NCERT Textbook - पृथ्वी की आंतरिक संरचना Notes | EduRev

भूगोल (Geography) for UPSC Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - पृथ्वी की आंतरिक संरचना Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk
Foh dh çÑfr osQ ckjs esa vki fdl çdkj dk
vuqeku yxkrs gSa\ D;k vkiosQ vuqeku osQ vuqlkj
i`Foh fØosQV dh xsan dh rjg ,d Bksl xsan gS]
;k ;g ,d [kks[kyh xsan gS] ftlij pêðkuksa dh eksVh
ijr LFkyeaMy gSA D;k vkius dHkh Vsyhfotu ij
Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj fn[kkrs gq, fp=kksa dks ns[kk gS\ D;k
vkidks Tokykeq[kh ls fudyrs gq, xeZ ykok] feêðh]
/qvk¡] vkx rFkk eSXek ;kn gS\ i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx dks vçR;{k izek.kksa osQ vk/kj ij le>k tk
ldrk gS] D;ksafd i`Foh osQ vkarfjd Hkkx esa u rks dksbZ
igq¡p ldk gS vkSj u igq¡p ldrk gSA
i`Foh osQ /jkry dk foU;kl eq[;r% HkwxHkZ esa gksus
okyh çfØ;kvksa dk ifj.kke gSA cfgtkZr o vartkZr
çfØ;k,¡ yxkrkj Hkwn`'; dks vkdkj nsrh jgrh gSaA
vartkZr çfØ;kvksa osQ çHkko dks vuns[kk dj fdlh Hkh
{ks=k dh HkwvkÑfr dh çÑfr dks le>uk v/wjk gksxkA
(vFkkZr~ fdlh Hkh çns'k dh HkwvkÑfr dks le>us osQ
fy, HkwxfHkZd fØ;kvksa osQ çHkko dks tkuuk vko';d
gSA) ekuo thou eq[;r% viuh {ks=kh; HkwvkÑfr  ls
çHkkfor gksrk gSA blfy, Hkwn`'; osQ fodkl dks çHkkfor
djus okys lHkh dkjdksa osQ fo"k; esa tkuuk vko';d
gSA ;g le>us osQ fy, fd i`Foh esa oaQiu D;ksa gksrk gS]
;k lqukeh ygjsa dSls iSnk gksrh gSa] ;g ”k:jh gS fd gesa
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk dk foLr`r Kku gksA fiNys
vè;k; esa vkius i<+k fd i`Foh dk fuekZ.k djus okyh]
Hkw&iiZVh (Crust) ls ØksM (Core) rd lHkh inkFkZ
ijrksa osQ :i esa foHkkftr gSaA ;g tkuuk Hkh vR;ar
jkspd gS fd oSKkfudksa us dSls bu ijrksa osQ laca/ esa tkudkjh
çkIr dh vkSj çR;sd ijr dh fo'ks"krkvksa osQ ckjs esa
vuqeku yxk;kA ;g vè;k; blh fo"k; ls lacaf/r gSA
HkwxHkZ dh tkudkjh osQ lk/u
i`Foh dh f=kT;k 6,370 fd0eh0 gSA i`Foh dh vkarfjd
ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ dkj.k ;g laHko ugha gS fd dksbZ i`Foh
osQ osaQæ rd igq¡pdj mldk fujh{k.k dj losQ ;k ogk¡
osQ inkFkZ dk oqQN uewuk çkIr dj losQA ;g vk'p;Z
dh ckr gS fd ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa Hkh oSKkfud gesa ;g
crkus esa l{ke gq, fd HkwxeZ dh lajpuk dSlh gS vkSj
bruh xgjkbZ ij fdl çdkj osQ inkFkZ ik, tkrs gSa\
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk osQ fo"k; esa gekjh vf/drj
tkudkjh ijks{k :i ls çkIr vuqekuksa ij vk/kfjr gSA
rFkkfi bl tkudkjh dk oqQN Hkkx çR;{k çs{k.kksa vkSj
inkFkZ osQ fo'ys"k.k ij Hkh vk/kfjr gSA
çR;{k Ïksr
i`Foh ls lcls vklkuh ls miyC/ Bksl inkFkZ /jkryh;
pêðkusa gSa] vFkok os pêðkusa gS] tks ge [kuu {ks=kksa ls
izkIr djrs gaSA nf{k.kh vÚhdk dh lksus dh [kkusa 3
ls 4 fd0eh0 rd xgjh gSaA blls vf/d xgjkbZ esa
tk ikuk vlaHko gS] D;ksafd mruh xgjkbZ ij rkieku
cgqr vf/d gksrk gSA [kuu osQ vfrfjDr oSKkfud]
fofHkUu ifj;kstukvksa osQ varxZr i`Foh dh vkarfjd
fLFkfr dks tkuus osQ fy, iiZVh esa xgjkbZ rd
Nkuchu dj jgs gaSA lalkj Hkj osQ oSKkfud nks eq[;
i`
vè;k;
Page 2


i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk
Foh dh çÑfr osQ ckjs esa vki fdl çdkj dk
vuqeku yxkrs gSa\ D;k vkiosQ vuqeku osQ vuqlkj
i`Foh fØosQV dh xsan dh rjg ,d Bksl xsan gS]
;k ;g ,d [kks[kyh xsan gS] ftlij pêðkuksa dh eksVh
ijr LFkyeaMy gSA D;k vkius dHkh Vsyhfotu ij
Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj fn[kkrs gq, fp=kksa dks ns[kk gS\ D;k
vkidks Tokykeq[kh ls fudyrs gq, xeZ ykok] feêðh]
/qvk¡] vkx rFkk eSXek ;kn gS\ i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx dks vçR;{k izek.kksa osQ vk/kj ij le>k tk
ldrk gS] D;ksafd i`Foh osQ vkarfjd Hkkx esa u rks dksbZ
igq¡p ldk gS vkSj u igq¡p ldrk gSA
i`Foh osQ /jkry dk foU;kl eq[;r% HkwxHkZ esa gksus
okyh çfØ;kvksa dk ifj.kke gSA cfgtkZr o vartkZr
çfØ;k,¡ yxkrkj Hkwn`'; dks vkdkj nsrh jgrh gSaA
vartkZr çfØ;kvksa osQ çHkko dks vuns[kk dj fdlh Hkh
{ks=k dh HkwvkÑfr dh çÑfr dks le>uk v/wjk gksxkA
(vFkkZr~ fdlh Hkh çns'k dh HkwvkÑfr dks le>us osQ
fy, HkwxfHkZd fØ;kvksa osQ çHkko dks tkuuk vko';d
gSA) ekuo thou eq[;r% viuh {ks=kh; HkwvkÑfr  ls
çHkkfor gksrk gSA blfy, Hkwn`'; osQ fodkl dks çHkkfor
djus okys lHkh dkjdksa osQ fo"k; esa tkuuk vko';d
gSA ;g le>us osQ fy, fd i`Foh esa oaQiu D;ksa gksrk gS]
;k lqukeh ygjsa dSls iSnk gksrh gSa] ;g ”k:jh gS fd gesa
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk dk foLr`r Kku gksA fiNys
vè;k; esa vkius i<+k fd i`Foh dk fuekZ.k djus okyh]
Hkw&iiZVh (Crust) ls ØksM (Core) rd lHkh inkFkZ
ijrksa osQ :i esa foHkkftr gSaA ;g tkuuk Hkh vR;ar
jkspd gS fd oSKkfudksa us dSls bu ijrksa osQ laca/ esa tkudkjh
çkIr dh vkSj çR;sd ijr dh fo'ks"krkvksa osQ ckjs esa
vuqeku yxk;kA ;g vè;k; blh fo"k; ls lacaf/r gSA
HkwxHkZ dh tkudkjh osQ lk/u
i`Foh dh f=kT;k 6,370 fd0eh0 gSA i`Foh dh vkarfjd
ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ dkj.k ;g laHko ugha gS fd dksbZ i`Foh
osQ osaQæ rd igq¡pdj mldk fujh{k.k dj losQ ;k ogk¡
osQ inkFkZ dk oqQN uewuk çkIr dj losQA ;g vk'p;Z
dh ckr gS fd ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa Hkh oSKkfud gesa ;g
crkus esa l{ke gq, fd HkwxeZ dh lajpuk dSlh gS vkSj
bruh xgjkbZ ij fdl çdkj osQ inkFkZ ik, tkrs gSa\
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk osQ fo"k; esa gekjh vf/drj
tkudkjh ijks{k :i ls çkIr vuqekuksa ij vk/kfjr gSA
rFkkfi bl tkudkjh dk oqQN Hkkx çR;{k çs{k.kksa vkSj
inkFkZ osQ fo'ys"k.k ij Hkh vk/kfjr gSA
çR;{k Ïksr
i`Foh ls lcls vklkuh ls miyC/ Bksl inkFkZ /jkryh;
pêðkusa gSa] vFkok os pêðkusa gS] tks ge [kuu {ks=kksa ls
izkIr djrs gaSA nf{k.kh vÚhdk dh lksus dh [kkusa 3
ls 4 fd0eh0 rd xgjh gSaA blls vf/d xgjkbZ esa
tk ikuk vlaHko gS] D;ksafd mruh xgjkbZ ij rkieku
cgqr vf/d gksrk gSA [kuu osQ vfrfjDr oSKkfud]
fofHkUu ifj;kstukvksa osQ varxZr i`Foh dh vkarfjd
fLFkfr dks tkuus osQ fy, iiZVh esa xgjkbZ rd
Nkuchu dj jgs gaSA lalkj Hkj osQ oSKkfud nks eq[;
i`
vè;k;
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
22
fp=k 3-1 % HkwoaQi&vfHkys[k
ifj;kstukvksa ij dke dj jgs gSaA ;s gSa xgjs leqæ esa
izos/u ifj;kstuk (Deep ocean drilling project)
o lefUor egklkxjh; izos/u ifj;kstuk (Integrated
ocean drilling project)A vkt rd lcls xgjk
izos/u (Drill) vkdZfVd egklkxj esa dksyk (Kola)
{ks=k esa 12 fd0eh0 dh xgjkbZ rd fd;k x;k gSA bu
ifj;kstukvksa rFkk cgqr lh vU; xgjh [kqnkbZ ifj;kstukvksa
osQ varxZr] fofHkUu xgjkbZ ls çkIr inkFkksZa osQ fo'ys"k.k
ls gesa i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk ls lacaf/r vlk/kj.k
tkudkjh çkIr gqbZ gSA
Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj çR;{k tkudkjh dk ,d vU;
Ïksr gSA tc dHkh Hkh Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj ls ykok i`Foh
osQ /jkry ij vkrk gS] ;g ç;ksx'kkyk vUos"k.k osQ fy,
miyC/ gksrk gSA ;|fi bl ckr dk fu'p; dj ikuk
dfBu gksrk gS fd ;g eSXek fdruh xgjkbZ ls fudyk gSA
vçR;{k Ïksr
inkFkZ osQ xq.k/eZ osQ fo'ys"k.k ls i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx dh vçR;{k tkudkjh çkIr gksrh gSA [kuu fozQ;k
ls gesa irk pyrk gS fd i`Foh osQ /jkry esa xgjkbZ
c<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk rkieku ,oa ncko esa o`f¼ gksrh gSA
bruk gh ugha] gesa ;g Hkh irk pyrk gS fd xgjkbZ
c<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk inkFkZ dk ?kuRo Hkh c<+rk gSA
rkieku] ncko o ?kuRo esa bl ifjorZu dh nj dks
vk¡dk tk ldrk gSA i`Foh dh oqQy eksVkbZ dks è;ku esa
j[krs gq,] oSKkfudksa us fofHkUu xgjkb;ksa ij inkFkZ osQ
rkieku] ncko ,oa ?kuRo osQ eku dks vuqekfur fd;k
gSA çR;sd ijr osQ lanHkZ esa bu y{k.kksa dk lfoLrkj
o.kZu blh vè;k; esa vkxs fd;k x;k gSA
i`Foh dh vkarfjd tkudkjh dk nwljk vçR;{k
Ïksr mYdk,¡ gSa] tks dHkh&dHkh /jrh rd igq¡prh gSaA
gk¡ykfd] gesa ;g Hkh è;ku j[kuk pkfg, fd mYdkvksa
osQ fo'ys"k.k osQ fy, miyC/ inkFkZ i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx ls izkIr ugha gksrs gSaA ijarq mYdkvksa ls izkIr inkFkZ
vkSj mudh lajpuk i`Foh ls feyrh&tqyrh gSA ;s
(mYdk,¡) oSls gh inkFkZ osQ cus Bksl fiaM gSa] ftuls
gekjk xzg (i`Foh) cuk gSA vr% i`Foh dh vkarfjd
tkudkjh osQ fy, mYdkvksa dk vè;;u ,d vU;
egRoiw.kZ  Ïksr gSA
vU; vçR;{k lzksrksa esa xq#Rokd"kZ.k] pqacdh; {ks=k]
o HkwoaQi laca/h fØ;k,¡ 'kkfey gaSA i`Foh osQ /jkry ij
Hkh fofHkUu v{kka'kksa ij xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy ,d leku ugha
gksrk gSA ;g (xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy) /zqoksa ij vf/d ,oa
Hkweè;js[kk ij de gksrk gSA i`Foh osQ osaQæ ls nwjh osQ
dkj.k xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy /zqoksa ij de vkSj Hkweè;js[kk
ij vf/d gksrk gSA xq#Ro dk eku inkFkZ osQ nzO;eku
osQ vuqlkj Hkh cnyrk gSA i`Foh osQ Hkhrj inkFkksZa dk
vleku forj.k Hkh bl fHkUurk dks izHkkfor djrk gSA
vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ij xq#Rokd"kZ.k dh fHkUurk vusd
vU; dkjdksa ls Hkh çHkkfor gksrh gSA bl fHkUurk dks
xq#Ro folaxfr (Gravity anomaly) dgk tkrk gSA
xq#Ro folaxfr gesa HkwiiZVh esa inkFkZ osQ nzO;eku osQ
forj.k dh tkudkjh nsrh gSA pqacdh; losZ{k.k Hkh
HkwiiZVh esa pqacdh; inkFkZ osQ forj.k dh tkudkjh nsrs
gaSA HkwoaQih; xfrfof/;k¡ Hkh i`Foh dh vkarfjd tkudkjh
dk ,d egRoiw.kZ Ïksr gSA vr% ge oqQN foLrkj ls bl
ij ppkZ djasxsA
HkwoaQi
HkwoaQih; rjaxksa dk vè;;u] i`Foh dh vkarfjd ijrksa
dk laiw.kZ fp=k çLrqr djrk gSA lk/kj.k Hkk"kk esa HkwoaQi
dk vFkZ gSµ i`Foh dk oaQiuA ;g ,d çkÑfrd ?kVuk
gSA mQtkZ osQ fudyus osQ dkj.k rjaxsa mRiUu gksrh gSa] tks
lHkh fn'kkvksa esa iSQydj HkwoaQi ykrh gSaA
i`Foh esa oaQiu D;ksa gksrk gS\
çk;% Hkza'k osQ fdukjs&fdukjs gh ÅtkZ fudyrh gSA
HkwiiZVh dh 'kSyksa esa xgu njkjsa gh Hkaz'k gksrh gSaA Hkza'k osQ
nksuksa rjiQ 'kSysa foijhr fn'kk esa xfr djrh gaSA tgk¡
mQij osQ 'kSy[kaM ncko Mkyrs gSa] muosQ vkil dk
?k"kZ.k mUgsa ijLij ck¡/s jgrk gSA fiQj Hkh] vyx gksus
Page 3


i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk
Foh dh çÑfr osQ ckjs esa vki fdl çdkj dk
vuqeku yxkrs gSa\ D;k vkiosQ vuqeku osQ vuqlkj
i`Foh fØosQV dh xsan dh rjg ,d Bksl xsan gS]
;k ;g ,d [kks[kyh xsan gS] ftlij pêðkuksa dh eksVh
ijr LFkyeaMy gSA D;k vkius dHkh Vsyhfotu ij
Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj fn[kkrs gq, fp=kksa dks ns[kk gS\ D;k
vkidks Tokykeq[kh ls fudyrs gq, xeZ ykok] feêðh]
/qvk¡] vkx rFkk eSXek ;kn gS\ i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx dks vçR;{k izek.kksa osQ vk/kj ij le>k tk
ldrk gS] D;ksafd i`Foh osQ vkarfjd Hkkx esa u rks dksbZ
igq¡p ldk gS vkSj u igq¡p ldrk gSA
i`Foh osQ /jkry dk foU;kl eq[;r% HkwxHkZ esa gksus
okyh çfØ;kvksa dk ifj.kke gSA cfgtkZr o vartkZr
çfØ;k,¡ yxkrkj Hkwn`'; dks vkdkj nsrh jgrh gSaA
vartkZr çfØ;kvksa osQ çHkko dks vuns[kk dj fdlh Hkh
{ks=k dh HkwvkÑfr dh çÑfr dks le>uk v/wjk gksxkA
(vFkkZr~ fdlh Hkh çns'k dh HkwvkÑfr dks le>us osQ
fy, HkwxfHkZd fØ;kvksa osQ çHkko dks tkuuk vko';d
gSA) ekuo thou eq[;r% viuh {ks=kh; HkwvkÑfr  ls
çHkkfor gksrk gSA blfy, Hkwn`'; osQ fodkl dks çHkkfor
djus okys lHkh dkjdksa osQ fo"k; esa tkuuk vko';d
gSA ;g le>us osQ fy, fd i`Foh esa oaQiu D;ksa gksrk gS]
;k lqukeh ygjsa dSls iSnk gksrh gSa] ;g ”k:jh gS fd gesa
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk dk foLr`r Kku gksA fiNys
vè;k; esa vkius i<+k fd i`Foh dk fuekZ.k djus okyh]
Hkw&iiZVh (Crust) ls ØksM (Core) rd lHkh inkFkZ
ijrksa osQ :i esa foHkkftr gSaA ;g tkuuk Hkh vR;ar
jkspd gS fd oSKkfudksa us dSls bu ijrksa osQ laca/ esa tkudkjh
çkIr dh vkSj çR;sd ijr dh fo'ks"krkvksa osQ ckjs esa
vuqeku yxk;kA ;g vè;k; blh fo"k; ls lacaf/r gSA
HkwxHkZ dh tkudkjh osQ lk/u
i`Foh dh f=kT;k 6,370 fd0eh0 gSA i`Foh dh vkarfjd
ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ dkj.k ;g laHko ugha gS fd dksbZ i`Foh
osQ osaQæ rd igq¡pdj mldk fujh{k.k dj losQ ;k ogk¡
osQ inkFkZ dk oqQN uewuk çkIr dj losQA ;g vk'p;Z
dh ckr gS fd ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa Hkh oSKkfud gesa ;g
crkus esa l{ke gq, fd HkwxeZ dh lajpuk dSlh gS vkSj
bruh xgjkbZ ij fdl çdkj osQ inkFkZ ik, tkrs gSa\
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk osQ fo"k; esa gekjh vf/drj
tkudkjh ijks{k :i ls çkIr vuqekuksa ij vk/kfjr gSA
rFkkfi bl tkudkjh dk oqQN Hkkx çR;{k çs{k.kksa vkSj
inkFkZ osQ fo'ys"k.k ij Hkh vk/kfjr gSA
çR;{k Ïksr
i`Foh ls lcls vklkuh ls miyC/ Bksl inkFkZ /jkryh;
pêðkusa gSa] vFkok os pêðkusa gS] tks ge [kuu {ks=kksa ls
izkIr djrs gaSA nf{k.kh vÚhdk dh lksus dh [kkusa 3
ls 4 fd0eh0 rd xgjh gSaA blls vf/d xgjkbZ esa
tk ikuk vlaHko gS] D;ksafd mruh xgjkbZ ij rkieku
cgqr vf/d gksrk gSA [kuu osQ vfrfjDr oSKkfud]
fofHkUu ifj;kstukvksa osQ varxZr i`Foh dh vkarfjd
fLFkfr dks tkuus osQ fy, iiZVh esa xgjkbZ rd
Nkuchu dj jgs gaSA lalkj Hkj osQ oSKkfud nks eq[;
i`
vè;k;
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
22
fp=k 3-1 % HkwoaQi&vfHkys[k
ifj;kstukvksa ij dke dj jgs gSaA ;s gSa xgjs leqæ esa
izos/u ifj;kstuk (Deep ocean drilling project)
o lefUor egklkxjh; izos/u ifj;kstuk (Integrated
ocean drilling project)A vkt rd lcls xgjk
izos/u (Drill) vkdZfVd egklkxj esa dksyk (Kola)
{ks=k esa 12 fd0eh0 dh xgjkbZ rd fd;k x;k gSA bu
ifj;kstukvksa rFkk cgqr lh vU; xgjh [kqnkbZ ifj;kstukvksa
osQ varxZr] fofHkUu xgjkbZ ls çkIr inkFkksZa osQ fo'ys"k.k
ls gesa i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk ls lacaf/r vlk/kj.k
tkudkjh çkIr gqbZ gSA
Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj çR;{k tkudkjh dk ,d vU;
Ïksr gSA tc dHkh Hkh Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj ls ykok i`Foh
osQ /jkry ij vkrk gS] ;g ç;ksx'kkyk vUos"k.k osQ fy,
miyC/ gksrk gSA ;|fi bl ckr dk fu'p; dj ikuk
dfBu gksrk gS fd ;g eSXek fdruh xgjkbZ ls fudyk gSA
vçR;{k Ïksr
inkFkZ osQ xq.k/eZ osQ fo'ys"k.k ls i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx dh vçR;{k tkudkjh çkIr gksrh gSA [kuu fozQ;k
ls gesa irk pyrk gS fd i`Foh osQ /jkry esa xgjkbZ
c<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk rkieku ,oa ncko esa o`f¼ gksrh gSA
bruk gh ugha] gesa ;g Hkh irk pyrk gS fd xgjkbZ
c<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk inkFkZ dk ?kuRo Hkh c<+rk gSA
rkieku] ncko o ?kuRo esa bl ifjorZu dh nj dks
vk¡dk tk ldrk gSA i`Foh dh oqQy eksVkbZ dks è;ku esa
j[krs gq,] oSKkfudksa us fofHkUu xgjkb;ksa ij inkFkZ osQ
rkieku] ncko ,oa ?kuRo osQ eku dks vuqekfur fd;k
gSA çR;sd ijr osQ lanHkZ esa bu y{k.kksa dk lfoLrkj
o.kZu blh vè;k; esa vkxs fd;k x;k gSA
i`Foh dh vkarfjd tkudkjh dk nwljk vçR;{k
Ïksr mYdk,¡ gSa] tks dHkh&dHkh /jrh rd igq¡prh gSaA
gk¡ykfd] gesa ;g Hkh è;ku j[kuk pkfg, fd mYdkvksa
osQ fo'ys"k.k osQ fy, miyC/ inkFkZ i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx ls izkIr ugha gksrs gSaA ijarq mYdkvksa ls izkIr inkFkZ
vkSj mudh lajpuk i`Foh ls feyrh&tqyrh gSA ;s
(mYdk,¡) oSls gh inkFkZ osQ cus Bksl fiaM gSa] ftuls
gekjk xzg (i`Foh) cuk gSA vr% i`Foh dh vkarfjd
tkudkjh osQ fy, mYdkvksa dk vè;;u ,d vU;
egRoiw.kZ  Ïksr gSA
vU; vçR;{k lzksrksa esa xq#Rokd"kZ.k] pqacdh; {ks=k]
o HkwoaQi laca/h fØ;k,¡ 'kkfey gaSA i`Foh osQ /jkry ij
Hkh fofHkUu v{kka'kksa ij xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy ,d leku ugha
gksrk gSA ;g (xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy) /zqoksa ij vf/d ,oa
Hkweè;js[kk ij de gksrk gSA i`Foh osQ osaQæ ls nwjh osQ
dkj.k xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy /zqoksa ij de vkSj Hkweè;js[kk
ij vf/d gksrk gSA xq#Ro dk eku inkFkZ osQ nzO;eku
osQ vuqlkj Hkh cnyrk gSA i`Foh osQ Hkhrj inkFkksZa dk
vleku forj.k Hkh bl fHkUurk dks izHkkfor djrk gSA
vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ij xq#Rokd"kZ.k dh fHkUurk vusd
vU; dkjdksa ls Hkh çHkkfor gksrh gSA bl fHkUurk dks
xq#Ro folaxfr (Gravity anomaly) dgk tkrk gSA
xq#Ro folaxfr gesa HkwiiZVh esa inkFkZ osQ nzO;eku osQ
forj.k dh tkudkjh nsrh gSA pqacdh; losZ{k.k Hkh
HkwiiZVh esa pqacdh; inkFkZ osQ forj.k dh tkudkjh nsrs
gaSA HkwoaQih; xfrfof/;k¡ Hkh i`Foh dh vkarfjd tkudkjh
dk ,d egRoiw.kZ Ïksr gSA vr% ge oqQN foLrkj ls bl
ij ppkZ djasxsA
HkwoaQi
HkwoaQih; rjaxksa dk vè;;u] i`Foh dh vkarfjd ijrksa
dk laiw.kZ fp=k çLrqr djrk gSA lk/kj.k Hkk"kk esa HkwoaQi
dk vFkZ gSµ i`Foh dk oaQiuA ;g ,d çkÑfrd ?kVuk
gSA mQtkZ osQ fudyus osQ dkj.k rjaxsa mRiUu gksrh gSa] tks
lHkh fn'kkvksa esa iSQydj HkwoaQi ykrh gSaA
i`Foh esa oaQiu D;ksa gksrk gS\
çk;% Hkza'k osQ fdukjs&fdukjs gh ÅtkZ fudyrh gSA
HkwiiZVh dh 'kSyksa esa xgu njkjsa gh Hkaz'k gksrh gSaA Hkza'k osQ
nksuksa rjiQ 'kSysa foijhr fn'kk esa xfr djrh gaSA tgk¡
mQij osQ 'kSy[kaM ncko Mkyrs gSa] muosQ vkil dk
?k"kZ.k mUgsa ijLij ck¡/s jgrk gSA fiQj Hkh] vyx gksus
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk
23
dh ço`fÙk osQ dkj.k ,d le; ij ?k"kZ.k dk çHkko de
gks tkrk gS ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i 'kSy[kaM foÑr gksdj
vpkud ,d nwljs osQ foijhr fn'kk esa ljd tkrs gaSA
blosQ ifj.kkeLo:i ÅtkZ fudyrh gS vkSj ÅtkZ rjaxsa
lHkh fn'kkvksa esa xfreku gksrh gSaA og LFkku tgk¡ ls ÅtkZ
fudyrh gS] HkwoaQi dk mn~xe osQUæ (Focus) dgykrk
gSA bls voosaQæ (Hypocentre) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
ÅtkZ rajxsa vyx&vyx fn'kkvksa esa pyrh gqbZ i`Foh dh
lrg rd igq¡prh gSaA Hkwry ij og fcanq tks mn~xe osaQæ
osQ lehire gksrk gS] vf/osaQæ (Epicentre) dgykrk
gSA vf/osaQæ ij gh lcls igys rajxksa dks eglwl fd;k
tkrk gSA vf/osaQæ mn~xe osaQæ osQ Bhd Åij (90ñ osQ
dks.k ij) gksrk gSA
HkwoaQih; rajxsa (Earthquake waves)
lHkh çkÑfrd HkwoaQi LFkyeaMy (Lithosphere) esa
gh vkrs gSaA blh vè;k; esa vkxs vki i`Foh dh fofHkUu
ijrksa osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA vHkh bruk le> ysuk i;kZIr gS
fd LFkyeaMy i`Foh osQ /jkry ls 200 fd0eh0 rd
dh xgjkbZ okys Hkkx dks dgrs gSaA HkwoaQiekih ;a=k
(Seismograph) lrg ij igq¡pus okyh HkwoaQirjaxksa
dks vfHkysf[kr djrk gSaA fp=k 3-1 HkwoaQih; rajxksa dk
vfHkys[kh; oØ (Curve) fn[kkrk gSA ;g oØ rhu
vyx cukoV okyh rjaxksa dks çnf'kZr djrk gSA cqfu;knh
rkSj ij HkwoaQih; rjaxsa nks çdkj dh gaS µ HkwxfHkZd rjaxsa
(Body waves) o /jkryh; rjaxsa (Surface
waves)A HkwxfHkZd rjaxsa mn~xe osaQæ ls ÅtkZ osQ eqDr
osQ nkSjku iSnk gksrh gSa vkSj i`Foh osQ van:uh Hkkx ls
gksdj lHkh fn'kkvksa esa vkxs c<+rh gSaA blfy, bUgsa
HkwxfHkZd rjaxas dgk tkrk gSA HkwxfHkZd rjaxksa ,oa /jkryh;
'kSyksa osQ eè; vU;ksU; fØ;k osQ dkj.k ubZ rjaxsa mRiUu
gksrh gSa ftUgsa /jkryh; rjaxsa dgk tkrk gSA ;s rjaxsa /
jkry osQ lkFk&lkFk pyrh gSaA rajxksa dk osx vyx&vyx
?kuRo okys inkFkksZa ls xqtjus ij ifjofrZr gks tkrk gSA
vf/d ?kuRo okys inkFkksZa esa rjaxksa dk osx vf/d gksrk
gSA inkFkks± osQ ?kuRo esa fHkUurk,¡ gksus osQ dkj.k ijkorZu
(Reflection) ,oa vkorZu (Refraction) gksrk gS]
ftlls bu rjaxksa dh fn'kk Hkh cnyrh gSA
HkwxHkhZ; rjaxas Hkh nks çdkj dh gksrh gSaA bUgsa ^P*
rjaxsa o ^S* rjaxsa dgk tkrk gSA ^P* rjaxsa rhoz xfr ls
pyus okyh rjaxsa gSa vkSj /jkry ij lcls igys igWq¡prh
gSaA bUgsa ^çkFkfed rjaxsa* Hkh dgk tkrk gSA ^P* rjaxsa
èofu rjaxksa tSlh gksrh gaSA ;s xSl] rjy o Bkslµrhuksa
çdkj osQ inkFkksZa ls xqtj ldrh gSaA ^S* rjaxsa /jkry
ij oqQN le; varjky osQ ckn igq¡prh gSaA ;s ^f}rh;d
rjaxsa* dgykrh gSaA ^S* rjaxkas osQ fo"k; esa ,d egRoiw.kZ
rF; ;g gS fd ;s osQoy Bksl inkFkksZa osQ gh ekè;e ls
pyrh gSaA ^S* rjaxksa dh ;g ,d egRoiw.kZ fo'ks"krk gSA
blh fo'ks"krk us oSKkfudksa dks HkwxHkhZ; lajpuk le>us esa
enn dhA ijkorZu (Reflection) ls rjaxsa çfrèofur
gksdj okil ykSV vkrh gaS] tcfd vkorZu (Refrection)
ls rjaxsa dbZ fn'kkvksa esa pyrh gSaA HkwoaQiys[kh ij cus
vkjs[k ls rjaxksa dh fn'kk&fHkUurk dk vuqeku yxk;k tkrk
gSA /jkryh; rjaxsa HkwoaQiys[kh ij var esa vfHkysf[kr
gksrh gaSA ;s rjaxsa T;knk fouk'kdkjh gksrh gSaA buls 'kSy
foLFkkfir gksrh gSa vkSj bekjras fxj tkrh gaSA
HkwoaQih; rjaxksa dk lapj.k
fHkUu&fHkUu çdkj dh HkwoaQih; rjaxksa osQ lapfjr gksus
dh ç.kkyh fHkUu&fHkUu gksrh gSA tSls gh ;s lapfjr gksrh
gSa rks 'kSyksa esa oaQiu iSnk gksrh gSA ^P* rjaxksa ls oaQiu
dh fn'kk rjaxksa dh fn'kk osQ lekukarj gh gksrh gSA ;g
lapj.k xfr dh fn'kk esa gh inkFkZ ij ncko Mkyrh gSA
blosQ (ncko) osQ iQyLo:i inkFkZ osQ ?kuRo esa
fHkUurk vkrh gS vkSj 'kSyksa esa laoqQpu o iQSyko dh
çfØ;k iSnk gksrh gSA vU; rhu rjg dh rjaxas lapj.k
xfr osQ ledks.k fn'kk esa oaQiu iSnk djrh gSaA ^S* rjaxsa
mQèokZ/j ry esa] rjaxksa dh fn'kk osQ ledks.k ij oaQiu
iSnk djrh gaSA vr% ;s ftl inkFkZ ls xqtjrh gSa mlesa
mHkkj o xrZ cukrh gSaA /jkryh; rjaxsa lcls vf/d
fouk'kdkjh le>h tkrh gSaA
Nk;k {ks=k dk mnHko
HkwoaQiys[kh ;a=k (Seismograph) ij nwjLFk LFkkuksa ls
vkus okyh HkwoaQih; rjaxsa vfHkysf[kr gksrh gSaA ;|fi
oqQN ,sls {ks=k Hkh gaS tgk¡ dksbZ Hkh HkwoaQih; rjax
Page 4


i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk
Foh dh çÑfr osQ ckjs esa vki fdl çdkj dk
vuqeku yxkrs gSa\ D;k vkiosQ vuqeku osQ vuqlkj
i`Foh fØosQV dh xsan dh rjg ,d Bksl xsan gS]
;k ;g ,d [kks[kyh xsan gS] ftlij pêðkuksa dh eksVh
ijr LFkyeaMy gSA D;k vkius dHkh Vsyhfotu ij
Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj fn[kkrs gq, fp=kksa dks ns[kk gS\ D;k
vkidks Tokykeq[kh ls fudyrs gq, xeZ ykok] feêðh]
/qvk¡] vkx rFkk eSXek ;kn gS\ i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx dks vçR;{k izek.kksa osQ vk/kj ij le>k tk
ldrk gS] D;ksafd i`Foh osQ vkarfjd Hkkx esa u rks dksbZ
igq¡p ldk gS vkSj u igq¡p ldrk gSA
i`Foh osQ /jkry dk foU;kl eq[;r% HkwxHkZ esa gksus
okyh çfØ;kvksa dk ifj.kke gSA cfgtkZr o vartkZr
çfØ;k,¡ yxkrkj Hkwn`'; dks vkdkj nsrh jgrh gSaA
vartkZr çfØ;kvksa osQ çHkko dks vuns[kk dj fdlh Hkh
{ks=k dh HkwvkÑfr dh çÑfr dks le>uk v/wjk gksxkA
(vFkkZr~ fdlh Hkh çns'k dh HkwvkÑfr dks le>us osQ
fy, HkwxfHkZd fØ;kvksa osQ çHkko dks tkuuk vko';d
gSA) ekuo thou eq[;r% viuh {ks=kh; HkwvkÑfr  ls
çHkkfor gksrk gSA blfy, Hkwn`'; osQ fodkl dks çHkkfor
djus okys lHkh dkjdksa osQ fo"k; esa tkuuk vko';d
gSA ;g le>us osQ fy, fd i`Foh esa oaQiu D;ksa gksrk gS]
;k lqukeh ygjsa dSls iSnk gksrh gSa] ;g ”k:jh gS fd gesa
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk dk foLr`r Kku gksA fiNys
vè;k; esa vkius i<+k fd i`Foh dk fuekZ.k djus okyh]
Hkw&iiZVh (Crust) ls ØksM (Core) rd lHkh inkFkZ
ijrksa osQ :i esa foHkkftr gSaA ;g tkuuk Hkh vR;ar
jkspd gS fd oSKkfudksa us dSls bu ijrksa osQ laca/ esa tkudkjh
çkIr dh vkSj çR;sd ijr dh fo'ks"krkvksa osQ ckjs esa
vuqeku yxk;kA ;g vè;k; blh fo"k; ls lacaf/r gSA
HkwxHkZ dh tkudkjh osQ lk/u
i`Foh dh f=kT;k 6,370 fd0eh0 gSA i`Foh dh vkarfjd
ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ dkj.k ;g laHko ugha gS fd dksbZ i`Foh
osQ osaQæ rd igq¡pdj mldk fujh{k.k dj losQ ;k ogk¡
osQ inkFkZ dk oqQN uewuk çkIr dj losQA ;g vk'p;Z
dh ckr gS fd ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa Hkh oSKkfud gesa ;g
crkus esa l{ke gq, fd HkwxeZ dh lajpuk dSlh gS vkSj
bruh xgjkbZ ij fdl çdkj osQ inkFkZ ik, tkrs gSa\
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk osQ fo"k; esa gekjh vf/drj
tkudkjh ijks{k :i ls çkIr vuqekuksa ij vk/kfjr gSA
rFkkfi bl tkudkjh dk oqQN Hkkx çR;{k çs{k.kksa vkSj
inkFkZ osQ fo'ys"k.k ij Hkh vk/kfjr gSA
çR;{k Ïksr
i`Foh ls lcls vklkuh ls miyC/ Bksl inkFkZ /jkryh;
pêðkusa gSa] vFkok os pêðkusa gS] tks ge [kuu {ks=kksa ls
izkIr djrs gaSA nf{k.kh vÚhdk dh lksus dh [kkusa 3
ls 4 fd0eh0 rd xgjh gSaA blls vf/d xgjkbZ esa
tk ikuk vlaHko gS] D;ksafd mruh xgjkbZ ij rkieku
cgqr vf/d gksrk gSA [kuu osQ vfrfjDr oSKkfud]
fofHkUu ifj;kstukvksa osQ varxZr i`Foh dh vkarfjd
fLFkfr dks tkuus osQ fy, iiZVh esa xgjkbZ rd
Nkuchu dj jgs gaSA lalkj Hkj osQ oSKkfud nks eq[;
i`
vè;k;
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
22
fp=k 3-1 % HkwoaQi&vfHkys[k
ifj;kstukvksa ij dke dj jgs gSaA ;s gSa xgjs leqæ esa
izos/u ifj;kstuk (Deep ocean drilling project)
o lefUor egklkxjh; izos/u ifj;kstuk (Integrated
ocean drilling project)A vkt rd lcls xgjk
izos/u (Drill) vkdZfVd egklkxj esa dksyk (Kola)
{ks=k esa 12 fd0eh0 dh xgjkbZ rd fd;k x;k gSA bu
ifj;kstukvksa rFkk cgqr lh vU; xgjh [kqnkbZ ifj;kstukvksa
osQ varxZr] fofHkUu xgjkbZ ls çkIr inkFkksZa osQ fo'ys"k.k
ls gesa i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk ls lacaf/r vlk/kj.k
tkudkjh çkIr gqbZ gSA
Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj çR;{k tkudkjh dk ,d vU;
Ïksr gSA tc dHkh Hkh Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj ls ykok i`Foh
osQ /jkry ij vkrk gS] ;g ç;ksx'kkyk vUos"k.k osQ fy,
miyC/ gksrk gSA ;|fi bl ckr dk fu'p; dj ikuk
dfBu gksrk gS fd ;g eSXek fdruh xgjkbZ ls fudyk gSA
vçR;{k Ïksr
inkFkZ osQ xq.k/eZ osQ fo'ys"k.k ls i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx dh vçR;{k tkudkjh çkIr gksrh gSA [kuu fozQ;k
ls gesa irk pyrk gS fd i`Foh osQ /jkry esa xgjkbZ
c<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk rkieku ,oa ncko esa o`f¼ gksrh gSA
bruk gh ugha] gesa ;g Hkh irk pyrk gS fd xgjkbZ
c<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk inkFkZ dk ?kuRo Hkh c<+rk gSA
rkieku] ncko o ?kuRo esa bl ifjorZu dh nj dks
vk¡dk tk ldrk gSA i`Foh dh oqQy eksVkbZ dks è;ku esa
j[krs gq,] oSKkfudksa us fofHkUu xgjkb;ksa ij inkFkZ osQ
rkieku] ncko ,oa ?kuRo osQ eku dks vuqekfur fd;k
gSA çR;sd ijr osQ lanHkZ esa bu y{k.kksa dk lfoLrkj
o.kZu blh vè;k; esa vkxs fd;k x;k gSA
i`Foh dh vkarfjd tkudkjh dk nwljk vçR;{k
Ïksr mYdk,¡ gSa] tks dHkh&dHkh /jrh rd igq¡prh gSaA
gk¡ykfd] gesa ;g Hkh è;ku j[kuk pkfg, fd mYdkvksa
osQ fo'ys"k.k osQ fy, miyC/ inkFkZ i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx ls izkIr ugha gksrs gSaA ijarq mYdkvksa ls izkIr inkFkZ
vkSj mudh lajpuk i`Foh ls feyrh&tqyrh gSA ;s
(mYdk,¡) oSls gh inkFkZ osQ cus Bksl fiaM gSa] ftuls
gekjk xzg (i`Foh) cuk gSA vr% i`Foh dh vkarfjd
tkudkjh osQ fy, mYdkvksa dk vè;;u ,d vU;
egRoiw.kZ  Ïksr gSA
vU; vçR;{k lzksrksa esa xq#Rokd"kZ.k] pqacdh; {ks=k]
o HkwoaQi laca/h fØ;k,¡ 'kkfey gaSA i`Foh osQ /jkry ij
Hkh fofHkUu v{kka'kksa ij xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy ,d leku ugha
gksrk gSA ;g (xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy) /zqoksa ij vf/d ,oa
Hkweè;js[kk ij de gksrk gSA i`Foh osQ osaQæ ls nwjh osQ
dkj.k xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy /zqoksa ij de vkSj Hkweè;js[kk
ij vf/d gksrk gSA xq#Ro dk eku inkFkZ osQ nzO;eku
osQ vuqlkj Hkh cnyrk gSA i`Foh osQ Hkhrj inkFkksZa dk
vleku forj.k Hkh bl fHkUurk dks izHkkfor djrk gSA
vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ij xq#Rokd"kZ.k dh fHkUurk vusd
vU; dkjdksa ls Hkh çHkkfor gksrh gSA bl fHkUurk dks
xq#Ro folaxfr (Gravity anomaly) dgk tkrk gSA
xq#Ro folaxfr gesa HkwiiZVh esa inkFkZ osQ nzO;eku osQ
forj.k dh tkudkjh nsrh gSA pqacdh; losZ{k.k Hkh
HkwiiZVh esa pqacdh; inkFkZ osQ forj.k dh tkudkjh nsrs
gaSA HkwoaQih; xfrfof/;k¡ Hkh i`Foh dh vkarfjd tkudkjh
dk ,d egRoiw.kZ Ïksr gSA vr% ge oqQN foLrkj ls bl
ij ppkZ djasxsA
HkwoaQi
HkwoaQih; rjaxksa dk vè;;u] i`Foh dh vkarfjd ijrksa
dk laiw.kZ fp=k çLrqr djrk gSA lk/kj.k Hkk"kk esa HkwoaQi
dk vFkZ gSµ i`Foh dk oaQiuA ;g ,d çkÑfrd ?kVuk
gSA mQtkZ osQ fudyus osQ dkj.k rjaxsa mRiUu gksrh gSa] tks
lHkh fn'kkvksa esa iSQydj HkwoaQi ykrh gSaA
i`Foh esa oaQiu D;ksa gksrk gS\
çk;% Hkza'k osQ fdukjs&fdukjs gh ÅtkZ fudyrh gSA
HkwiiZVh dh 'kSyksa esa xgu njkjsa gh Hkaz'k gksrh gSaA Hkza'k osQ
nksuksa rjiQ 'kSysa foijhr fn'kk esa xfr djrh gaSA tgk¡
mQij osQ 'kSy[kaM ncko Mkyrs gSa] muosQ vkil dk
?k"kZ.k mUgsa ijLij ck¡/s jgrk gSA fiQj Hkh] vyx gksus
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk
23
dh ço`fÙk osQ dkj.k ,d le; ij ?k"kZ.k dk çHkko de
gks tkrk gS ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i 'kSy[kaM foÑr gksdj
vpkud ,d nwljs osQ foijhr fn'kk esa ljd tkrs gaSA
blosQ ifj.kkeLo:i ÅtkZ fudyrh gS vkSj ÅtkZ rjaxsa
lHkh fn'kkvksa esa xfreku gksrh gSaA og LFkku tgk¡ ls ÅtkZ
fudyrh gS] HkwoaQi dk mn~xe osQUæ (Focus) dgykrk
gSA bls voosaQæ (Hypocentre) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
ÅtkZ rajxsa vyx&vyx fn'kkvksa esa pyrh gqbZ i`Foh dh
lrg rd igq¡prh gSaA Hkwry ij og fcanq tks mn~xe osaQæ
osQ lehire gksrk gS] vf/osaQæ (Epicentre) dgykrk
gSA vf/osaQæ ij gh lcls igys rajxksa dks eglwl fd;k
tkrk gSA vf/osaQæ mn~xe osaQæ osQ Bhd Åij (90ñ osQ
dks.k ij) gksrk gSA
HkwoaQih; rajxsa (Earthquake waves)
lHkh çkÑfrd HkwoaQi LFkyeaMy (Lithosphere) esa
gh vkrs gSaA blh vè;k; esa vkxs vki i`Foh dh fofHkUu
ijrksa osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA vHkh bruk le> ysuk i;kZIr gS
fd LFkyeaMy i`Foh osQ /jkry ls 200 fd0eh0 rd
dh xgjkbZ okys Hkkx dks dgrs gSaA HkwoaQiekih ;a=k
(Seismograph) lrg ij igq¡pus okyh HkwoaQirjaxksa
dks vfHkysf[kr djrk gSaA fp=k 3-1 HkwoaQih; rajxksa dk
vfHkys[kh; oØ (Curve) fn[kkrk gSA ;g oØ rhu
vyx cukoV okyh rjaxksa dks çnf'kZr djrk gSA cqfu;knh
rkSj ij HkwoaQih; rjaxsa nks çdkj dh gaS µ HkwxfHkZd rjaxsa
(Body waves) o /jkryh; rjaxsa (Surface
waves)A HkwxfHkZd rjaxsa mn~xe osaQæ ls ÅtkZ osQ eqDr
osQ nkSjku iSnk gksrh gSa vkSj i`Foh osQ van:uh Hkkx ls
gksdj lHkh fn'kkvksa esa vkxs c<+rh gSaA blfy, bUgsa
HkwxfHkZd rjaxas dgk tkrk gSA HkwxfHkZd rjaxksa ,oa /jkryh;
'kSyksa osQ eè; vU;ksU; fØ;k osQ dkj.k ubZ rjaxsa mRiUu
gksrh gSa ftUgsa /jkryh; rjaxsa dgk tkrk gSA ;s rjaxsa /
jkry osQ lkFk&lkFk pyrh gSaA rajxksa dk osx vyx&vyx
?kuRo okys inkFkksZa ls xqtjus ij ifjofrZr gks tkrk gSA
vf/d ?kuRo okys inkFkksZa esa rjaxksa dk osx vf/d gksrk
gSA inkFkks± osQ ?kuRo esa fHkUurk,¡ gksus osQ dkj.k ijkorZu
(Reflection) ,oa vkorZu (Refraction) gksrk gS]
ftlls bu rjaxksa dh fn'kk Hkh cnyrh gSA
HkwxHkhZ; rjaxas Hkh nks çdkj dh gksrh gSaA bUgsa ^P*
rjaxsa o ^S* rjaxsa dgk tkrk gSA ^P* rjaxsa rhoz xfr ls
pyus okyh rjaxsa gSa vkSj /jkry ij lcls igys igWq¡prh
gSaA bUgsa ^çkFkfed rjaxsa* Hkh dgk tkrk gSA ^P* rjaxsa
èofu rjaxksa tSlh gksrh gaSA ;s xSl] rjy o Bkslµrhuksa
çdkj osQ inkFkksZa ls xqtj ldrh gSaA ^S* rjaxsa /jkry
ij oqQN le; varjky osQ ckn igq¡prh gSaA ;s ^f}rh;d
rjaxsa* dgykrh gSaA ^S* rjaxkas osQ fo"k; esa ,d egRoiw.kZ
rF; ;g gS fd ;s osQoy Bksl inkFkksZa osQ gh ekè;e ls
pyrh gSaA ^S* rjaxksa dh ;g ,d egRoiw.kZ fo'ks"krk gSA
blh fo'ks"krk us oSKkfudksa dks HkwxHkhZ; lajpuk le>us esa
enn dhA ijkorZu (Reflection) ls rjaxsa çfrèofur
gksdj okil ykSV vkrh gaS] tcfd vkorZu (Refrection)
ls rjaxsa dbZ fn'kkvksa esa pyrh gSaA HkwoaQiys[kh ij cus
vkjs[k ls rjaxksa dh fn'kk&fHkUurk dk vuqeku yxk;k tkrk
gSA /jkryh; rjaxsa HkwoaQiys[kh ij var esa vfHkysf[kr
gksrh gaSA ;s rjaxsa T;knk fouk'kdkjh gksrh gSaA buls 'kSy
foLFkkfir gksrh gSa vkSj bekjras fxj tkrh gaSA
HkwoaQih; rjaxksa dk lapj.k
fHkUu&fHkUu çdkj dh HkwoaQih; rjaxksa osQ lapfjr gksus
dh ç.kkyh fHkUu&fHkUu gksrh gSA tSls gh ;s lapfjr gksrh
gSa rks 'kSyksa esa oaQiu iSnk gksrh gSA ^P* rjaxksa ls oaQiu
dh fn'kk rjaxksa dh fn'kk osQ lekukarj gh gksrh gSA ;g
lapj.k xfr dh fn'kk esa gh inkFkZ ij ncko Mkyrh gSA
blosQ (ncko) osQ iQyLo:i inkFkZ osQ ?kuRo esa
fHkUurk vkrh gS vkSj 'kSyksa esa laoqQpu o iQSyko dh
çfØ;k iSnk gksrh gSA vU; rhu rjg dh rjaxas lapj.k
xfr osQ ledks.k fn'kk esa oaQiu iSnk djrh gSaA ^S* rjaxsa
mQèokZ/j ry esa] rjaxksa dh fn'kk osQ ledks.k ij oaQiu
iSnk djrh gaSA vr% ;s ftl inkFkZ ls xqtjrh gSa mlesa
mHkkj o xrZ cukrh gSaA /jkryh; rjaxsa lcls vf/d
fouk'kdkjh le>h tkrh gSaA
Nk;k {ks=k dk mnHko
HkwoaQiys[kh ;a=k (Seismograph) ij nwjLFk LFkkuksa ls
vkus okyh HkwoaQih; rjaxsa vfHkysf[kr gksrh gSaA ;|fi
oqQN ,sls {ks=k Hkh gaS tgk¡ dksbZ Hkh HkwoaQih; rjax
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
24
vfHkysf[kr ugha gksrhA ,sls {ks=k dks HkwoaQih; Nk;k {ks=k
(Shadow zone) dgk tkrk gSA fofHkUu HkwoaQih;
?kVukvksa osQ vè;;u ls irk pyrk gS fd ,d HkwoaQi
dk Nk;k {ks=k nwljs HkwoaQi osQ Nk;k {ks=k ls loZFkk fHkUu
gksrk gSA fp=k 3-2 v vkSj c esa ^P* o ^S* rjaxksa dk
Nk;k {ks=k iznf'kZr fd;k x;k gSA ;g ns[kk tkrk gS fd
HkwoaQiys[kh HkwoaQi vf/osaQæ ls 105°  osQ Hkhrj fdlh
Hkh nwjh ij ^P* o ^S* nksuksa gh rjaxksa dk vfHkys[ku
djrs gSaA HkwoaQiys[kh] vf/osaQæ ls 145° ls ijs osQoy
^P* rjaxksa osQ igq¡pus dks gh ntZ djrs gSa vkSj ^S*
rjaxksa dks vfHkysf[kr ugha djrsA vr% oSKkfudksa dk
ekuuk gS fd HkwoaQi vf/osaQæ ls 105° vkSj 145°
osQ chp dk {ks=k (tgk¡ dksbZ Hkh HkwoaQih; rjax vfHkysf[kr
ugha gksrh) nksuksa çdkj dh rjxksa osQ fy, Nk;k {ks=k
(Shadow zone) gSaA 105° osQ ijs iwjs {ks=k esa ^S*
rjaxsa ugha igq¡prhaA ^S* rjaxksa dk Nk;k {ks=k ^P* rjaxksa
osQ Nk;k {ks=k ls vf/d foLr`r gSA HkwoaQi vf/osaQnz osQ
105° ls 145° rd ^P* rjaxksa dk Nk;k {ks=k ,d
iêðh (Band) osQ :i esa i`Foh osQ pkjksa rjiQ çrhr
gksrk gSA ^S* rjaxksa dk Nk;k {ks=k u osQoy foLrkj esa cM+k
gS] oju~ ;g i`Foh osQ 40 çfr'kr Hkkx ls Hkh vf/d gSA
vxj vkidks HkwoaQi vf/osaQæ dk irk gks rks vki fdlh
Hkh HkwoaQi dk Nk;k {ks=k js[kkafdr dj ldrs gSaA (fdlh
HkwoaQi vf/osaQæ dks tkuus dk fooj.k ckWDl esa i`"B 28
esa fn;k x;k gSA)
HkwoaQi çdkj
(i) lkekU;r% foorZfud (Tectonic) HkwoaQi gh
vf/d vkrs gSaA ;s HkwoaQi Hkza'kry osQ fdukjs
pêðkuksa osQ ljd tkus osQ dkj.k mRiUu gksrs gSaA
(ii) ,d fof'k"V oxZ osQ foorZfud HkwoaQi dks gh
Tokykeq[khtU; (Volcanic) HkwoaQi le>k tkrk
gSA ;s HkwoaQi vf/dka'kr% lfØ; Tokykeq[kh
{ks=kksa rd gh lhfer jgrs gSaA
(iii) [kuu {ks=kksa esa dHkh&dHkh vR;f/d [kuu dk;Z
ls Hkwfexr [kkuksa dh Nr <g tkrh gS] ftlls
gYosQ >VosQ eglwl fd, tkrs gSaA bUgsa fu;kr
(Collapse) HkwoaQi dgk tkrk gSA
(iv) dHkh&dHkh ijek.kq o jklk;fud foLiQksV ls
Hkh Hkwfe esa oaQiu gksrh gSA bl rjg osQ >Vdksa
dks foLiQksV (Explosion) HkwoaQi dgrs gSaA
(v) tks HkwoaQi cM+s ck¡?k okys {ks=kksa esa vkrs gSa] mUgsa
ck¡/ tfur (Reservoir induced) HkwoaQi
dgk tkrk gSA
fp=k 3-2 (v) vkSj (c) HkwoaQih; Nk;k {ks=k
(Earthquake shadow zones)
Page 5


i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk
Foh dh çÑfr osQ ckjs esa vki fdl çdkj dk
vuqeku yxkrs gSa\ D;k vkiosQ vuqeku osQ vuqlkj
i`Foh fØosQV dh xsan dh rjg ,d Bksl xsan gS]
;k ;g ,d [kks[kyh xsan gS] ftlij pêðkuksa dh eksVh
ijr LFkyeaMy gSA D;k vkius dHkh Vsyhfotu ij
Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj fn[kkrs gq, fp=kksa dks ns[kk gS\ D;k
vkidks Tokykeq[kh ls fudyrs gq, xeZ ykok] feêðh]
/qvk¡] vkx rFkk eSXek ;kn gS\ i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx dks vçR;{k izek.kksa osQ vk/kj ij le>k tk
ldrk gS] D;ksafd i`Foh osQ vkarfjd Hkkx esa u rks dksbZ
igq¡p ldk gS vkSj u igq¡p ldrk gSA
i`Foh osQ /jkry dk foU;kl eq[;r% HkwxHkZ esa gksus
okyh çfØ;kvksa dk ifj.kke gSA cfgtkZr o vartkZr
çfØ;k,¡ yxkrkj Hkwn`'; dks vkdkj nsrh jgrh gSaA
vartkZr çfØ;kvksa osQ çHkko dks vuns[kk dj fdlh Hkh
{ks=k dh HkwvkÑfr dh çÑfr dks le>uk v/wjk gksxkA
(vFkkZr~ fdlh Hkh çns'k dh HkwvkÑfr dks le>us osQ
fy, HkwxfHkZd fØ;kvksa osQ çHkko dks tkuuk vko';d
gSA) ekuo thou eq[;r% viuh {ks=kh; HkwvkÑfr  ls
çHkkfor gksrk gSA blfy, Hkwn`'; osQ fodkl dks çHkkfor
djus okys lHkh dkjdksa osQ fo"k; esa tkuuk vko';d
gSA ;g le>us osQ fy, fd i`Foh esa oaQiu D;ksa gksrk gS]
;k lqukeh ygjsa dSls iSnk gksrh gSa] ;g ”k:jh gS fd gesa
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk dk foLr`r Kku gksA fiNys
vè;k; esa vkius i<+k fd i`Foh dk fuekZ.k djus okyh]
Hkw&iiZVh (Crust) ls ØksM (Core) rd lHkh inkFkZ
ijrksa osQ :i esa foHkkftr gSaA ;g tkuuk Hkh vR;ar
jkspd gS fd oSKkfudksa us dSls bu ijrksa osQ laca/ esa tkudkjh
çkIr dh vkSj çR;sd ijr dh fo'ks"krkvksa osQ ckjs esa
vuqeku yxk;kA ;g vè;k; blh fo"k; ls lacaf/r gSA
HkwxHkZ dh tkudkjh osQ lk/u
i`Foh dh f=kT;k 6,370 fd0eh0 gSA i`Foh dh vkarfjd
ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ dkj.k ;g laHko ugha gS fd dksbZ i`Foh
osQ osaQæ rd igq¡pdj mldk fujh{k.k dj losQ ;k ogk¡
osQ inkFkZ dk oqQN uewuk çkIr dj losQA ;g vk'p;Z
dh ckr gS fd ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa Hkh oSKkfud gesa ;g
crkus esa l{ke gq, fd HkwxeZ dh lajpuk dSlh gS vkSj
bruh xgjkbZ ij fdl çdkj osQ inkFkZ ik, tkrs gSa\
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk osQ fo"k; esa gekjh vf/drj
tkudkjh ijks{k :i ls çkIr vuqekuksa ij vk/kfjr gSA
rFkkfi bl tkudkjh dk oqQN Hkkx çR;{k çs{k.kksa vkSj
inkFkZ osQ fo'ys"k.k ij Hkh vk/kfjr gSA
çR;{k Ïksr
i`Foh ls lcls vklkuh ls miyC/ Bksl inkFkZ /jkryh;
pêðkusa gSa] vFkok os pêðkusa gS] tks ge [kuu {ks=kksa ls
izkIr djrs gaSA nf{k.kh vÚhdk dh lksus dh [kkusa 3
ls 4 fd0eh0 rd xgjh gSaA blls vf/d xgjkbZ esa
tk ikuk vlaHko gS] D;ksafd mruh xgjkbZ ij rkieku
cgqr vf/d gksrk gSA [kuu osQ vfrfjDr oSKkfud]
fofHkUu ifj;kstukvksa osQ varxZr i`Foh dh vkarfjd
fLFkfr dks tkuus osQ fy, iiZVh esa xgjkbZ rd
Nkuchu dj jgs gaSA lalkj Hkj osQ oSKkfud nks eq[;
i`
vè;k;
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
22
fp=k 3-1 % HkwoaQi&vfHkys[k
ifj;kstukvksa ij dke dj jgs gSaA ;s gSa xgjs leqæ esa
izos/u ifj;kstuk (Deep ocean drilling project)
o lefUor egklkxjh; izos/u ifj;kstuk (Integrated
ocean drilling project)A vkt rd lcls xgjk
izos/u (Drill) vkdZfVd egklkxj esa dksyk (Kola)
{ks=k esa 12 fd0eh0 dh xgjkbZ rd fd;k x;k gSA bu
ifj;kstukvksa rFkk cgqr lh vU; xgjh [kqnkbZ ifj;kstukvksa
osQ varxZr] fofHkUu xgjkbZ ls çkIr inkFkksZa osQ fo'ys"k.k
ls gesa i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk ls lacaf/r vlk/kj.k
tkudkjh çkIr gqbZ gSA
Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj çR;{k tkudkjh dk ,d vU;
Ïksr gSA tc dHkh Hkh Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj ls ykok i`Foh
osQ /jkry ij vkrk gS] ;g ç;ksx'kkyk vUos"k.k osQ fy,
miyC/ gksrk gSA ;|fi bl ckr dk fu'p; dj ikuk
dfBu gksrk gS fd ;g eSXek fdruh xgjkbZ ls fudyk gSA
vçR;{k Ïksr
inkFkZ osQ xq.k/eZ osQ fo'ys"k.k ls i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx dh vçR;{k tkudkjh çkIr gksrh gSA [kuu fozQ;k
ls gesa irk pyrk gS fd i`Foh osQ /jkry esa xgjkbZ
c<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk rkieku ,oa ncko esa o`f¼ gksrh gSA
bruk gh ugha] gesa ;g Hkh irk pyrk gS fd xgjkbZ
c<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk inkFkZ dk ?kuRo Hkh c<+rk gSA
rkieku] ncko o ?kuRo esa bl ifjorZu dh nj dks
vk¡dk tk ldrk gSA i`Foh dh oqQy eksVkbZ dks è;ku esa
j[krs gq,] oSKkfudksa us fofHkUu xgjkb;ksa ij inkFkZ osQ
rkieku] ncko ,oa ?kuRo osQ eku dks vuqekfur fd;k
gSA çR;sd ijr osQ lanHkZ esa bu y{k.kksa dk lfoLrkj
o.kZu blh vè;k; esa vkxs fd;k x;k gSA
i`Foh dh vkarfjd tkudkjh dk nwljk vçR;{k
Ïksr mYdk,¡ gSa] tks dHkh&dHkh /jrh rd igq¡prh gSaA
gk¡ykfd] gesa ;g Hkh è;ku j[kuk pkfg, fd mYdkvksa
osQ fo'ys"k.k osQ fy, miyC/ inkFkZ i`Foh osQ vkarfjd
Hkkx ls izkIr ugha gksrs gSaA ijarq mYdkvksa ls izkIr inkFkZ
vkSj mudh lajpuk i`Foh ls feyrh&tqyrh gSA ;s
(mYdk,¡) oSls gh inkFkZ osQ cus Bksl fiaM gSa] ftuls
gekjk xzg (i`Foh) cuk gSA vr% i`Foh dh vkarfjd
tkudkjh osQ fy, mYdkvksa dk vè;;u ,d vU;
egRoiw.kZ  Ïksr gSA
vU; vçR;{k lzksrksa esa xq#Rokd"kZ.k] pqacdh; {ks=k]
o HkwoaQi laca/h fØ;k,¡ 'kkfey gaSA i`Foh osQ /jkry ij
Hkh fofHkUu v{kka'kksa ij xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy ,d leku ugha
gksrk gSA ;g (xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy) /zqoksa ij vf/d ,oa
Hkweè;js[kk ij de gksrk gSA i`Foh osQ osaQæ ls nwjh osQ
dkj.k xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy /zqoksa ij de vkSj Hkweè;js[kk
ij vf/d gksrk gSA xq#Ro dk eku inkFkZ osQ nzO;eku
osQ vuqlkj Hkh cnyrk gSA i`Foh osQ Hkhrj inkFkksZa dk
vleku forj.k Hkh bl fHkUurk dks izHkkfor djrk gSA
vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ij xq#Rokd"kZ.k dh fHkUurk vusd
vU; dkjdksa ls Hkh çHkkfor gksrh gSA bl fHkUurk dks
xq#Ro folaxfr (Gravity anomaly) dgk tkrk gSA
xq#Ro folaxfr gesa HkwiiZVh esa inkFkZ osQ nzO;eku osQ
forj.k dh tkudkjh nsrh gSA pqacdh; losZ{k.k Hkh
HkwiiZVh esa pqacdh; inkFkZ osQ forj.k dh tkudkjh nsrs
gaSA HkwoaQih; xfrfof/;k¡ Hkh i`Foh dh vkarfjd tkudkjh
dk ,d egRoiw.kZ Ïksr gSA vr% ge oqQN foLrkj ls bl
ij ppkZ djasxsA
HkwoaQi
HkwoaQih; rjaxksa dk vè;;u] i`Foh dh vkarfjd ijrksa
dk laiw.kZ fp=k çLrqr djrk gSA lk/kj.k Hkk"kk esa HkwoaQi
dk vFkZ gSµ i`Foh dk oaQiuA ;g ,d çkÑfrd ?kVuk
gSA mQtkZ osQ fudyus osQ dkj.k rjaxsa mRiUu gksrh gSa] tks
lHkh fn'kkvksa esa iSQydj HkwoaQi ykrh gSaA
i`Foh esa oaQiu D;ksa gksrk gS\
çk;% Hkza'k osQ fdukjs&fdukjs gh ÅtkZ fudyrh gSA
HkwiiZVh dh 'kSyksa esa xgu njkjsa gh Hkaz'k gksrh gSaA Hkza'k osQ
nksuksa rjiQ 'kSysa foijhr fn'kk esa xfr djrh gaSA tgk¡
mQij osQ 'kSy[kaM ncko Mkyrs gSa] muosQ vkil dk
?k"kZ.k mUgsa ijLij ck¡/s jgrk gSA fiQj Hkh] vyx gksus
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk
23
dh ço`fÙk osQ dkj.k ,d le; ij ?k"kZ.k dk çHkko de
gks tkrk gS ftlosQ ifj.kkeLo:i 'kSy[kaM foÑr gksdj
vpkud ,d nwljs osQ foijhr fn'kk esa ljd tkrs gaSA
blosQ ifj.kkeLo:i ÅtkZ fudyrh gS vkSj ÅtkZ rjaxsa
lHkh fn'kkvksa esa xfreku gksrh gSaA og LFkku tgk¡ ls ÅtkZ
fudyrh gS] HkwoaQi dk mn~xe osQUæ (Focus) dgykrk
gSA bls voosaQæ (Hypocentre) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
ÅtkZ rajxsa vyx&vyx fn'kkvksa esa pyrh gqbZ i`Foh dh
lrg rd igq¡prh gSaA Hkwry ij og fcanq tks mn~xe osaQæ
osQ lehire gksrk gS] vf/osaQæ (Epicentre) dgykrk
gSA vf/osaQæ ij gh lcls igys rajxksa dks eglwl fd;k
tkrk gSA vf/osaQæ mn~xe osaQæ osQ Bhd Åij (90ñ osQ
dks.k ij) gksrk gSA
HkwoaQih; rajxsa (Earthquake waves)
lHkh çkÑfrd HkwoaQi LFkyeaMy (Lithosphere) esa
gh vkrs gSaA blh vè;k; esa vkxs vki i`Foh dh fofHkUu
ijrksa osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA vHkh bruk le> ysuk i;kZIr gS
fd LFkyeaMy i`Foh osQ /jkry ls 200 fd0eh0 rd
dh xgjkbZ okys Hkkx dks dgrs gSaA HkwoaQiekih ;a=k
(Seismograph) lrg ij igq¡pus okyh HkwoaQirjaxksa
dks vfHkysf[kr djrk gSaA fp=k 3-1 HkwoaQih; rajxksa dk
vfHkys[kh; oØ (Curve) fn[kkrk gSA ;g oØ rhu
vyx cukoV okyh rjaxksa dks çnf'kZr djrk gSA cqfu;knh
rkSj ij HkwoaQih; rjaxsa nks çdkj dh gaS µ HkwxfHkZd rjaxsa
(Body waves) o /jkryh; rjaxsa (Surface
waves)A HkwxfHkZd rjaxsa mn~xe osaQæ ls ÅtkZ osQ eqDr
osQ nkSjku iSnk gksrh gSa vkSj i`Foh osQ van:uh Hkkx ls
gksdj lHkh fn'kkvksa esa vkxs c<+rh gSaA blfy, bUgsa
HkwxfHkZd rjaxas dgk tkrk gSA HkwxfHkZd rjaxksa ,oa /jkryh;
'kSyksa osQ eè; vU;ksU; fØ;k osQ dkj.k ubZ rjaxsa mRiUu
gksrh gSa ftUgsa /jkryh; rjaxsa dgk tkrk gSA ;s rjaxsa /
jkry osQ lkFk&lkFk pyrh gSaA rajxksa dk osx vyx&vyx
?kuRo okys inkFkksZa ls xqtjus ij ifjofrZr gks tkrk gSA
vf/d ?kuRo okys inkFkksZa esa rjaxksa dk osx vf/d gksrk
gSA inkFkks± osQ ?kuRo esa fHkUurk,¡ gksus osQ dkj.k ijkorZu
(Reflection) ,oa vkorZu (Refraction) gksrk gS]
ftlls bu rjaxksa dh fn'kk Hkh cnyrh gSA
HkwxHkhZ; rjaxas Hkh nks çdkj dh gksrh gSaA bUgsa ^P*
rjaxsa o ^S* rjaxsa dgk tkrk gSA ^P* rjaxsa rhoz xfr ls
pyus okyh rjaxsa gSa vkSj /jkry ij lcls igys igWq¡prh
gSaA bUgsa ^çkFkfed rjaxsa* Hkh dgk tkrk gSA ^P* rjaxsa
èofu rjaxksa tSlh gksrh gaSA ;s xSl] rjy o Bkslµrhuksa
çdkj osQ inkFkksZa ls xqtj ldrh gSaA ^S* rjaxsa /jkry
ij oqQN le; varjky osQ ckn igq¡prh gSaA ;s ^f}rh;d
rjaxsa* dgykrh gSaA ^S* rjaxkas osQ fo"k; esa ,d egRoiw.kZ
rF; ;g gS fd ;s osQoy Bksl inkFkksZa osQ gh ekè;e ls
pyrh gSaA ^S* rjaxksa dh ;g ,d egRoiw.kZ fo'ks"krk gSA
blh fo'ks"krk us oSKkfudksa dks HkwxHkhZ; lajpuk le>us esa
enn dhA ijkorZu (Reflection) ls rjaxsa çfrèofur
gksdj okil ykSV vkrh gaS] tcfd vkorZu (Refrection)
ls rjaxsa dbZ fn'kkvksa esa pyrh gSaA HkwoaQiys[kh ij cus
vkjs[k ls rjaxksa dh fn'kk&fHkUurk dk vuqeku yxk;k tkrk
gSA /jkryh; rjaxsa HkwoaQiys[kh ij var esa vfHkysf[kr
gksrh gaSA ;s rjaxsa T;knk fouk'kdkjh gksrh gSaA buls 'kSy
foLFkkfir gksrh gSa vkSj bekjras fxj tkrh gaSA
HkwoaQih; rjaxksa dk lapj.k
fHkUu&fHkUu çdkj dh HkwoaQih; rjaxksa osQ lapfjr gksus
dh ç.kkyh fHkUu&fHkUu gksrh gSA tSls gh ;s lapfjr gksrh
gSa rks 'kSyksa esa oaQiu iSnk gksrh gSA ^P* rjaxksa ls oaQiu
dh fn'kk rjaxksa dh fn'kk osQ lekukarj gh gksrh gSA ;g
lapj.k xfr dh fn'kk esa gh inkFkZ ij ncko Mkyrh gSA
blosQ (ncko) osQ iQyLo:i inkFkZ osQ ?kuRo esa
fHkUurk vkrh gS vkSj 'kSyksa esa laoqQpu o iQSyko dh
çfØ;k iSnk gksrh gSA vU; rhu rjg dh rjaxas lapj.k
xfr osQ ledks.k fn'kk esa oaQiu iSnk djrh gSaA ^S* rjaxsa
mQèokZ/j ry esa] rjaxksa dh fn'kk osQ ledks.k ij oaQiu
iSnk djrh gaSA vr% ;s ftl inkFkZ ls xqtjrh gSa mlesa
mHkkj o xrZ cukrh gSaA /jkryh; rjaxsa lcls vf/d
fouk'kdkjh le>h tkrh gSaA
Nk;k {ks=k dk mnHko
HkwoaQiys[kh ;a=k (Seismograph) ij nwjLFk LFkkuksa ls
vkus okyh HkwoaQih; rjaxsa vfHkysf[kr gksrh gSaA ;|fi
oqQN ,sls {ks=k Hkh gaS tgk¡ dksbZ Hkh HkwoaQih; rjax
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
24
vfHkysf[kr ugha gksrhA ,sls {ks=k dks HkwoaQih; Nk;k {ks=k
(Shadow zone) dgk tkrk gSA fofHkUu HkwoaQih;
?kVukvksa osQ vè;;u ls irk pyrk gS fd ,d HkwoaQi
dk Nk;k {ks=k nwljs HkwoaQi osQ Nk;k {ks=k ls loZFkk fHkUu
gksrk gSA fp=k 3-2 v vkSj c esa ^P* o ^S* rjaxksa dk
Nk;k {ks=k iznf'kZr fd;k x;k gSA ;g ns[kk tkrk gS fd
HkwoaQiys[kh HkwoaQi vf/osaQæ ls 105°  osQ Hkhrj fdlh
Hkh nwjh ij ^P* o ^S* nksuksa gh rjaxksa dk vfHkys[ku
djrs gSaA HkwoaQiys[kh] vf/osaQæ ls 145° ls ijs osQoy
^P* rjaxksa osQ igq¡pus dks gh ntZ djrs gSa vkSj ^S*
rjaxksa dks vfHkysf[kr ugha djrsA vr% oSKkfudksa dk
ekuuk gS fd HkwoaQi vf/osaQæ ls 105° vkSj 145°
osQ chp dk {ks=k (tgk¡ dksbZ Hkh HkwoaQih; rjax vfHkysf[kr
ugha gksrh) nksuksa çdkj dh rjxksa osQ fy, Nk;k {ks=k
(Shadow zone) gSaA 105° osQ ijs iwjs {ks=k esa ^S*
rjaxsa ugha igq¡prhaA ^S* rjaxksa dk Nk;k {ks=k ^P* rjaxksa
osQ Nk;k {ks=k ls vf/d foLr`r gSA HkwoaQi vf/osaQnz osQ
105° ls 145° rd ^P* rjaxksa dk Nk;k {ks=k ,d
iêðh (Band) osQ :i esa i`Foh osQ pkjksa rjiQ çrhr
gksrk gSA ^S* rjaxksa dk Nk;k {ks=k u osQoy foLrkj esa cM+k
gS] oju~ ;g i`Foh osQ 40 çfr'kr Hkkx ls Hkh vf/d gSA
vxj vkidks HkwoaQi vf/osaQæ dk irk gks rks vki fdlh
Hkh HkwoaQi dk Nk;k {ks=k js[kkafdr dj ldrs gSaA (fdlh
HkwoaQi vf/osaQæ dks tkuus dk fooj.k ckWDl esa i`"B 28
esa fn;k x;k gSA)
HkwoaQi çdkj
(i) lkekU;r% foorZfud (Tectonic) HkwoaQi gh
vf/d vkrs gSaA ;s HkwoaQi Hkza'kry osQ fdukjs
pêðkuksa osQ ljd tkus osQ dkj.k mRiUu gksrs gSaA
(ii) ,d fof'k"V oxZ osQ foorZfud HkwoaQi dks gh
Tokykeq[khtU; (Volcanic) HkwoaQi le>k tkrk
gSA ;s HkwoaQi vf/dka'kr% lfØ; Tokykeq[kh
{ks=kksa rd gh lhfer jgrs gSaA
(iii) [kuu {ks=kksa esa dHkh&dHkh vR;f/d [kuu dk;Z
ls Hkwfexr [kkuksa dh Nr <g tkrh gS] ftlls
gYosQ >VosQ eglwl fd, tkrs gSaA bUgsa fu;kr
(Collapse) HkwoaQi dgk tkrk gSA
(iv) dHkh&dHkh ijek.kq o jklk;fud foLiQksV ls
Hkh Hkwfe esa oaQiu gksrh gSA bl rjg osQ >Vdksa
dks foLiQksV (Explosion) HkwoaQi dgrs gSaA
(v) tks HkwoaQi cM+s ck¡?k okys {ks=kksa esa vkrs gSa] mUgsa
ck¡/ tfur (Reservoir induced) HkwoaQi
dgk tkrk gSA
fp=k 3-2 (v) vkSj (c) HkwoaQih; Nk;k {ks=k
(Earthquake shadow zones)
i`Foh dh vkarfjd lajpuk
25
HkwoaQiksa dh eki
HkwoaQih; ?kVukvksa dk ekiu HkwoaQih; rhozrk osQ vk/kj
ij vFkok vk?kkr dh rhozrk osQ vk/kj ij fd;k tkrk
gSA HkwoaQih; rhozrk dh ekiuh ^fjDVj LosQy* (Richter
scale) osQ uke ls tkuh tkrh gSA HkwoaQih; rhozrk
HkwoaQi osQ nkSjku ÅtkZ eqDr gksus ls lacaf/r gSA bl
uke ij tkuk tkrk gSA ;g >Vdksa ls gqbZ çR;{k gkfu
}kjk fu/kZfjr dh tkrh gSA bldh xgurk dk 1 ls 12
rd gksrh gSA
HkwoaQi osQ çHkko
HkwoaQi ,d çkÑfrd vkink gSA HkwoaQih; vkink ls gksus
okys çdksi fuEu gSa
(i) Hkwfe dk fgyuk
(ii) /jkryh; folaxfr
(iii) Hkw&L[kyu@iadL[kyu
(iv) e`nk æo.k (Soil liquefaction)
(v) /jkry dk ,d rjiQ >qduk
(vi) fgeL[kyu
(vii) /jkryh; foLFkkiu
(viii) ck¡?k o rVca?k osQ VwVus ls ck<+
(ix) vkx yxuk
(x) bekjrksa dk VwVuk rFkk <k¡pksa dk èoLr gksuk
(xi) oLrqvksa dk fxjuk
(xii) lqukehA
ekiuh osQ vuqlkj HkwoaQi dh rhozrk 0 ls 10 rd gksrh
gSA vk?kkr dh rhozrk@xgurk (Intensity scale) dks
bVyh osQ HkwoaQi oSKkfud ejoSQyh (Mercalli) osQ
HkwoaQi }kjk gq, uqdlku dk ,d n`'; & mjh  (LOC) esa
fLFkr veu lsrq (Hkkjr)
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