fons'k osQ Hkze.k us Hknar th dks vuqHko dh
O;kidrk iznku dh vkSj mudh l`tukRedrk dks Lke`¼
fd;kA mUgksaus ¯gnh lkfgR; lEesyu] iz;kx vkSj jk"Vª Hkk"kk
izpkj lfefr] o/kZ osQ ekè;e ls ns'k&fons'k esa ¯gnh Hkk"kk
osQ izpkj&izlkj dk egÙoiw.kZ dk;Z fd;kA os xka/h th osQ
O;fDrRo ,oa ÑfrRo ls fo'ks"k izHkkfor FksA ljy] lgt
cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa fy[ks muosQ fucaèk] laLej.k vkSj ;k=kk
o`Ùkkar dkI
+
kQh pfpZr jgs gSaA
Hknar vkuan
dkSlY;k;u
17
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u
127
LkaLo`Qfr fuca/ gesa lH;rk vkSj laLo`Qfr ls tqM+s vusd tfVy iz'ukas ls Vdjkus dh
izsj.kk nsrk gSA bl fuca/ esa Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u th us vusd mnkgj.k nsdj
;g crkus dk iz;kl fd;k gS fd lH;rk vkSj laLÑfr fdls dgrs gSa] nksuksa ,d
gh oLrq gSa vFkok vyx&vyxA os lH;rk dks laLÑfr dk ifj.kke ekurs gq, dgrs
gSa fd ekuo laLÑfr vfoHkkT; oLrq gSA mUgsa laLÑfr dk c¡Vokjk djus okys yksxksa
ij vk'p;Z gksrk gS vkSj nq[k HkhA mudh n`f"V esa tks euq"; osQ fy, dY;k.kdkjh
ugha gS] og u lH;rk gS vkSj u laLÑfrA
© NCERT
not to be republished
f{kfrt
128
laLÑfr
tks 'kCn lcls de le> esa vkrs gSa vkSj ftudk mi;ksx gksrk gS lcls vfèkd_ ,sls nks
'kCn gSa lH;rk vkSj laLo`QfrA
bu nks 'kCnksa osQ lkFk tc vusd fo'ks"k.k yx tkrs gSa] mnkgj.k osQ fy, tSls
HkkSfrd&lH;rk vkSj vkè;kfRed&lH;rk] rc nksuksa 'kCnksa dk tks FkksM+k cgqr vFkZ le> esa
vk;k jgrk gS] og Hkh xyr&lyr gks tkrk gSA D;k ;g ,d gh ph”k gS vFkok nks oLrq,¡\
;fn nks gSa rks nksuksa esa D;k varj gS\ ge bls vius rjhosQ ij le>us dh dksf'k'k djsaaA
dYiuk dhft, ml le; dh tc ekuo lekt dk vfXu nsork ls lk{kkr ugha gqvk
FkkA vkt rks ?kj&?kj pwYgk tyrk gSA ftl vkneh us igys igy vkx dk vkfo"dkj fd;k
gksxk] og fdruk cM+k vkfo"drkZ gksxk!
vFkok dYiuk dhft, ml le; dh tc ekuo dks lqbZ&èkkxs dk ifjp; u Fkk] ftl
euq"; osQ fnekx esa igys&igy ckr vkbZ gksxh fd yksgs osQ ,d VqdM+s dks f?kldj mlosQ
,d fljs dks Nsndj vkSj Nsn esa èkkxk fijksdj diM+s osQ nks VqdM+s ,d lkFk tksM+s tk ldrs
gSa] og Hkh fdruk cM+k vkfo"drkZ jgk gksxk!
bUgha nks mnkgj.kksa ij fopkj dhft,_ igys mnkgj.k esa ,d ph”k gS fdlh O;fDr
fo'ks"k dh vkx dk vkfo"dkj dj ldus dh 'kfDr vkSj nwljh ph”k gS vkx dk
vkfo"dkjA blh izdkj nwljs
lqbZ&èkkxs osQ mnkgj.k esa ,d
ph”k gS lqbZ&èkkxs dk vkfo"dkj
dj loQus dh 'kfDr vkSj
nwljh ph”k gS lqbZ&èkkxs dk
vkfo"dkjA
ftl ;ksX;rk] izo`fÙk vFkok
iszj.kk osQ cy ij vkx dk o
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hknar vkuan dkSlY;k;u
129
lqbZ&èkkxs dk vkfo"dkj gqvk] og gS O;fDRk fo'ks"k dh laLo`Qfr_ vkSj ml laLo`Qfr }kjk tks
vkfo"dkj gqvk] tks ph”k mlus vius rFkk nwljksa osQ fy, vkfo"o`Qr dh] mldk uke gS
lH;rkA
ftl O;fDr esa igyh ph”k] ftruh vfèkd o tSlh ifj"o`Qr ek=kk esa gksxh] og O;fDr
mruk gh vfèkd o oSlk gh ifj"o`Qr vkfo"drkZ gksxkA
,d laLo`Qr O;fDr fdlh u;h ph”k dh [kkst djrk gS_ ¯drq mldh larku dks og
vius iwoZt ls vuk;kl gh izkIr gks tkrh gSA ftl O;fDr dh cqf¼ us vFkok mlosQ foosd
us fdlh Hkh u, rF; dk n'kZu fd;k] og O;fDr gh okLrfod laLo`Qr O;fDr gS vkSj
mldh larku ftls vius iwoZt ls og oLrq vuk;kl gh izkIr gks xbZ gS] og vius iwoZt
dh Hkk¡fr lH; Hkys gh cu tk,] laLo`Qr ugha dgyk ldrkA ,d vkèkqfud mnkgj.k ysaA
U;wVu us xqjQRokd"kZ.k osQ fl¼kar dk vkfo"dkj fd;kA og LkaLo`Qr ekuo FkkA vkt osQ ;qx
dk HkkSfrd foKku dk fo|kFkhZ U;wVu osQ xqjQRokd"kZ.k ls rks ifjfpr gS gh_ ysfdu mlosQ
lkFk mls vkSj Hkh vusd ckrksa dk Kku izkIr gS ftuls 'kk;n U;wVu vifjfpr gh jgkA ,slk
gksus ij Hkh ge vkt osQ HkkSfrd foKku osQ fo|kFkhZ dks U;wVu dh vis{kk vfèkd lH;
Hkys gh dg losQ_ ij U;wVu ftruk laLo`Qr ugha dg ldrsA
vkx osQ vkfo"dkj esa dnkfpr isV dh Tokyk dh izsj.kk ,d dkj.k jghA lqbZ&èkkxs
osQ vkfo"dkj esa 'kk;n 'khrks".k ls cpus rFkk 'kjhj dks ltkus dh izo`fÙk dk fo'ks"k gkFk
jgkA vc dYiuk dhft, ml vkneh dh ftldk isV Hkjk gS] ftldk ru <¡dk gS]
ysfdu tc og [kqys vkdk'k osQ uhps lks;k gqvk jkr osQ txexkrs rkjksa dks ns[krk gS]
rks mldks osQoy blfy, uhan ugha vkrh D;ksafd og ;g tkuus osQ fy, ijs'kku gS fd
vkf[kj ;g eksrh Hkjk Fkky D;k gS\ isV Hkjus vkSj ru <¡dus dh bPNk euq"; dh
laLo`Qfr dh tuuh ugha gSA isV Hkjk vkSj ru <¡dk gksus ij Hkh ,slk ekuo tks okLro
esa laLo`Qr gS] fuBYyk ugha cSB ldrkA gekjh lH;rk dk ,d cM+k va'k gesa ,sls
laLo`Qr vknfe;ksa ls gh feyk gS] ftudh psruk ij LFkwy HkkSfrd dkj.kksa dk izHkko izèkku
jgk gS] ¯drq mldk oqQN fgLlk gesa euhf"k;ksa ls Hkh feyk gS fTkUgksaus rF;&fo'ks"k dks
fdlh HkkSfrd izsj.kk osQ o'khHkwr gksdj ugha] cfYd muosQ vius vanj dh lgt laLo`Qfr
osQ gh dkj.k izkIr fd;k gSA jkr osQ rkjksa dks ns[kdj u lks ldus okyk euh"kh gekjs
vkt osQ Kku dk ,slk gh izFke iqjLdrkZ FkkA
HkkSfrd izsj.kk] KkusIlkµD;k ;s nks gh ekuo laLo`Qfr osQ ekrk&firk gSa\ nwljs osQ eq¡g
esa dkSj Mkyus osQ fy, tks vius eq¡g dk dkSj NksM+ nsrk gS] mldks ;g ckr D;ksa vkSj oSQls
lw>rh gS\ jksxh cPps dks lkjh jkr xksn esa fy, tks ekrk cSBh jgrh gS] og vkf[kj ,slk
© NCERT
not to be republished
f{kfrt
130
D;ksa djrh gS\ lqurs gSa fd :l dk HkkX;foèkkrk ysfuu viuh MSLd esa j[ks gq, Mcy jksVh
osQ lw[ks VqdM+s Lo;a u [kkdj nwljksa dks f[kyk fn;k djrk FkkA og vkf[kj ,slk D;ksa djrk
Fkk\ lalkj osQ e”knwjkssa dks lq[kh ns[kus dk LoIu ns[krs gq, dkyZ ekDlZ us viuk lkjk thou
nq[k esa fcrk fn;kA vkSj bu lcls c<+dj vkt ugha] vkt ls <kbZ g”kkj o"kZ iwoZ fl¼kFkZ
us viuk ?kj osQoy blfy, R;kx fn;k fd fdlh rjg r`".kk osQ o'khHkwr yM+rh&dVrh
ekuork lq[k ls jg losQA
gekjh le> essa ekuo laLo`Qfr dh tks ;ksX;rk vkx o lqbZ&èkkxs dk vkfo"dkj djkrh
gS_ og Hkh laLo`Qfr gS tks ;ksX;rk rkjksa dh tkudkjh djkrh gS] og Hkh gS_ vkSj tks ;ksX;rk
fdlh egkekuo ls loZLo R;kx djkrh gS] og Hkh laLo`Qfr gSA
vkSj lH;rk\ lH;rk gS laLo`Qfr dk ifj.kkeA gekjs [kkus&ihus osQ rjhosQ] gekjs vks<+us
iguus osQ rjhosQ] gekjs xeuk&xeu osQ lkèku] gekjs ijLij dV ejus osQ rjhosQ_ lc gekjh
lH;rk gSaA ekuo dh tks ;ksX;rk mlls vkRe&fouk'k osQ lkèkuksa dk vkfo"dkj djkrh gS]
ge mls mldh laLo`Qfr dgsa ;k vlaLo`Qfr\ vkSj ftu lkèkuksa osQ cy ij og fnu&jkr
vkRe&fouk'k esaa tqVk gqvk gS] mUgsa ge mldh lH;rk le>sa ;k vlH;rk\ laLo`Qfr dk
;fn dY;k.k dh Hkkouk ls ukrk VwV tk,xk rks og vlaLo`Qfr gksdj gh jgsxh vkSj ,slh
laLo`Qfr dk vo';aHkkoh ifj.kke vlH;rk osQ vfrfjDr nwljk D;k gksxk\
laLo`Qfr osQ uke ls ftl owQM+s&djdV osQ <sj dk cksèk gksrk gS] og u laLo`Qfr gS u
j{k.kh; oLrqA {k.k&{k.k ifjorZu gksus okys lalkj esa fdlh Hkh ph”k dks idM+dj cSBk ugha
tk ldrkA ekuo us tc&tc izKk vkSj eS=kh Hkko ls fdlh u, rF; dk n'kZu fd;k gS
rks mlus dksbZ oLrq ugha ns[kh gS] ftldh j{kk osQ fy, nycafn;ksa dh ”k:jr gSA
ekuo laLo`Qfr ,d vfoHkkT; oLrq gS vkSj mlesa ftruk va'k dY;k.k dk gS] og
vdY;k.kdj dh vis{kk Js"B gh ugha LFkk;h Hkh gSA
iz'u&vH;kl
1- ys[kd dh n`f"V esa ^lH;rk* vkSj ^laLo`Qfr* dh lgh le> vc rd D;ksa ugha cu ikbZ gS\
2- vkx dh [kkst ,d cgqr cM+h [kkst D;ksa ekuh tkrh gS\ bl [kkst osQ ihNs jgh izsj.kk osQ eq[; lzksr D;k
jgs gksaxs\
© NCERT
not to be republished
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