NCERT Textbook: पाठ 5 - मैं क्यों लिखता हूँ?, कृतिका II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook: पाठ 5 - मैं क्यों लिखता हूँ?, कृतिका II, हिंदी, कक्षा - 10 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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o`Qfrdk
42
1- Hkhrj dk] van#uh  2- izdk'k] nhfIr  3- dkj.k
eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ ;g iz'u cM+k ljy tku
iM+rk gS ij cM+k dfBu Hkh gSA D;ksafd bldk
lPpk mÙkj ys[kd osQ vkarfjd thou osQ Lrjksa
ls laca/ j[krk gSA mu lcdks la{ksi esa oqQN
okD;ksa esa ck¡/ nsuk vklku rks ugha gh gS] u
tkus lEHko Hkh gS ;k ugha\ bruk gh fd;k tk
ldrk gS fd muesa ls oqQN dk Li'kZ fd;k
tk,µfo'ks"k :i ls ,slksa dk ftUgsa tkuuk nwljksa
osQ fy, mi;ksxh gks ldrk gSA
,d mÙkj rks ;g gS fd eSa blhfy, fy[krk
gw¡ fd Lo;a tkuuk pkgrk gw¡ fd D;ksa fy[krk gw¡&fy[ks fcuk bl iz'u dk mÙkj ugha fey
ldrk gSA okLro esa lPpk mÙkj ;gh gSA fy[kdj gh ys[kd ml vkH;arj
1
 foo'krk dks
igpkurk gS ftlosQ dkj.k mlus fy[kkµvkSj fy[kdj gh og mlls eqDr gks tkrk gSA eSa
Hkh ml vkarfjd foo'krk ls eqfDr ikus osQ fy,] rVLFk gksdj mls ns[kus vkSj igpku ysus
osQ fy, fy[krk gw¡A esjk fo'okl gS fd lHkh o`QfrdkjµD;ksafd lHkh ys[kd o`Qfrdkj ugha
gksrs_ u mudk lc ys[ku gh o`Qfr gkssrk gSµlHkh o`Qfrdkj blhfy, fy[krs gSaA ;g Bhd
gS fd oqQN [;kfr fey tkus osQ ckn oqQN ckgj dh foo'krk ls Hkh fy[kk tkrk
gS&laikndksa osQ vkxzg ls] izdk'kd osQ rdkts ls] vkfFkZd vko';drk lsA ij ,d rks
o`Qfrdkj ges'kk vius lEeq[k bZekunkjh ls ;g Hksn cuk, j[krk gS fd dkSu&lh o`Qfr
Hkhrjh izsj.kk dk iQy gS] dkSu&lk ys[ku ckgjh ncko dk] nwljs ;g Hkh gksrk gS fd ckgj
dk ncko okLro esa ncko ugha jgrk] og ekuks Hkhrjh mUes"k
2
 dk fufefÙk
3
 cu tkrk gSA
vKs;
5
e e e e eSSSSSaaaaa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\
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o`Qfrdk
42
1- Hkhrj dk] van#uh  2- izdk'k] nhfIr  3- dkj.k
eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ ;g iz'u cM+k ljy tku
iM+rk gS ij cM+k dfBu Hkh gSA D;ksafd bldk
lPpk mÙkj ys[kd osQ vkarfjd thou osQ Lrjksa
ls laca/ j[krk gSA mu lcdks la{ksi esa oqQN
okD;ksa esa ck¡/ nsuk vklku rks ugha gh gS] u
tkus lEHko Hkh gS ;k ugha\ bruk gh fd;k tk
ldrk gS fd muesa ls oqQN dk Li'kZ fd;k
tk,µfo'ks"k :i ls ,slksa dk ftUgsa tkuuk nwljksa
osQ fy, mi;ksxh gks ldrk gSA
,d mÙkj rks ;g gS fd eSa blhfy, fy[krk
gw¡ fd Lo;a tkuuk pkgrk gw¡ fd D;ksa fy[krk gw¡&fy[ks fcuk bl iz'u dk mÙkj ugha fey
ldrk gSA okLro esa lPpk mÙkj ;gh gSA fy[kdj gh ys[kd ml vkH;arj
1
 foo'krk dks
igpkurk gS ftlosQ dkj.k mlus fy[kkµvkSj fy[kdj gh og mlls eqDr gks tkrk gSA eSa
Hkh ml vkarfjd foo'krk ls eqfDr ikus osQ fy,] rVLFk gksdj mls ns[kus vkSj igpku ysus
osQ fy, fy[krk gw¡A esjk fo'okl gS fd lHkh o`QfrdkjµD;ksafd lHkh ys[kd o`Qfrdkj ugha
gksrs_ u mudk lc ys[ku gh o`Qfr gkssrk gSµlHkh o`Qfrdkj blhfy, fy[krs gSaA ;g Bhd
gS fd oqQN [;kfr fey tkus osQ ckn oqQN ckgj dh foo'krk ls Hkh fy[kk tkrk
gS&laikndksa osQ vkxzg ls] izdk'kd osQ rdkts ls] vkfFkZd vko';drk lsA ij ,d rks
o`Qfrdkj ges'kk vius lEeq[k bZekunkjh ls ;g Hksn cuk, j[krk gS fd dkSu&lh o`Qfr
Hkhrjh izsj.kk dk iQy gS] dkSu&lk ys[ku ckgjh ncko dk] nwljs ;g Hkh gksrk gS fd ckgj
dk ncko okLro esa ncko ugha jgrk] og ekuks Hkhrjh mUes"k
2
 dk fufefÙk
3
 cu tkrk gSA
vKs;
5
e e e e eSSSSSaaaaa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\
43
eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\
;gk¡ ij o`Qfrdkj osQ LoHkko vkSj vkRekuq'kklu dk egÙo cgqr gksrk gSA oqQN ,sls vkylh
tho gksrs gSa fd fcuk bl ckgjh ncko osQ fy[k gh ugha ikrsµblh osQ lgkjs muosQ Hkhrj
dh foo'krk Li"V gksrh gSµ;g oqQN oSlk gh gS tSls izkr%dky uhan [kqy tkus ij dksbZ
fcNkSus ij rc rd iM+k jgs tc rd ?kM+h dk ,ykeZ u ct tk,A bl izdkj okLro esa
o`Qfrdkj ckgj osQ ncko osQ izfr lefiZr ugha gks tkrk gS] mls osQoy ,d lgk;d ;a=k
dh rjg dke esa ykrk gS ftlls HkkSfrd ;FkkFkZ osQ lkFk mldk laca/ cuk jgsA eq>s bl
lgkjs dh ”k:jr ugha iM+rh ysfdu dHkh mlls ck/k Hkh ugha gksrhA mBus okyh rqyuk
dks cuk, j[kw¡ rks dgw¡ fd lcsjs mB tkrk gw¡ vius vki gh] ij vykeZ Hkh ct tk, rks
dksbZ gkfu ugha ekurkA
;g Hkhrjh foo'krk D;k gksrh gS\ bls c[kkuuk cM+k dfBu gSA D;k og ugha gksrh
;g crkuk 'kk;n de dfBu gksrk gSA ;k mldk mnkgj.k fn;k tk ldrk gSµdnkfpr~
ogh vf/d mi;ksxh gksxkA viuh ,d dfork dh oqQN ppkZ d:¡ ftlls esjh ckr
Li"V gks tk,xhA
eSa foKku dk fo|kFkhZ jgk gw¡] esjh fu;fer f'k{kk mlh fo"k; esa gqbZA v.kq D;k gksrk
gS] oSQls ge jsfM;e&/ehZ rRoksa dk vè;;u djrs gq, foKku dh ml lh<+h rd igq¡ps
tgk¡ v.kq dk Hksnu laHko gqvk] jsfM;e&/feZrk osQ D;k izHkko gkssrs gSaµbu lcdk
iqLrdh; ;k lS¼kafrd Kku rks eq>s FkkA fiQj tc og fgjksf'kek esa v.kq&ce fxjk] rc
mlosQ lekpkj eSaus i<+s_ vkSj mlosQ ijorhZ izHkkoksa dk Hkh fooj.k i<+rk jgkA bl izdkj
mlosQ izHkkoksa dk ,sfrgkfld izek.k Hkh lkeus vk x;kA foKku osQ bl nq#i;ksx osQ izfr
cqf¼ dk fonzksg LokHkkfod Fkk] eSaus ys[k vkfn esa oqQN fy[kk Hkh ij vuqHkwfr osQ Lrj
ij tks foo'krk gksrh gS og ckSf¼d idM+ ls vkxs dh ckr gS vkSj mldh roZQ laxfr
Hkh viuh vyx gksrh gSA blfy, dfork eSaus bl fo"k; esa ugha fy[khA ;ksa ;q¼dky
esa Hkkjr dh iwohZ; lhek ij ns[kk Fkk fd oSQls lSfud czãiq=k esaa ce isaQd dj g”kkjksa
eNfy;k¡ ekj nsrs FksA tcfd mUgsa vko';drk FkksM+h&lh gksrh Fkh] vkSj tho osQ bl
viO;; ls tks O;Fkk Hkhrj meM+h Fkh] mlls ,d lhek rd v.kq&ce }kjk O;FkZ
tho&uk'k dk vuqHko rks dj gh ldk FkkA
tkiku tkus dk volj feyk] rc fgjksf'kek Hkh x;k vkSj og vLirky Hkh ns[kk
tgk¡ jsfM;e&inkFkZ ls vkgr ykssx o"kks± ls d"V ik jgs FksA bl izdkj izR;{k vuqHko Hkh
gqvkµij vuqHko ls vuqHkwfr xgjh ph”k gS] de&ls&de o`Qfrdkj osQ fy,A vuqHko
rks ?kfVr dk gksrk gS] ij vuqHkwfr laosnuk vkSj dYiuk osQ lgkjs ml lR; dks vkRelkr~
dj ysrh gS tks okLro esa o`Qfrdkj osQ lkFk ?kfVr ugha gqvk gSA tks vk¡[kksa osQ lkeus
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o`Qfrdk
42
1- Hkhrj dk] van#uh  2- izdk'k] nhfIr  3- dkj.k
eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ ;g iz'u cM+k ljy tku
iM+rk gS ij cM+k dfBu Hkh gSA D;ksafd bldk
lPpk mÙkj ys[kd osQ vkarfjd thou osQ Lrjksa
ls laca/ j[krk gSA mu lcdks la{ksi esa oqQN
okD;ksa esa ck¡/ nsuk vklku rks ugha gh gS] u
tkus lEHko Hkh gS ;k ugha\ bruk gh fd;k tk
ldrk gS fd muesa ls oqQN dk Li'kZ fd;k
tk,µfo'ks"k :i ls ,slksa dk ftUgsa tkuuk nwljksa
osQ fy, mi;ksxh gks ldrk gSA
,d mÙkj rks ;g gS fd eSa blhfy, fy[krk
gw¡ fd Lo;a tkuuk pkgrk gw¡ fd D;ksa fy[krk gw¡&fy[ks fcuk bl iz'u dk mÙkj ugha fey
ldrk gSA okLro esa lPpk mÙkj ;gh gSA fy[kdj gh ys[kd ml vkH;arj
1
 foo'krk dks
igpkurk gS ftlosQ dkj.k mlus fy[kkµvkSj fy[kdj gh og mlls eqDr gks tkrk gSA eSa
Hkh ml vkarfjd foo'krk ls eqfDr ikus osQ fy,] rVLFk gksdj mls ns[kus vkSj igpku ysus
osQ fy, fy[krk gw¡A esjk fo'okl gS fd lHkh o`QfrdkjµD;ksafd lHkh ys[kd o`Qfrdkj ugha
gksrs_ u mudk lc ys[ku gh o`Qfr gkssrk gSµlHkh o`Qfrdkj blhfy, fy[krs gSaA ;g Bhd
gS fd oqQN [;kfr fey tkus osQ ckn oqQN ckgj dh foo'krk ls Hkh fy[kk tkrk
gS&laikndksa osQ vkxzg ls] izdk'kd osQ rdkts ls] vkfFkZd vko';drk lsA ij ,d rks
o`Qfrdkj ges'kk vius lEeq[k bZekunkjh ls ;g Hksn cuk, j[krk gS fd dkSu&lh o`Qfr
Hkhrjh izsj.kk dk iQy gS] dkSu&lk ys[ku ckgjh ncko dk] nwljs ;g Hkh gksrk gS fd ckgj
dk ncko okLro esa ncko ugha jgrk] og ekuks Hkhrjh mUes"k
2
 dk fufefÙk
3
 cu tkrk gSA
vKs;
5
e e e e eSSSSSaaaaa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\
43
eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\
;gk¡ ij o`Qfrdkj osQ LoHkko vkSj vkRekuq'kklu dk egÙo cgqr gksrk gSA oqQN ,sls vkylh
tho gksrs gSa fd fcuk bl ckgjh ncko osQ fy[k gh ugha ikrsµblh osQ lgkjs muosQ Hkhrj
dh foo'krk Li"V gksrh gSµ;g oqQN oSlk gh gS tSls izkr%dky uhan [kqy tkus ij dksbZ
fcNkSus ij rc rd iM+k jgs tc rd ?kM+h dk ,ykeZ u ct tk,A bl izdkj okLro esa
o`Qfrdkj ckgj osQ ncko osQ izfr lefiZr ugha gks tkrk gS] mls osQoy ,d lgk;d ;a=k
dh rjg dke esa ykrk gS ftlls HkkSfrd ;FkkFkZ osQ lkFk mldk laca/ cuk jgsA eq>s bl
lgkjs dh ”k:jr ugha iM+rh ysfdu dHkh mlls ck/k Hkh ugha gksrhA mBus okyh rqyuk
dks cuk, j[kw¡ rks dgw¡ fd lcsjs mB tkrk gw¡ vius vki gh] ij vykeZ Hkh ct tk, rks
dksbZ gkfu ugha ekurkA
;g Hkhrjh foo'krk D;k gksrh gS\ bls c[kkuuk cM+k dfBu gSA D;k og ugha gksrh
;g crkuk 'kk;n de dfBu gksrk gSA ;k mldk mnkgj.k fn;k tk ldrk gSµdnkfpr~
ogh vf/d mi;ksxh gksxkA viuh ,d dfork dh oqQN ppkZ d:¡ ftlls esjh ckr
Li"V gks tk,xhA
eSa foKku dk fo|kFkhZ jgk gw¡] esjh fu;fer f'k{kk mlh fo"k; esa gqbZA v.kq D;k gksrk
gS] oSQls ge jsfM;e&/ehZ rRoksa dk vè;;u djrs gq, foKku dh ml lh<+h rd igq¡ps
tgk¡ v.kq dk Hksnu laHko gqvk] jsfM;e&/feZrk osQ D;k izHkko gkssrs gSaµbu lcdk
iqLrdh; ;k lS¼kafrd Kku rks eq>s FkkA fiQj tc og fgjksf'kek esa v.kq&ce fxjk] rc
mlosQ lekpkj eSaus i<+s_ vkSj mlosQ ijorhZ izHkkoksa dk Hkh fooj.k i<+rk jgkA bl izdkj
mlosQ izHkkoksa dk ,sfrgkfld izek.k Hkh lkeus vk x;kA foKku osQ bl nq#i;ksx osQ izfr
cqf¼ dk fonzksg LokHkkfod Fkk] eSaus ys[k vkfn esa oqQN fy[kk Hkh ij vuqHkwfr osQ Lrj
ij tks foo'krk gksrh gS og ckSf¼d idM+ ls vkxs dh ckr gS vkSj mldh roZQ laxfr
Hkh viuh vyx gksrh gSA blfy, dfork eSaus bl fo"k; esa ugha fy[khA ;ksa ;q¼dky
esa Hkkjr dh iwohZ; lhek ij ns[kk Fkk fd oSQls lSfud czãiq=k esaa ce isaQd dj g”kkjksa
eNfy;k¡ ekj nsrs FksA tcfd mUgsa vko';drk FkksM+h&lh gksrh Fkh] vkSj tho osQ bl
viO;; ls tks O;Fkk Hkhrj meM+h Fkh] mlls ,d lhek rd v.kq&ce }kjk O;FkZ
tho&uk'k dk vuqHko rks dj gh ldk FkkA
tkiku tkus dk volj feyk] rc fgjksf'kek Hkh x;k vkSj og vLirky Hkh ns[kk
tgk¡ jsfM;e&inkFkZ ls vkgr ykssx o"kks± ls d"V ik jgs FksA bl izdkj izR;{k vuqHko Hkh
gqvkµij vuqHko ls vuqHkwfr xgjh ph”k gS] de&ls&de o`Qfrdkj osQ fy,A vuqHko
rks ?kfVr dk gksrk gS] ij vuqHkwfr laosnuk vkSj dYiuk osQ lgkjs ml lR; dks vkRelkr~
dj ysrh gS tks okLro esa o`Qfrdkj osQ lkFk ?kfVr ugha gqvk gSA tks vk¡[kksa osQ lkeus
o`Qfrdk
44
ugha vk;k] tks ?kfVr osQ vuqHko esa ugha vk;k] ogh vkRek osQ lkeus Toyar izdk'k esa
vk tkrk gS] rc og vuqHkwfr&izR;{k gks tkrk gSA
rks fgjksf'kek esa lc ns[kdj Hkh RkRdky oqQN fy[kk ugha] D;ksafd blh vuqHkwfr
izR;{k dh dlj FkhA fiQj ,d fnu ogha lM+d ij ?kwers gq, ns[kk fd ,d tys gq,
iRFkj ij ,d yach mtyh Nk;k gSµfoLiQksV osQ le; dksbZ ogk¡ [kM+k jgk gksxk vkSj
foLiQksV ls fc[kjs gq, jsfM;e&èkehZ inkFkZ dh fdj.ksa mlesa #¼
4
 gks xbZ gksaxhµtks
vkl&ikl ls vkxs c<+ xb± mUgksaus iRFkj dks >qylk fn;k] tks ml O;fDRk ij vVdha
mUgksaus mls Hkki cukdj mM+k fn;k gksxkA bl izdkj lewph VªstMh tSls iRFkj ij
fy[kh xbZA
4- can gks xbZ] i¡Ql xbZ
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o`Qfrdk
42
1- Hkhrj dk] van#uh  2- izdk'k] nhfIr  3- dkj.k
eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ ;g iz'u cM+k ljy tku
iM+rk gS ij cM+k dfBu Hkh gSA D;ksafd bldk
lPpk mÙkj ys[kd osQ vkarfjd thou osQ Lrjksa
ls laca/ j[krk gSA mu lcdks la{ksi esa oqQN
okD;ksa esa ck¡/ nsuk vklku rks ugha gh gS] u
tkus lEHko Hkh gS ;k ugha\ bruk gh fd;k tk
ldrk gS fd muesa ls oqQN dk Li'kZ fd;k
tk,µfo'ks"k :i ls ,slksa dk ftUgsa tkuuk nwljksa
osQ fy, mi;ksxh gks ldrk gSA
,d mÙkj rks ;g gS fd eSa blhfy, fy[krk
gw¡ fd Lo;a tkuuk pkgrk gw¡ fd D;ksa fy[krk gw¡&fy[ks fcuk bl iz'u dk mÙkj ugha fey
ldrk gSA okLro esa lPpk mÙkj ;gh gSA fy[kdj gh ys[kd ml vkH;arj
1
 foo'krk dks
igpkurk gS ftlosQ dkj.k mlus fy[kkµvkSj fy[kdj gh og mlls eqDr gks tkrk gSA eSa
Hkh ml vkarfjd foo'krk ls eqfDr ikus osQ fy,] rVLFk gksdj mls ns[kus vkSj igpku ysus
osQ fy, fy[krk gw¡A esjk fo'okl gS fd lHkh o`QfrdkjµD;ksafd lHkh ys[kd o`Qfrdkj ugha
gksrs_ u mudk lc ys[ku gh o`Qfr gkssrk gSµlHkh o`Qfrdkj blhfy, fy[krs gSaA ;g Bhd
gS fd oqQN [;kfr fey tkus osQ ckn oqQN ckgj dh foo'krk ls Hkh fy[kk tkrk
gS&laikndksa osQ vkxzg ls] izdk'kd osQ rdkts ls] vkfFkZd vko';drk lsA ij ,d rks
o`Qfrdkj ges'kk vius lEeq[k bZekunkjh ls ;g Hksn cuk, j[krk gS fd dkSu&lh o`Qfr
Hkhrjh izsj.kk dk iQy gS] dkSu&lk ys[ku ckgjh ncko dk] nwljs ;g Hkh gksrk gS fd ckgj
dk ncko okLro esa ncko ugha jgrk] og ekuks Hkhrjh mUes"k
2
 dk fufefÙk
3
 cu tkrk gSA
vKs;
5
e e e e eSSSSSaaaaa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\
43
eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\
;gk¡ ij o`Qfrdkj osQ LoHkko vkSj vkRekuq'kklu dk egÙo cgqr gksrk gSA oqQN ,sls vkylh
tho gksrs gSa fd fcuk bl ckgjh ncko osQ fy[k gh ugha ikrsµblh osQ lgkjs muosQ Hkhrj
dh foo'krk Li"V gksrh gSµ;g oqQN oSlk gh gS tSls izkr%dky uhan [kqy tkus ij dksbZ
fcNkSus ij rc rd iM+k jgs tc rd ?kM+h dk ,ykeZ u ct tk,A bl izdkj okLro esa
o`Qfrdkj ckgj osQ ncko osQ izfr lefiZr ugha gks tkrk gS] mls osQoy ,d lgk;d ;a=k
dh rjg dke esa ykrk gS ftlls HkkSfrd ;FkkFkZ osQ lkFk mldk laca/ cuk jgsA eq>s bl
lgkjs dh ”k:jr ugha iM+rh ysfdu dHkh mlls ck/k Hkh ugha gksrhA mBus okyh rqyuk
dks cuk, j[kw¡ rks dgw¡ fd lcsjs mB tkrk gw¡ vius vki gh] ij vykeZ Hkh ct tk, rks
dksbZ gkfu ugha ekurkA
;g Hkhrjh foo'krk D;k gksrh gS\ bls c[kkuuk cM+k dfBu gSA D;k og ugha gksrh
;g crkuk 'kk;n de dfBu gksrk gSA ;k mldk mnkgj.k fn;k tk ldrk gSµdnkfpr~
ogh vf/d mi;ksxh gksxkA viuh ,d dfork dh oqQN ppkZ d:¡ ftlls esjh ckr
Li"V gks tk,xhA
eSa foKku dk fo|kFkhZ jgk gw¡] esjh fu;fer f'k{kk mlh fo"k; esa gqbZA v.kq D;k gksrk
gS] oSQls ge jsfM;e&/ehZ rRoksa dk vè;;u djrs gq, foKku dh ml lh<+h rd igq¡ps
tgk¡ v.kq dk Hksnu laHko gqvk] jsfM;e&/feZrk osQ D;k izHkko gkssrs gSaµbu lcdk
iqLrdh; ;k lS¼kafrd Kku rks eq>s FkkA fiQj tc og fgjksf'kek esa v.kq&ce fxjk] rc
mlosQ lekpkj eSaus i<+s_ vkSj mlosQ ijorhZ izHkkoksa dk Hkh fooj.k i<+rk jgkA bl izdkj
mlosQ izHkkoksa dk ,sfrgkfld izek.k Hkh lkeus vk x;kA foKku osQ bl nq#i;ksx osQ izfr
cqf¼ dk fonzksg LokHkkfod Fkk] eSaus ys[k vkfn esa oqQN fy[kk Hkh ij vuqHkwfr osQ Lrj
ij tks foo'krk gksrh gS og ckSf¼d idM+ ls vkxs dh ckr gS vkSj mldh roZQ laxfr
Hkh viuh vyx gksrh gSA blfy, dfork eSaus bl fo"k; esa ugha fy[khA ;ksa ;q¼dky
esa Hkkjr dh iwohZ; lhek ij ns[kk Fkk fd oSQls lSfud czãiq=k esaa ce isaQd dj g”kkjksa
eNfy;k¡ ekj nsrs FksA tcfd mUgsa vko';drk FkksM+h&lh gksrh Fkh] vkSj tho osQ bl
viO;; ls tks O;Fkk Hkhrj meM+h Fkh] mlls ,d lhek rd v.kq&ce }kjk O;FkZ
tho&uk'k dk vuqHko rks dj gh ldk FkkA
tkiku tkus dk volj feyk] rc fgjksf'kek Hkh x;k vkSj og vLirky Hkh ns[kk
tgk¡ jsfM;e&inkFkZ ls vkgr ykssx o"kks± ls d"V ik jgs FksA bl izdkj izR;{k vuqHko Hkh
gqvkµij vuqHko ls vuqHkwfr xgjh ph”k gS] de&ls&de o`Qfrdkj osQ fy,A vuqHko
rks ?kfVr dk gksrk gS] ij vuqHkwfr laosnuk vkSj dYiuk osQ lgkjs ml lR; dks vkRelkr~
dj ysrh gS tks okLro esa o`Qfrdkj osQ lkFk ?kfVr ugha gqvk gSA tks vk¡[kksa osQ lkeus
o`Qfrdk
44
ugha vk;k] tks ?kfVr osQ vuqHko esa ugha vk;k] ogh vkRek osQ lkeus Toyar izdk'k esa
vk tkrk gS] rc og vuqHkwfr&izR;{k gks tkrk gSA
rks fgjksf'kek esa lc ns[kdj Hkh RkRdky oqQN fy[kk ugha] D;ksafd blh vuqHkwfr
izR;{k dh dlj FkhA fiQj ,d fnu ogha lM+d ij ?kwers gq, ns[kk fd ,d tys gq,
iRFkj ij ,d yach mtyh Nk;k gSµfoLiQksV osQ le; dksbZ ogk¡ [kM+k jgk gksxk vkSj
foLiQksV ls fc[kjs gq, jsfM;e&èkehZ inkFkZ dh fdj.ksa mlesa #¼
4
 gks xbZ gksaxhµtks
vkl&ikl ls vkxs c<+ xb± mUgksaus iRFkj dks >qylk fn;k] tks ml O;fDRk ij vVdha
mUgksaus mls Hkki cukdj mM+k fn;k gksxkA bl izdkj lewph VªstMh tSls iRFkj ij
fy[kh xbZA
4- can gks xbZ] i¡Ql xbZ
45
eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\
5- mRiUu
ml Nk;k dks ns[kdj tSls ,d FkIiM+&lk yxkA voko~Q bfrgkl tSls Hkhrj dgha
lglk ,d tyrs gq, lw;Z&lk mx vk;k vkSj Mwc x;kA eSa dgw¡ fd ml {k.k esa
v.kq&foLiQksV esjs vuqHkwfr&izR;{k esa vk x;kµ,d vFkZ esa EkSa Lo;a fgjksf'kek osQ foLiQksV
dk HkksDrk cu x;kA
blh esa ls og foo'krk tkxhA Hkhrj dh vkoqQyrk cqf¼ osQ {ks=k ls c<+dj laosnuk
osQ {ks=k esa vk xbZ---fiQj /hjs&/hjs eSa mlls vius dks vyx dj ldk vkSj vpkud
,d fnu EkSaus fgjksf'kek ij dfork fy[khµtkiku esa ugha] Hkkjr ykSVdj] jsyxkM+h esa
CkSBs&cSBsA
;g dfork vPNh gS ;k cqjh_ blls eq>s eryc ugha gSA esjs fudV og lp gS]
D;ksafd og vuqHkwfr&izlwr
5
 gS] ;gh esjs fudV egÙo dh ckr gSA
1- ys[kd osQ vuqlkj izR;{k vuqHko dh vis{kk vuqHkwfr muosQ ys[ku esa dgha vf/d enn
djrh gS] D;ksa\
2- ys[kd us vius vkidks fgjksf'kek osQ foLiQksV dk HkksDrk dc vkSj fdl rjg eglwl
fd;k\
3- eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ osQ vk/kj ij crkb, fdµ
(d) ys[kd dks dkSu&lh ckrsa fy[kus osQ fy, izsfjr djrh gSa\
([k) fdlh jpukdkj osQ izsj.kk Lkzksr fdlh nwljs dks oqQN Hkh jpus osQ fy, fdl rjg
mRlkfgr dj ldrs gSa\
4- oqQN jpukdkjksa osQ fy, vkRekuqHkwfr@Lo;a osQ vuqHko osQ lkFk&lkFk cká ncko Hkh
egÙoiw.kZ gksrk gSA ;s cká ncko dkSu&dkSu ls gks ldrs gSa\
5-  D;k cká ncko osQoy ys[ku ls tqM+s jpukdkjksa dks gh izHkkfor djrs gSa ;k vU; {ks=kksa
ls tqMs+ dykdkjksa dks Hkh izHkkfor djrs gSa] oSQls \
6- fgjksf'kek ij fy[kh dfork ys[kd osQ var% o cká nksuksa ncko dk ifj.kke gS ;g vki
oSQls dg ldrs gSa\
7- fgjksf'kek dh ?kVuk foKku dk Hk;kudre nq#i;ksx gSA vkidh n`f"V esa foKku dk
nq#i;ksx dgk¡&dgk¡ vkSj fdl rjg ls gks jgk gSA
8- ,d laosnu'khy ;qok ukxfjd dh gSfl;r ls foKku dk nq#i;ksx jksdus esa vkidh D;k
Hkwfedk gS\
iz'u&vH;kl
Page 5


o`Qfrdk
42
1- Hkhrj dk] van#uh  2- izdk'k] nhfIr  3- dkj.k
eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ ;g iz'u cM+k ljy tku
iM+rk gS ij cM+k dfBu Hkh gSA D;ksafd bldk
lPpk mÙkj ys[kd osQ vkarfjd thou osQ Lrjksa
ls laca/ j[krk gSA mu lcdks la{ksi esa oqQN
okD;ksa esa ck¡/ nsuk vklku rks ugha gh gS] u
tkus lEHko Hkh gS ;k ugha\ bruk gh fd;k tk
ldrk gS fd muesa ls oqQN dk Li'kZ fd;k
tk,µfo'ks"k :i ls ,slksa dk ftUgsa tkuuk nwljksa
osQ fy, mi;ksxh gks ldrk gSA
,d mÙkj rks ;g gS fd eSa blhfy, fy[krk
gw¡ fd Lo;a tkuuk pkgrk gw¡ fd D;ksa fy[krk gw¡&fy[ks fcuk bl iz'u dk mÙkj ugha fey
ldrk gSA okLro esa lPpk mÙkj ;gh gSA fy[kdj gh ys[kd ml vkH;arj
1
 foo'krk dks
igpkurk gS ftlosQ dkj.k mlus fy[kkµvkSj fy[kdj gh og mlls eqDr gks tkrk gSA eSa
Hkh ml vkarfjd foo'krk ls eqfDr ikus osQ fy,] rVLFk gksdj mls ns[kus vkSj igpku ysus
osQ fy, fy[krk gw¡A esjk fo'okl gS fd lHkh o`QfrdkjµD;ksafd lHkh ys[kd o`Qfrdkj ugha
gksrs_ u mudk lc ys[ku gh o`Qfr gkssrk gSµlHkh o`Qfrdkj blhfy, fy[krs gSaA ;g Bhd
gS fd oqQN [;kfr fey tkus osQ ckn oqQN ckgj dh foo'krk ls Hkh fy[kk tkrk
gS&laikndksa osQ vkxzg ls] izdk'kd osQ rdkts ls] vkfFkZd vko';drk lsA ij ,d rks
o`Qfrdkj ges'kk vius lEeq[k bZekunkjh ls ;g Hksn cuk, j[krk gS fd dkSu&lh o`Qfr
Hkhrjh izsj.kk dk iQy gS] dkSu&lk ys[ku ckgjh ncko dk] nwljs ;g Hkh gksrk gS fd ckgj
dk ncko okLro esa ncko ugha jgrk] og ekuks Hkhrjh mUes"k
2
 dk fufefÙk
3
 cu tkrk gSA
vKs;
5
e e e e eSSSSSaaaaa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\
43
eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\
;gk¡ ij o`Qfrdkj osQ LoHkko vkSj vkRekuq'kklu dk egÙo cgqr gksrk gSA oqQN ,sls vkylh
tho gksrs gSa fd fcuk bl ckgjh ncko osQ fy[k gh ugha ikrsµblh osQ lgkjs muosQ Hkhrj
dh foo'krk Li"V gksrh gSµ;g oqQN oSlk gh gS tSls izkr%dky uhan [kqy tkus ij dksbZ
fcNkSus ij rc rd iM+k jgs tc rd ?kM+h dk ,ykeZ u ct tk,A bl izdkj okLro esa
o`Qfrdkj ckgj osQ ncko osQ izfr lefiZr ugha gks tkrk gS] mls osQoy ,d lgk;d ;a=k
dh rjg dke esa ykrk gS ftlls HkkSfrd ;FkkFkZ osQ lkFk mldk laca/ cuk jgsA eq>s bl
lgkjs dh ”k:jr ugha iM+rh ysfdu dHkh mlls ck/k Hkh ugha gksrhA mBus okyh rqyuk
dks cuk, j[kw¡ rks dgw¡ fd lcsjs mB tkrk gw¡ vius vki gh] ij vykeZ Hkh ct tk, rks
dksbZ gkfu ugha ekurkA
;g Hkhrjh foo'krk D;k gksrh gS\ bls c[kkuuk cM+k dfBu gSA D;k og ugha gksrh
;g crkuk 'kk;n de dfBu gksrk gSA ;k mldk mnkgj.k fn;k tk ldrk gSµdnkfpr~
ogh vf/d mi;ksxh gksxkA viuh ,d dfork dh oqQN ppkZ d:¡ ftlls esjh ckr
Li"V gks tk,xhA
eSa foKku dk fo|kFkhZ jgk gw¡] esjh fu;fer f'k{kk mlh fo"k; esa gqbZA v.kq D;k gksrk
gS] oSQls ge jsfM;e&/ehZ rRoksa dk vè;;u djrs gq, foKku dh ml lh<+h rd igq¡ps
tgk¡ v.kq dk Hksnu laHko gqvk] jsfM;e&/feZrk osQ D;k izHkko gkssrs gSaµbu lcdk
iqLrdh; ;k lS¼kafrd Kku rks eq>s FkkA fiQj tc og fgjksf'kek esa v.kq&ce fxjk] rc
mlosQ lekpkj eSaus i<+s_ vkSj mlosQ ijorhZ izHkkoksa dk Hkh fooj.k i<+rk jgkA bl izdkj
mlosQ izHkkoksa dk ,sfrgkfld izek.k Hkh lkeus vk x;kA foKku osQ bl nq#i;ksx osQ izfr
cqf¼ dk fonzksg LokHkkfod Fkk] eSaus ys[k vkfn esa oqQN fy[kk Hkh ij vuqHkwfr osQ Lrj
ij tks foo'krk gksrh gS og ckSf¼d idM+ ls vkxs dh ckr gS vkSj mldh roZQ laxfr
Hkh viuh vyx gksrh gSA blfy, dfork eSaus bl fo"k; esa ugha fy[khA ;ksa ;q¼dky
esa Hkkjr dh iwohZ; lhek ij ns[kk Fkk fd oSQls lSfud czãiq=k esaa ce isaQd dj g”kkjksa
eNfy;k¡ ekj nsrs FksA tcfd mUgsa vko';drk FkksM+h&lh gksrh Fkh] vkSj tho osQ bl
viO;; ls tks O;Fkk Hkhrj meM+h Fkh] mlls ,d lhek rd v.kq&ce }kjk O;FkZ
tho&uk'k dk vuqHko rks dj gh ldk FkkA
tkiku tkus dk volj feyk] rc fgjksf'kek Hkh x;k vkSj og vLirky Hkh ns[kk
tgk¡ jsfM;e&inkFkZ ls vkgr ykssx o"kks± ls d"V ik jgs FksA bl izdkj izR;{k vuqHko Hkh
gqvkµij vuqHko ls vuqHkwfr xgjh ph”k gS] de&ls&de o`Qfrdkj osQ fy,A vuqHko
rks ?kfVr dk gksrk gS] ij vuqHkwfr laosnuk vkSj dYiuk osQ lgkjs ml lR; dks vkRelkr~
dj ysrh gS tks okLro esa o`Qfrdkj osQ lkFk ?kfVr ugha gqvk gSA tks vk¡[kksa osQ lkeus
o`Qfrdk
44
ugha vk;k] tks ?kfVr osQ vuqHko esa ugha vk;k] ogh vkRek osQ lkeus Toyar izdk'k esa
vk tkrk gS] rc og vuqHkwfr&izR;{k gks tkrk gSA
rks fgjksf'kek esa lc ns[kdj Hkh RkRdky oqQN fy[kk ugha] D;ksafd blh vuqHkwfr
izR;{k dh dlj FkhA fiQj ,d fnu ogha lM+d ij ?kwers gq, ns[kk fd ,d tys gq,
iRFkj ij ,d yach mtyh Nk;k gSµfoLiQksV osQ le; dksbZ ogk¡ [kM+k jgk gksxk vkSj
foLiQksV ls fc[kjs gq, jsfM;e&èkehZ inkFkZ dh fdj.ksa mlesa #¼
4
 gks xbZ gksaxhµtks
vkl&ikl ls vkxs c<+ xb± mUgksaus iRFkj dks >qylk fn;k] tks ml O;fDRk ij vVdha
mUgksaus mls Hkki cukdj mM+k fn;k gksxkA bl izdkj lewph VªstMh tSls iRFkj ij
fy[kh xbZA
4- can gks xbZ] i¡Ql xbZ
45
eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\
5- mRiUu
ml Nk;k dks ns[kdj tSls ,d FkIiM+&lk yxkA voko~Q bfrgkl tSls Hkhrj dgha
lglk ,d tyrs gq, lw;Z&lk mx vk;k vkSj Mwc x;kA eSa dgw¡ fd ml {k.k esa
v.kq&foLiQksV esjs vuqHkwfr&izR;{k esa vk x;kµ,d vFkZ esa EkSa Lo;a fgjksf'kek osQ foLiQksV
dk HkksDrk cu x;kA
blh esa ls og foo'krk tkxhA Hkhrj dh vkoqQyrk cqf¼ osQ {ks=k ls c<+dj laosnuk
osQ {ks=k esa vk xbZ---fiQj /hjs&/hjs eSa mlls vius dks vyx dj ldk vkSj vpkud
,d fnu EkSaus fgjksf'kek ij dfork fy[khµtkiku esa ugha] Hkkjr ykSVdj] jsyxkM+h esa
CkSBs&cSBsA
;g dfork vPNh gS ;k cqjh_ blls eq>s eryc ugha gSA esjs fudV og lp gS]
D;ksafd og vuqHkwfr&izlwr
5
 gS] ;gh esjs fudV egÙo dh ckr gSA
1- ys[kd osQ vuqlkj izR;{k vuqHko dh vis{kk vuqHkwfr muosQ ys[ku esa dgha vf/d enn
djrh gS] D;ksa\
2- ys[kd us vius vkidks fgjksf'kek osQ foLiQksV dk HkksDrk dc vkSj fdl rjg eglwl
fd;k\
3- eSa D;ksa fy[krk gw¡\ osQ vk/kj ij crkb, fdµ
(d) ys[kd dks dkSu&lh ckrsa fy[kus osQ fy, izsfjr djrh gSa\
([k) fdlh jpukdkj osQ izsj.kk Lkzksr fdlh nwljs dks oqQN Hkh jpus osQ fy, fdl rjg
mRlkfgr dj ldrs gSa\
4- oqQN jpukdkjksa osQ fy, vkRekuqHkwfr@Lo;a osQ vuqHko osQ lkFk&lkFk cká ncko Hkh
egÙoiw.kZ gksrk gSA ;s cká ncko dkSu&dkSu ls gks ldrs gSa\
5-  D;k cká ncko osQoy ys[ku ls tqM+s jpukdkjksa dks gh izHkkfor djrs gSa ;k vU; {ks=kksa
ls tqMs+ dykdkjksa dks Hkh izHkkfor djrs gSa] oSQls \
6- fgjksf'kek ij fy[kh dfork ys[kd osQ var% o cká nksuksa ncko dk ifj.kke gS ;g vki
oSQls dg ldrs gSa\
7- fgjksf'kek dh ?kVuk foKku dk Hk;kudre nq#i;ksx gSA vkidh n`f"V esa foKku dk
nq#i;ksx dgk¡&dgk¡ vkSj fdl rjg ls gks jgk gSA
8- ,d laosnu'khy ;qok ukxfjd dh gSfl;r ls foKku dk nq#i;ksx jksdus esa vkidh D;k
Hkwfedk gS\
iz'u&vH;kl
o`Qfrdk
46
lu~ 1959 esa izdkf'kr vjh vks d#.kk izHkke; dkO;&laxzg esa ladfyr vKs; dh fgjksf'kek
dfork ;gk¡ nh tk jgh gSµ
fgjksf'kek
,d fnu lglk
lwjt fudyk
vjs f{kfrt ij ugha]
uxj osQ pkSd %
/wi cjlh
ij varfj{k ls ugha]
iQVh feV~Vh lsA
Nk;k,¡ ekuo&tu dh
fn'kkghu
lc vksj iM+haµog lwjt
ugha mxk Fkk iwjc esa] og
cjlk lglk
chpksa&chp uxj osQ %
dky&lw;Z osQ jFk osQ
ifg;ksa osQ T;ksa vjs VwV dj
fc[kj x, gksa
nlksa fn'kk esaA
oqQN {k.k dk og mn;&vLr!
osQoy ,d izTofyr {k.k dh
n`'; lks[k ysus okyh nksigjhA
fiQj\
Nk;k,¡ ekuo&tu dh
ugha feVha yach gks&gks dj %
ekuo gh lc Hkki gks x,A
Nk;k,¡ rks vHkh fy[kh gSa
>qyls gq, iRFkjksa ij
mtM+h lM+dksa dh xp ijA
ekuo dk jpk gqvk lwjt
ekuo dks Hkki cukdj lks[k x;kA
iRFkj ij fy[kh gqbZ ;g
tyh gqbZ Nk;k
ekuo dh lk[kh gSA
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