NCERT Textbook - पृथ्वी की गतियाँ Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - पृथ्वी की गतियाँ Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


i`Foh dh xfr;k¡
3
3
vkvks oqQN djosQ lh[kas
i`Foh dks n'kkZus osQ fy,
,d xsan ysa rFkk lw;Z
dks n'kkZus osQ fy, ,d
tyrh gqbZ eksecrhA xsan ij 'kgj X
dks fn[kkus osQ fy, fu'kku yxkb,A
vc xsan dks bl izdkj j[ksa fd 'kgj
X  esa va/sjk gksA xsan dks vc ck,¡
ls nk,¡ ?kqekb,A tSls gh vki xsan dks
FkksM+k ?kqekrs gSa rks 'kgj esa lw;ksZn;
gksxkA vxj xsan dks vki ?kqekuk tkjh
j[krs gSa fcanq X  /hjs&/hjs lw;Z ls
nwj pyk tkrk gSA ;g lw;kZLr gSA
TkSlk fd vki tkurs gSa] i`Foh dh xfr nks izdkj dh gSµ ?kw.kZu ,oa
ifjØe.kA i`Foh dk vius v{k ij ?kweuk ?kw.kZu dgykrk gSA lw;Z osQ
pkjksa vksj ,d fLFkj d{k esa i`Foh dh xfr dks ifjØe.k dgrs gSaA
i`Foh dk v{k ,d dkYifud js[kk gS] tks blosQ d{kh; lrg ls
66½° dk dks.k cukrh gSA og lery tks d{k osQ }kjk cuk;k tkrk
gS] mls d{kh; lery dgrs gSaA i`Foh lw;Z ls izdk'k izkIr djrh gSA
i`Foh dk vkdkj xksys osQ leku gS] blfy, ,d le; esa fliZQ blosQ
vk/s Hkkx ij gh lw;Z dh jks'kuh izkIr gksrh gS (fp=k 3-2)A lw;Z dh vksj
okys Hkkx esa fnu gksrk gS] tcfd nwljk Hkkx tks lw;Z ls nwj gksrk gS ogk¡
jkr gksrh gSA Xyksc ij og o`Ùk tks fnu rFkk jkr dks foHkkftr djrk
gS mls iznhfIr o`Ùk dgrs gSaA ;g o`Ùk v{k osQ lkFk ugha feyrk gS tSlk
fd vki fp=k 3-2 esa ns[k ldrs gSaA i`Foh vius v{k ij ,d pDdj
iwjk djus esa yxHkx 24 ?kaVs dk le; ysrh gSA ?kw.kZu osQ le; dky
dks i`Foh fnu dgk tkrk gSA ;g i`Foh dh nSfud xfr gSA
fp=k  3.1 : i`Foh osQ v{k dk >qdko rFkk
d{kh; lery
fp=k  3.2 : ?kw.kZu osQ dkj.k i`Foh ij fnu ,oa jkr
Page 2


i`Foh dh xfr;k¡
3
3
vkvks oqQN djosQ lh[kas
i`Foh dks n'kkZus osQ fy,
,d xsan ysa rFkk lw;Z
dks n'kkZus osQ fy, ,d
tyrh gqbZ eksecrhA xsan ij 'kgj X
dks fn[kkus osQ fy, fu'kku yxkb,A
vc xsan dks bl izdkj j[ksa fd 'kgj
X  esa va/sjk gksA xsan dks vc ck,¡
ls nk,¡ ?kqekb,A tSls gh vki xsan dks
FkksM+k ?kqekrs gSa rks 'kgj esa lw;ksZn;
gksxkA vxj xsan dks vki ?kqekuk tkjh
j[krs gSa fcanq X  /hjs&/hjs lw;Z ls
nwj pyk tkrk gSA ;g lw;kZLr gSA
TkSlk fd vki tkurs gSa] i`Foh dh xfr nks izdkj dh gSµ ?kw.kZu ,oa
ifjØe.kA i`Foh dk vius v{k ij ?kweuk ?kw.kZu dgykrk gSA lw;Z osQ
pkjksa vksj ,d fLFkj d{k esa i`Foh dh xfr dks ifjØe.k dgrs gSaA
i`Foh dk v{k ,d dkYifud js[kk gS] tks blosQ d{kh; lrg ls
66½° dk dks.k cukrh gSA og lery tks d{k osQ }kjk cuk;k tkrk
gS] mls d{kh; lery dgrs gSaA i`Foh lw;Z ls izdk'k izkIr djrh gSA
i`Foh dk vkdkj xksys osQ leku gS] blfy, ,d le; esa fliZQ blosQ
vk/s Hkkx ij gh lw;Z dh jks'kuh izkIr gksrh gS (fp=k 3-2)A lw;Z dh vksj
okys Hkkx esa fnu gksrk gS] tcfd nwljk Hkkx tks lw;Z ls nwj gksrk gS ogk¡
jkr gksrh gSA Xyksc ij og o`Ùk tks fnu rFkk jkr dks foHkkftr djrk
gS mls iznhfIr o`Ùk dgrs gSaA ;g o`Ùk v{k osQ lkFk ugha feyrk gS tSlk
fd vki fp=k 3-2 esa ns[k ldrs gSaA i`Foh vius v{k ij ,d pDdj
iwjk djus esa yxHkx 24 ?kaVs dk le; ysrh gSA ?kw.kZu osQ le; dky
dks i`Foh fnu dgk tkrk gSA ;g i`Foh dh nSfud xfr gSA
fp=k  3.1 : i`Foh osQ v{k dk >qdko rFkk
d{kh; lery
fp=k  3.2 : ?kw.kZu osQ dkj.k i`Foh ij fnu ,oa jkr
20
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
fp=k  3.3 : i`Foh dk ifjØe.k ,oa ½rq,¡
vxj i`Foh ?kw.kZu ugha djs rks D;k gksxk\ lw;Z osQ rjiQ okys
i`Foh osQ Hkkx esa ges'kk fnu gksxk ftlosQ dkj.k ml Hkkx esa xehZ
yxkrkj iM+sxhA nwljs Hkkx esa ges'kk v¡/sjk jgsxk ,oa iwjs le; BaM
iM+sxhA bl rjg dh voLFkk esa thou laHko ugha gks ik,xkA
ifjØe.k
i`Foh dh nwljh xfr tks lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj d{k esa gksrh gS mls
ifjØe.k dgk tkrk gSA i`Foh ,d o"kZ ;k 365 ¼ fnu esa lw;Z dk
,d pDdj yxkrh gSA ge yksx ,d o"kZ 365 fnu dk ekurs gSa rFkk
lqfo/k osQ fy, 6 ?kaVs dks blesa ugha tksM+rs gSaA
pkj o"kks± esa izR;sd o"kZ osQ cps gq, 6 ?kaVs feydj ,d fnu ;kuh
24 ?kaVs osQ cjkcj gks tkrs gSaA blosQ vfrfjDr fnu dks iQjojh osQ
eghus esa tksM+k tkrk gSA bl izdkj izR;sd pkSFks o"kZ iQjojh ekg 28
osQ cnys 29 fnu dk gksrk gSA ,slk o"kZ ftlesa 366 fnu gksrs gSa mls
yhi o"kZ dgk tkrk gSA irk yxkb, fd vxyk yhi o"kZ dc gksxk\
fp=k 3-3 ls Li"V gS fd i`Foh nh?kZo`Ùkkdkj iFk ij lw;Z osQ pkjksa
vksj pDdj yxkrh gSA
è;ku nhft, fd i`Foh iwjs d{k esa ,d gh fn'kk esa >qdh gqbZ gSA
lkekU;r% ,d o"kZ dks xehZ] lnhZ] olar ,oa 'kjn~ ½rqvksa esa ck¡Vk
tkrk gSA ½rqvksa esa ifjorZu lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj i`Foh dh fLFkfr esa
ifjorZu osQ dkj.k gksrk gSA
Page 3


i`Foh dh xfr;k¡
3
3
vkvks oqQN djosQ lh[kas
i`Foh dks n'kkZus osQ fy,
,d xsan ysa rFkk lw;Z
dks n'kkZus osQ fy, ,d
tyrh gqbZ eksecrhA xsan ij 'kgj X
dks fn[kkus osQ fy, fu'kku yxkb,A
vc xsan dks bl izdkj j[ksa fd 'kgj
X  esa va/sjk gksA xsan dks vc ck,¡
ls nk,¡ ?kqekb,A tSls gh vki xsan dks
FkksM+k ?kqekrs gSa rks 'kgj esa lw;ksZn;
gksxkA vxj xsan dks vki ?kqekuk tkjh
j[krs gSa fcanq X  /hjs&/hjs lw;Z ls
nwj pyk tkrk gSA ;g lw;kZLr gSA
TkSlk fd vki tkurs gSa] i`Foh dh xfr nks izdkj dh gSµ ?kw.kZu ,oa
ifjØe.kA i`Foh dk vius v{k ij ?kweuk ?kw.kZu dgykrk gSA lw;Z osQ
pkjksa vksj ,d fLFkj d{k esa i`Foh dh xfr dks ifjØe.k dgrs gSaA
i`Foh dk v{k ,d dkYifud js[kk gS] tks blosQ d{kh; lrg ls
66½° dk dks.k cukrh gSA og lery tks d{k osQ }kjk cuk;k tkrk
gS] mls d{kh; lery dgrs gSaA i`Foh lw;Z ls izdk'k izkIr djrh gSA
i`Foh dk vkdkj xksys osQ leku gS] blfy, ,d le; esa fliZQ blosQ
vk/s Hkkx ij gh lw;Z dh jks'kuh izkIr gksrh gS (fp=k 3-2)A lw;Z dh vksj
okys Hkkx esa fnu gksrk gS] tcfd nwljk Hkkx tks lw;Z ls nwj gksrk gS ogk¡
jkr gksrh gSA Xyksc ij og o`Ùk tks fnu rFkk jkr dks foHkkftr djrk
gS mls iznhfIr o`Ùk dgrs gSaA ;g o`Ùk v{k osQ lkFk ugha feyrk gS tSlk
fd vki fp=k 3-2 esa ns[k ldrs gSaA i`Foh vius v{k ij ,d pDdj
iwjk djus esa yxHkx 24 ?kaVs dk le; ysrh gSA ?kw.kZu osQ le; dky
dks i`Foh fnu dgk tkrk gSA ;g i`Foh dh nSfud xfr gSA
fp=k  3.1 : i`Foh osQ v{k dk >qdko rFkk
d{kh; lery
fp=k  3.2 : ?kw.kZu osQ dkj.k i`Foh ij fnu ,oa jkr
20
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
fp=k  3.3 : i`Foh dk ifjØe.k ,oa ½rq,¡
vxj i`Foh ?kw.kZu ugha djs rks D;k gksxk\ lw;Z osQ rjiQ okys
i`Foh osQ Hkkx esa ges'kk fnu gksxk ftlosQ dkj.k ml Hkkx esa xehZ
yxkrkj iM+sxhA nwljs Hkkx esa ges'kk v¡/sjk jgsxk ,oa iwjs le; BaM
iM+sxhA bl rjg dh voLFkk esa thou laHko ugha gks ik,xkA
ifjØe.k
i`Foh dh nwljh xfr tks lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj d{k esa gksrh gS mls
ifjØe.k dgk tkrk gSA i`Foh ,d o"kZ ;k 365 ¼ fnu esa lw;Z dk
,d pDdj yxkrh gSA ge yksx ,d o"kZ 365 fnu dk ekurs gSa rFkk
lqfo/k osQ fy, 6 ?kaVs dks blesa ugha tksM+rs gSaA
pkj o"kks± esa izR;sd o"kZ osQ cps gq, 6 ?kaVs feydj ,d fnu ;kuh
24 ?kaVs osQ cjkcj gks tkrs gSaA blosQ vfrfjDr fnu dks iQjojh osQ
eghus esa tksM+k tkrk gSA bl izdkj izR;sd pkSFks o"kZ iQjojh ekg 28
osQ cnys 29 fnu dk gksrk gSA ,slk o"kZ ftlesa 366 fnu gksrs gSa mls
yhi o"kZ dgk tkrk gSA irk yxkb, fd vxyk yhi o"kZ dc gksxk\
fp=k 3-3 ls Li"V gS fd i`Foh nh?kZo`Ùkkdkj iFk ij lw;Z osQ pkjksa
vksj pDdj yxkrh gSA
è;ku nhft, fd i`Foh iwjs d{k esa ,d gh fn'kk esa >qdh gqbZ gSA
lkekU;r% ,d o"kZ dks xehZ] lnhZ] olar ,oa 'kjn~ ½rqvksa esa ck¡Vk
tkrk gSA ½rqvksa esa ifjorZu lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj i`Foh dh fLFkfr esa
ifjorZu osQ dkj.k gksrk gSA
21
i`Foh dh xfr;k¡
vkvks oqQN djosQ lh[ksa
D;k vki tkurs gSa fd ,d nh?kZo`Ùk oSQls cuk;k tkrk gS\ ,d isafly] nks fiusa rFkk ,d /kxs dk NYyk yhft,A
vc bu fiuksa dks dkxt ij fLFkj dj nsa tSlk fd fp=k esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA vc bu nksuksa fiuksa dks ?ksjrs gq,
/kxs osQ NYys dks dkxt ij j[kasA vc isafly ls /kxs dks dldj rkurs gq, isafly dks /kxs osQ lkFk ?kqekrs tkb,A vc
tks vko`Qfr dkxt ij cusxh og nh?kZo`Ùk gksxhA
fp=k 3-3 esa vki ns[ksaxs fd 21 twu dks mÙkjh xksykèkZ lw;Z dh
rjiQ >qdk gSA lw;Z dh fdj.ksa doZQ js[kk ij lh/h iM+rh gSaA blosQ
ifj.kkeLo:Ik bu {ks=kksa esa mQ"ek vf/d izkIr gksrh gSA /zqoksa osQ ikl
okys {ks=kksa esa de Å"ek izkIr gksrh gS] D;ksafd ogk¡ lw;Z dh fdj.ksa
frjNh iM+rh gSaA mÙkj /zqo lw;Z dh rjiQ >qdk gksrk gS rFkk mÙkjh èkzqo
js[kk osQ ckn okys Hkkxksa ij yxHkx 6 eghus rd yxkrkj fnu jgrk
gSA pw¡fd] mÙkjh xksykèkZ osQ cgqr cM+s Hkkx esa lw;Z dh jks'kuh izkIr
gksrh gS] blfy, fo"kqor~~ o`Ùk osQ mÙkjh Hkkx esa xehZ dk ekSle gksrk
gSA 21 twu dks bu {ks=kksa esa lcls yack fnu rFkk lcls yach jkr gksrh
gSA i`Foh dh bl voLFkk dks mÙkj v;ukar dgrs gSaA
22 fnlacj dks nf{k.k /zqo osQ lw;Z dh vksj >qosQ gksus osQ dkj.k
edj js[kk ij lw;Z dh fdj.ksa lh/h iM+rh gSaA pw¡fd] lw;Z dh fdj.ksa
edj js[kk ij yacor~ iM+rh gSa blfy, nf{k.kh xksykèkZ osQ cgqr cM+s
Hkkx esa izdk'k izkIr gksrk gSA blfy,] nf{k.kh xksykèkZ esa yacs fnu
rFkk NksVh jkrksa okyh xzh"e ½rq gksrh gSA blosQ Bhd foijhr fLFkfr
mÙkjh xksykèkZ esa gksrh gSA i`Foh dh bl voLFkk dks nf{k.k v;ukar
dgk tkrk gSA D;k vki tkurs gSa fd vkLVªsfy;k esa xzh"e ½rq esa
fØlel dk ioZ euk;k tkrk gS\
21 ekpZ ,oa 23 flracj dks lw;Z dh fdj.ksa fo"kqor~ o`Ùk ij
lh/h iM+rh gSaA bl voLFkk esa dksbZ Hkh /zqo lw;Z dh vksj ugha >qdk
gksrk gS] blfy, iwjh i`Foh ij jkr ,oa fnu cjkcj gksrs gSaA bls fo"kqo
dgk tkrk gSA
23 flracj dks mÙkjh xksykèkZ esa 'kjn~ ½rq gksrh gS] tcfd nf{k.kh
xksykèkZ esa olar ½rq gksrh gSA 21 ekpZ dks fLFkfr blosQ foijhr gksrh
gS tc mÙkjh xksykèkZ esa olar ½rq rFkk nf{k.kh xksykèkZ esa 'kjn~ ½rq
gksrh gSA
bl izdkj] Li"V gS fd i`Foh osQ ?kw.kZu ,oa ifjØe.k osQ dkj.k
fnu ,oa jkr rFkk ½rqvksa esa ifjorZu gksrk gSA
vkvks oqQN djosQ lh[ksa
,d gh fn'kk esa i`Foh
osQ >qdko dks le>us
osQ fy, eSnku ij ,d cgqr cM+k
nh?kZo`Ùk cuk,¡ rFkk NM+h essa yxk
gqvk ,d >aMk ysaA nh?kZo`Ùk okyh
js[kk ij dgha Hkh [kM+s gks tk,¡A
ogk¡ ls nwj fLFkr fdlh o`{k osQ
lcls mQijh fgLls osQ fdlh fcanq
dh vksj >aMs ls fn[kk,¡A vc >aMs
dks mlh fLFkj fcanq dh rjiQ j[krs
gq, nh?kZo`Ùk ij pysaA blh izdkj
i`Foh dk v{k ges'kk ,d gh fLFkfr
esa >qdk gqvk jgrk gSA i`Foh osQ
ifjØe.k rFkk i`Foh osQ v{k osQ
fuf'pr fn'kk esa >qosQ gksus osQ
dkj.k ½rq ifjorZu gksrk gSA
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