NCERT Textbook - पृथ्वी के प्रमुख परिमंडल Notes | EduRev

भूगोल (Geography) for UPSC Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - पृथ्वी के प्रमुख परिमंडल Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


i`Foh osQ izeq[k ifjeaMy
TkSlk fd vki igys vè;k; esa Ik<+ pqosQ gSa fd Ik`Foh ,dek=k ,slk
xzg gS tgk¡ thou gSA ekuo ;gk¡ thfor jg ldrk gS] D;ksafd thou
osQ fy, vko';d rÙo& Hkwfe] ty rFkk gok i`Foh ij ekStwn gSaA
i`Foh dh lrg ,slh gS ftlesa i;kZoj.k osQ rhu egÙoiw.kZ ?kVd
vkil esa feyrs gSa rFkk ,d nwljs dks izHkkfor djrs gSaA i`Foh dk
Bksl Hkkx ftl ij ge jgrs gSa mls HkweaMy dgk tkrk gSA xSl dh
ijrsa] tks i`Foh dks pkjksa vksj ls ?ksjrh gSa mls ok;qeaMy dgk tkrk
gS] tgk¡ vkWDlhtu] ukbVªkstu] dkcZu MkbvkWDlkbM rFkk nwljh xSlsa
ikbZ tkrh gSaA i`Foh osQ cgqr cM+s Hkkx ij ty ik;k tkrk gS ftls
tyeaMy dgk tkrk gSA tyeaMy esa ty dh lHkh voLFkk,¡_ tSls&
cIkZQ] ty ,oa tyok"Ik lfEefyr gSaA
thoeaMy ,d lhfer {ks=k gS] tgk¡ LFky] ty ,oa gok ,d
lkFk feyrs gSa] tgk¡ lHkh izdkj osQ thou ik, tkrs gSaA
HkweaMy
Ik`Foh osQ Bksl Hkkx dks HkweaMy  dgk tkrk gSA ;g HkwiiZVh dh
pêðkuksa rFkk feêðh dh iryh ijrksa dk cuk gksrk gS ftlesa thoksa osQ
fy, iks"kd rÙo ik, tkrs gSaA
Ik`Foh dh lrg dks nks eq[; Hkkxksa esa ck¡Vk tk ldrk gSA cM+s
LFkyh; HkwHkkxksa dks egk}hiksa osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gS rFkk cM+s
tyk'k;ksa dks egklkxjh; csflu osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA fo'o
osQ lHkh egklkxj vkil esa ,d nwljs ls tqM+s gq, gSaA fp=k 5-1 esa
fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k,A D;k lHkh LFkyh; HkwHkkx ,d nwljs ls
vkil esa tqM+s gq, gSa\
Lkeqnzh ty dk ry lHkh txg leku gksrk gSA LFky dh m¡QpkbZ
dks leqnz ry ls ekik tkrk gSA ftls 'kwU; ekuk tkrk gSA
5
5
'kCnksa dh mRifÙk
xzhd Hkk"kk essa
yhFkkl dk vFkZ gS iRFkj_
,Vekl dk vFkZ gS ok"i_
áwMj dk vFkZ gS ty_
ck;ksl dk vFkZ gS thouA
D;k vki buls vkSj vf/d 'kCn cuk
ldrs gSa \
Page 2


i`Foh osQ izeq[k ifjeaMy
TkSlk fd vki igys vè;k; esa Ik<+ pqosQ gSa fd Ik`Foh ,dek=k ,slk
xzg gS tgk¡ thou gSA ekuo ;gk¡ thfor jg ldrk gS] D;ksafd thou
osQ fy, vko';d rÙo& Hkwfe] ty rFkk gok i`Foh ij ekStwn gSaA
i`Foh dh lrg ,slh gS ftlesa i;kZoj.k osQ rhu egÙoiw.kZ ?kVd
vkil esa feyrs gSa rFkk ,d nwljs dks izHkkfor djrs gSaA i`Foh dk
Bksl Hkkx ftl ij ge jgrs gSa mls HkweaMy dgk tkrk gSA xSl dh
ijrsa] tks i`Foh dks pkjksa vksj ls ?ksjrh gSa mls ok;qeaMy dgk tkrk
gS] tgk¡ vkWDlhtu] ukbVªkstu] dkcZu MkbvkWDlkbM rFkk nwljh xSlsa
ikbZ tkrh gSaA i`Foh osQ cgqr cM+s Hkkx ij ty ik;k tkrk gS ftls
tyeaMy dgk tkrk gSA tyeaMy esa ty dh lHkh voLFkk,¡_ tSls&
cIkZQ] ty ,oa tyok"Ik lfEefyr gSaA
thoeaMy ,d lhfer {ks=k gS] tgk¡ LFky] ty ,oa gok ,d
lkFk feyrs gSa] tgk¡ lHkh izdkj osQ thou ik, tkrs gSaA
HkweaMy
Ik`Foh osQ Bksl Hkkx dks HkweaMy  dgk tkrk gSA ;g HkwiiZVh dh
pêðkuksa rFkk feêðh dh iryh ijrksa dk cuk gksrk gS ftlesa thoksa osQ
fy, iks"kd rÙo ik, tkrs gSaA
Ik`Foh dh lrg dks nks eq[; Hkkxksa esa ck¡Vk tk ldrk gSA cM+s
LFkyh; HkwHkkxksa dks egk}hiksa osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gS rFkk cM+s
tyk'k;ksa dks egklkxjh; csflu osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA fo'o
osQ lHkh egklkxj vkil esa ,d nwljs ls tqM+s gq, gSaA fp=k 5-1 esa
fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k,A D;k lHkh LFkyh; HkwHkkx ,d nwljs ls
vkil esa tqM+s gq, gSa\
Lkeqnzh ty dk ry lHkh txg leku gksrk gSA LFky dh m¡QpkbZ
dks leqnz ry ls ekik tkrk gSA ftls 'kwU; ekuk tkrk gSA
5
5
'kCnksa dh mRifÙk
xzhd Hkk"kk essa
yhFkkl dk vFkZ gS iRFkj_
,Vekl dk vFkZ gS ok"i_
áwMj dk vFkZ gS ty_
ck;ksl dk vFkZ gS thouA
D;k vki buls vkSj vf/d 'kCn cuk
ldrs gSa \
32
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
fp=k  5.1 : fo'o% egk}hi ,oa egklkxj
Page 3


i`Foh osQ izeq[k ifjeaMy
TkSlk fd vki igys vè;k; esa Ik<+ pqosQ gSa fd Ik`Foh ,dek=k ,slk
xzg gS tgk¡ thou gSA ekuo ;gk¡ thfor jg ldrk gS] D;ksafd thou
osQ fy, vko';d rÙo& Hkwfe] ty rFkk gok i`Foh ij ekStwn gSaA
i`Foh dh lrg ,slh gS ftlesa i;kZoj.k osQ rhu egÙoiw.kZ ?kVd
vkil esa feyrs gSa rFkk ,d nwljs dks izHkkfor djrs gSaA i`Foh dk
Bksl Hkkx ftl ij ge jgrs gSa mls HkweaMy dgk tkrk gSA xSl dh
ijrsa] tks i`Foh dks pkjksa vksj ls ?ksjrh gSa mls ok;qeaMy dgk tkrk
gS] tgk¡ vkWDlhtu] ukbVªkstu] dkcZu MkbvkWDlkbM rFkk nwljh xSlsa
ikbZ tkrh gSaA i`Foh osQ cgqr cM+s Hkkx ij ty ik;k tkrk gS ftls
tyeaMy dgk tkrk gSA tyeaMy esa ty dh lHkh voLFkk,¡_ tSls&
cIkZQ] ty ,oa tyok"Ik lfEefyr gSaA
thoeaMy ,d lhfer {ks=k gS] tgk¡ LFky] ty ,oa gok ,d
lkFk feyrs gSa] tgk¡ lHkh izdkj osQ thou ik, tkrs gSaA
HkweaMy
Ik`Foh osQ Bksl Hkkx dks HkweaMy  dgk tkrk gSA ;g HkwiiZVh dh
pêðkuksa rFkk feêðh dh iryh ijrksa dk cuk gksrk gS ftlesa thoksa osQ
fy, iks"kd rÙo ik, tkrs gSaA
Ik`Foh dh lrg dks nks eq[; Hkkxksa esa ck¡Vk tk ldrk gSA cM+s
LFkyh; HkwHkkxksa dks egk}hiksa osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gS rFkk cM+s
tyk'k;ksa dks egklkxjh; csflu osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA fo'o
osQ lHkh egklkxj vkil esa ,d nwljs ls tqM+s gq, gSaA fp=k 5-1 esa
fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k,A D;k lHkh LFkyh; HkwHkkx ,d nwljs ls
vkil esa tqM+s gq, gSa\
Lkeqnzh ty dk ry lHkh txg leku gksrk gSA LFky dh m¡QpkbZ
dks leqnz ry ls ekik tkrk gSA ftls 'kwU; ekuk tkrk gSA
5
5
'kCnksa dh mRifÙk
xzhd Hkk"kk essa
yhFkkl dk vFkZ gS iRFkj_
,Vekl dk vFkZ gS ok"i_
áwMj dk vFkZ gS ty_
ck;ksl dk vFkZ gS thouA
D;k vki buls vkSj vf/d 'kCn cuk
ldrs gSa \
32
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
fp=k  5.1 : fo'o% egk}hi ,oa egklkxj
33
i`Foh osQ izeq[k ifjeaMy
fo'o dk lcls m¡Qpk f'k[kj ekmaV ,ojsLV leqnz ry ls 8]848
ehVj m¡Qpk gSA fo'o dk lcls xgjk Hkkx iz'kkar egklkxj dk
esfj;kuk xrZ gS] ftldh xgjkbZ 11]022 ehVj gSA D;k vkius dHkh
dYiuk dh gS fd leqnz dh xgjkbZ i`Foh osQ lcls m¡Qps Hkkx ls bruh
vfèkd Hkh gks ldrh gS\
egk}hi
i`Foh ij lkr izeq[k egk}hi gSaA ;s foLr`r tyjkf'k osQ }kjk ,d
nwljs ls vyx gSaA ;s egk}hi gSa& ,f'k;k] ;wjksi] vizQhdk] mÙkj
vesfjdk] nf{k.k vesfjdk] vkLVªsfy;k rFkk vaVkdZfVdkA fp=k 5-1 esa
fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k, rFkk è;ku nhft, fd LFky dk cgqr
cM+k Hkkx mÙkjh xksykèkZ esa ik;k tkrk gSA
,f'k;k fo'o dk lcls cM+k egk}hi gSA ;g Ik`Foh osQ oqQy
{ks=kiQy osQ ,d frgkbZ Hkkx esa iSQyk gSA ;g egk}hi iwohZ xksykèkZZ esa
fLFkr gSA ddZ js[kk bl egk}hi ls gksdj xq”kjrh gSA ,f'k;k osQ
if'pe esa ;wjky ioZr gS tks bls ;wjksi ls vyx djrk gS (fp=k 5-1)A
;wjksi ,oa ,f'k;k osQ la;qDr HkwHkkx dks ;wjsf'k;k (;wjksi + ,f'k;k)
dgk tkrk gSA
;wjksi ,f'k;k ls cgqr NksVk gSA ;g egk}hi ,f'k;k osQ if'pe
esa fLFkr gSA vkoZQfVd o`Ùk blls gksdj xq”kjrk gSA ;g rhu rjiQ ls
ty ls f?kjk gSA fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k, ,oa bldh fLFkfr dk
irk yxkb,A
vizQhdk ,f'k;k osQ ckn fo'o dk nwljk lcls cM+k egk}hi gSA
fo"kqor~ o`Ùk ;k 0° v{kka'k bl egk}hi osQ yxHkx eè; Hkkx ls
gksdj xqtjrh gSA vizQhdk dk cgqr cM+k Hkkx mÙkjh xksykèkZZ esa fLFkr
gSA fp=k 5-1 dks nsf[k,] vki ik,¡xs fd ;gh ,d ,slk egk}hi gS
ftlls gksdj doZQ] fo"kqor~ rFkk edj] rhuksa js[kk,¡ xq”kjrh gSaA
lgkjk dk jsfxLrku fo'o dk lcls cM+k xeZ jsfxLrku gS tks fd
vizQhdk esa fLFkr gSA ;g egk}hi pkjksa rjiQ ls leqnzksa ,oa egklkxjksa
ls f?kjk gSA fp=k 5-1 esa fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k,A vki ns[ksaxs fd
fo'o dh lcls yach unh uhy vizQhdk ls gksdj xq”kjrh gSA
vizQhdk dk ekufp=k nsf[k, rFkk crkb, fd doZQ js[kk] edj js[kk
rFkk fo"kqor~ o`Ùk blosQ fdu&fdu Hkkxksa ls gksdj xqtjrh gSaA
mÙkj vesfjdk fo'o dk rhljk lcls cM+k egk}hi gSA ;g
nf{k.kh vesfjdk ls ,d ladjs LFky ls tqM+k gS ftls iukek LFkylaf/
D;k vki tkurs gSa\
U;w”khySaM osQ ,MeaM
fgysjh rFkk Hkkjr osQ
rsuftax ukSxsZ 'ksjik 29 ebZ] 1953
dks Ik`Foh osQ lcls m¡Qps f'k[kj
ekmaV ,ojsLV ij p<+us okys igys
O;fDr FksA
tkiku dh tqadks rkcsbZ fo'o
dh igyh efgyk Fkh ftlus 16
ebZ] 1975 dks ,ojsLV ij dne
j[kkA cpsanzh iky Hkkjr dh igyh
efgyk ftlus 23 ebZ] 1984 dks
,ojsLV ij viuk dne j[kkA
Page 4


i`Foh osQ izeq[k ifjeaMy
TkSlk fd vki igys vè;k; esa Ik<+ pqosQ gSa fd Ik`Foh ,dek=k ,slk
xzg gS tgk¡ thou gSA ekuo ;gk¡ thfor jg ldrk gS] D;ksafd thou
osQ fy, vko';d rÙo& Hkwfe] ty rFkk gok i`Foh ij ekStwn gSaA
i`Foh dh lrg ,slh gS ftlesa i;kZoj.k osQ rhu egÙoiw.kZ ?kVd
vkil esa feyrs gSa rFkk ,d nwljs dks izHkkfor djrs gSaA i`Foh dk
Bksl Hkkx ftl ij ge jgrs gSa mls HkweaMy dgk tkrk gSA xSl dh
ijrsa] tks i`Foh dks pkjksa vksj ls ?ksjrh gSa mls ok;qeaMy dgk tkrk
gS] tgk¡ vkWDlhtu] ukbVªkstu] dkcZu MkbvkWDlkbM rFkk nwljh xSlsa
ikbZ tkrh gSaA i`Foh osQ cgqr cM+s Hkkx ij ty ik;k tkrk gS ftls
tyeaMy dgk tkrk gSA tyeaMy esa ty dh lHkh voLFkk,¡_ tSls&
cIkZQ] ty ,oa tyok"Ik lfEefyr gSaA
thoeaMy ,d lhfer {ks=k gS] tgk¡ LFky] ty ,oa gok ,d
lkFk feyrs gSa] tgk¡ lHkh izdkj osQ thou ik, tkrs gSaA
HkweaMy
Ik`Foh osQ Bksl Hkkx dks HkweaMy  dgk tkrk gSA ;g HkwiiZVh dh
pêðkuksa rFkk feêðh dh iryh ijrksa dk cuk gksrk gS ftlesa thoksa osQ
fy, iks"kd rÙo ik, tkrs gSaA
Ik`Foh dh lrg dks nks eq[; Hkkxksa esa ck¡Vk tk ldrk gSA cM+s
LFkyh; HkwHkkxksa dks egk}hiksa osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gS rFkk cM+s
tyk'k;ksa dks egklkxjh; csflu osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA fo'o
osQ lHkh egklkxj vkil esa ,d nwljs ls tqM+s gq, gSaA fp=k 5-1 esa
fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k,A D;k lHkh LFkyh; HkwHkkx ,d nwljs ls
vkil esa tqM+s gq, gSa\
Lkeqnzh ty dk ry lHkh txg leku gksrk gSA LFky dh m¡QpkbZ
dks leqnz ry ls ekik tkrk gSA ftls 'kwU; ekuk tkrk gSA
5
5
'kCnksa dh mRifÙk
xzhd Hkk"kk essa
yhFkkl dk vFkZ gS iRFkj_
,Vekl dk vFkZ gS ok"i_
áwMj dk vFkZ gS ty_
ck;ksl dk vFkZ gS thouA
D;k vki buls vkSj vf/d 'kCn cuk
ldrs gSa \
32
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
fp=k  5.1 : fo'o% egk}hi ,oa egklkxj
33
i`Foh osQ izeq[k ifjeaMy
fo'o dk lcls m¡Qpk f'k[kj ekmaV ,ojsLV leqnz ry ls 8]848
ehVj m¡Qpk gSA fo'o dk lcls xgjk Hkkx iz'kkar egklkxj dk
esfj;kuk xrZ gS] ftldh xgjkbZ 11]022 ehVj gSA D;k vkius dHkh
dYiuk dh gS fd leqnz dh xgjkbZ i`Foh osQ lcls m¡Qps Hkkx ls bruh
vfèkd Hkh gks ldrh gS\
egk}hi
i`Foh ij lkr izeq[k egk}hi gSaA ;s foLr`r tyjkf'k osQ }kjk ,d
nwljs ls vyx gSaA ;s egk}hi gSa& ,f'k;k] ;wjksi] vizQhdk] mÙkj
vesfjdk] nf{k.k vesfjdk] vkLVªsfy;k rFkk vaVkdZfVdkA fp=k 5-1 esa
fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k, rFkk è;ku nhft, fd LFky dk cgqr
cM+k Hkkx mÙkjh xksykèkZ esa ik;k tkrk gSA
,f'k;k fo'o dk lcls cM+k egk}hi gSA ;g Ik`Foh osQ oqQy
{ks=kiQy osQ ,d frgkbZ Hkkx esa iSQyk gSA ;g egk}hi iwohZ xksykèkZZ esa
fLFkr gSA ddZ js[kk bl egk}hi ls gksdj xq”kjrh gSA ,f'k;k osQ
if'pe esa ;wjky ioZr gS tks bls ;wjksi ls vyx djrk gS (fp=k 5-1)A
;wjksi ,oa ,f'k;k osQ la;qDr HkwHkkx dks ;wjsf'k;k (;wjksi + ,f'k;k)
dgk tkrk gSA
;wjksi ,f'k;k ls cgqr NksVk gSA ;g egk}hi ,f'k;k osQ if'pe
esa fLFkr gSA vkoZQfVd o`Ùk blls gksdj xq”kjrk gSA ;g rhu rjiQ ls
ty ls f?kjk gSA fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k, ,oa bldh fLFkfr dk
irk yxkb,A
vizQhdk ,f'k;k osQ ckn fo'o dk nwljk lcls cM+k egk}hi gSA
fo"kqor~ o`Ùk ;k 0° v{kka'k bl egk}hi osQ yxHkx eè; Hkkx ls
gksdj xqtjrh gSA vizQhdk dk cgqr cM+k Hkkx mÙkjh xksykèkZZ esa fLFkr
gSA fp=k 5-1 dks nsf[k,] vki ik,¡xs fd ;gh ,d ,slk egk}hi gS
ftlls gksdj doZQ] fo"kqor~ rFkk edj] rhuksa js[kk,¡ xq”kjrh gSaA
lgkjk dk jsfxLrku fo'o dk lcls cM+k xeZ jsfxLrku gS tks fd
vizQhdk esa fLFkr gSA ;g egk}hi pkjksa rjiQ ls leqnzksa ,oa egklkxjksa
ls f?kjk gSA fp=k 5-1 esa fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k,A vki ns[ksaxs fd
fo'o dh lcls yach unh uhy vizQhdk ls gksdj xq”kjrh gSA
vizQhdk dk ekufp=k nsf[k, rFkk crkb, fd doZQ js[kk] edj js[kk
rFkk fo"kqor~ o`Ùk blosQ fdu&fdu Hkkxksa ls gksdj xqtjrh gSaA
mÙkj vesfjdk fo'o dk rhljk lcls cM+k egk}hi gSA ;g
nf{k.kh vesfjdk ls ,d ladjs LFky ls tqM+k gS ftls iukek LFkylaf/
D;k vki tkurs gSa\
U;w”khySaM osQ ,MeaM
fgysjh rFkk Hkkjr osQ
rsuftax ukSxsZ 'ksjik 29 ebZ] 1953
dks Ik`Foh osQ lcls m¡Qps f'k[kj
ekmaV ,ojsLV ij p<+us okys igys
O;fDr FksA
tkiku dh tqadks rkcsbZ fo'o
dh igyh efgyk Fkh ftlus 16
ebZ] 1975 dks ,ojsLV ij dne
j[kkA cpsanzh iky Hkkjr dh igyh
efgyk ftlus 23 ebZ] 1984 dks
,ojsLV ij viuk dne j[kkA
34
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
dgk tkrk gSA ;g egk}hi iwjh
rjg ls mÙkjh ,oa if'peh
xksykèkZZ esa fLFkr gSA ;g egk}hi
rhu egklkxjksa ls f?kjk gSA D;k
vki bu egklkxjksa osQ uke crk
ldrs gSa\
nf{k.k vesfjdk dk
vfèkdka'k Hkkx nf{k.kh xksykèkZZ
esa fLFkr gSA blosQ iwoZ ,oa
if'pe esa dkSu ls nks egklkxj
fLFkr gSa\ fo'o dh lcls yach
ioZr  Ük`a[kyk ,aMh”k blosQ mÙkj
ls nf{k.k dh vksj iQSyh gS (fp=k
5-1)A nf{k.k vesfjdk esa fo'o
dh lcls cM+h unh ves”ku
cgrh gSA
vkLVªsfy;k fo'o dk lcls
NksVk egk}hi gS] tks fd iwjh rjg ls nf{k.kh xksykèkZZ esa fLFkr gSA ;g
pkjksa rjiQ ls egklkxjksa rFkk leqnzksa ls f?kjk gSA bls }hih; egk}hi
dgk tkrk gSA
vaVkoQZfVdk ,d cgqr cM+k egk}hi gS] tks fd nf{k.kh xksykèkZZ
esa fLFkr gSA nf{k.k èkzqo bl egk}hi osQ eè; esa fLFkr gSA p¡wfd] ;g
nf{k.k èkzqo {ks=k esa fLFkr gS] blfy, ;g ges'kk eksVh ciZQ dh ijrksa
ls <dk jgrk gSA ;gk¡ fdlh Hkh izdkj dk LFkk;h ekuo fuokl ugha
gSA cgqr ls ns'kksa osQ 'kksèk osaQnz ;gk¡ fLFkr gSaA Hkkjr osQ Hkh 'kksèk
laLFkku ;gk¡ gSaA buosQ uke gSa eS=kh rFkk nf{k.k xaxks=khA
tyeaMy
Ik`Foh dks uhyk xzg dgk tkrk gSA Ik`Foh dk 71 izfr'kr Hkkx ty
rFkk 29 izfr'kr Hkkx LFky gSA tyeaMy esa ty osQ lHkh :i
mifLFkr gSaA blesa egklkxj ,oa ufn;k¡] >hysa] fgeufn;k¡] Hkwfexr
ty rFkk ok;qeaMy dh tyok"Ik lHkh lfEefyr gSaA
Ik`Foh ij ik, tkus okys ty dk 97 izfr'kr ls vf/d Hkkx
egklkxjksa esa ik;k tkrk gS ,oa og bruk vfèkd [kkjk gksrk gS fd
fp=k  5.2 : LFkylaf/ vkSj tylaf/
Hkkjr ,oa Jhyadk osQ chp
fLFkr tylaf/ dk uke
crkvksA
Page 5


i`Foh osQ izeq[k ifjeaMy
TkSlk fd vki igys vè;k; esa Ik<+ pqosQ gSa fd Ik`Foh ,dek=k ,slk
xzg gS tgk¡ thou gSA ekuo ;gk¡ thfor jg ldrk gS] D;ksafd thou
osQ fy, vko';d rÙo& Hkwfe] ty rFkk gok i`Foh ij ekStwn gSaA
i`Foh dh lrg ,slh gS ftlesa i;kZoj.k osQ rhu egÙoiw.kZ ?kVd
vkil esa feyrs gSa rFkk ,d nwljs dks izHkkfor djrs gSaA i`Foh dk
Bksl Hkkx ftl ij ge jgrs gSa mls HkweaMy dgk tkrk gSA xSl dh
ijrsa] tks i`Foh dks pkjksa vksj ls ?ksjrh gSa mls ok;qeaMy dgk tkrk
gS] tgk¡ vkWDlhtu] ukbVªkstu] dkcZu MkbvkWDlkbM rFkk nwljh xSlsa
ikbZ tkrh gSaA i`Foh osQ cgqr cM+s Hkkx ij ty ik;k tkrk gS ftls
tyeaMy dgk tkrk gSA tyeaMy esa ty dh lHkh voLFkk,¡_ tSls&
cIkZQ] ty ,oa tyok"Ik lfEefyr gSaA
thoeaMy ,d lhfer {ks=k gS] tgk¡ LFky] ty ,oa gok ,d
lkFk feyrs gSa] tgk¡ lHkh izdkj osQ thou ik, tkrs gSaA
HkweaMy
Ik`Foh osQ Bksl Hkkx dks HkweaMy  dgk tkrk gSA ;g HkwiiZVh dh
pêðkuksa rFkk feêðh dh iryh ijrksa dk cuk gksrk gS ftlesa thoksa osQ
fy, iks"kd rÙo ik, tkrs gSaA
Ik`Foh dh lrg dks nks eq[; Hkkxksa esa ck¡Vk tk ldrk gSA cM+s
LFkyh; HkwHkkxksa dks egk}hiksa osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gS rFkk cM+s
tyk'k;ksa dks egklkxjh; csflu osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA fo'o
osQ lHkh egklkxj vkil esa ,d nwljs ls tqM+s gq, gSaA fp=k 5-1 esa
fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k,A D;k lHkh LFkyh; HkwHkkx ,d nwljs ls
vkil esa tqM+s gq, gSa\
Lkeqnzh ty dk ry lHkh txg leku gksrk gSA LFky dh m¡QpkbZ
dks leqnz ry ls ekik tkrk gSA ftls 'kwU; ekuk tkrk gSA
5
5
'kCnksa dh mRifÙk
xzhd Hkk"kk essa
yhFkkl dk vFkZ gS iRFkj_
,Vekl dk vFkZ gS ok"i_
áwMj dk vFkZ gS ty_
ck;ksl dk vFkZ gS thouA
D;k vki buls vkSj vf/d 'kCn cuk
ldrs gSa \
32
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
fp=k  5.1 : fo'o% egk}hi ,oa egklkxj
33
i`Foh osQ izeq[k ifjeaMy
fo'o dk lcls m¡Qpk f'k[kj ekmaV ,ojsLV leqnz ry ls 8]848
ehVj m¡Qpk gSA fo'o dk lcls xgjk Hkkx iz'kkar egklkxj dk
esfj;kuk xrZ gS] ftldh xgjkbZ 11]022 ehVj gSA D;k vkius dHkh
dYiuk dh gS fd leqnz dh xgjkbZ i`Foh osQ lcls m¡Qps Hkkx ls bruh
vfèkd Hkh gks ldrh gS\
egk}hi
i`Foh ij lkr izeq[k egk}hi gSaA ;s foLr`r tyjkf'k osQ }kjk ,d
nwljs ls vyx gSaA ;s egk}hi gSa& ,f'k;k] ;wjksi] vizQhdk] mÙkj
vesfjdk] nf{k.k vesfjdk] vkLVªsfy;k rFkk vaVkdZfVdkA fp=k 5-1 esa
fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k, rFkk è;ku nhft, fd LFky dk cgqr
cM+k Hkkx mÙkjh xksykèkZ esa ik;k tkrk gSA
,f'k;k fo'o dk lcls cM+k egk}hi gSA ;g Ik`Foh osQ oqQy
{ks=kiQy osQ ,d frgkbZ Hkkx esa iSQyk gSA ;g egk}hi iwohZ xksykèkZZ esa
fLFkr gSA ddZ js[kk bl egk}hi ls gksdj xq”kjrh gSA ,f'k;k osQ
if'pe esa ;wjky ioZr gS tks bls ;wjksi ls vyx djrk gS (fp=k 5-1)A
;wjksi ,oa ,f'k;k osQ la;qDr HkwHkkx dks ;wjsf'k;k (;wjksi + ,f'k;k)
dgk tkrk gSA
;wjksi ,f'k;k ls cgqr NksVk gSA ;g egk}hi ,f'k;k osQ if'pe
esa fLFkr gSA vkoZQfVd o`Ùk blls gksdj xq”kjrk gSA ;g rhu rjiQ ls
ty ls f?kjk gSA fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k, ,oa bldh fLFkfr dk
irk yxkb,A
vizQhdk ,f'k;k osQ ckn fo'o dk nwljk lcls cM+k egk}hi gSA
fo"kqor~ o`Ùk ;k 0° v{kka'k bl egk}hi osQ yxHkx eè; Hkkx ls
gksdj xqtjrh gSA vizQhdk dk cgqr cM+k Hkkx mÙkjh xksykèkZZ esa fLFkr
gSA fp=k 5-1 dks nsf[k,] vki ik,¡xs fd ;gh ,d ,slk egk}hi gS
ftlls gksdj doZQ] fo"kqor~ rFkk edj] rhuksa js[kk,¡ xq”kjrh gSaA
lgkjk dk jsfxLrku fo'o dk lcls cM+k xeZ jsfxLrku gS tks fd
vizQhdk esa fLFkr gSA ;g egk}hi pkjksa rjiQ ls leqnzksa ,oa egklkxjksa
ls f?kjk gSA fp=k 5-1 esa fo'o osQ ekufp=k dks nsf[k,A vki ns[ksaxs fd
fo'o dh lcls yach unh uhy vizQhdk ls gksdj xq”kjrh gSA
vizQhdk dk ekufp=k nsf[k, rFkk crkb, fd doZQ js[kk] edj js[kk
rFkk fo"kqor~ o`Ùk blosQ fdu&fdu Hkkxksa ls gksdj xqtjrh gSaA
mÙkj vesfjdk fo'o dk rhljk lcls cM+k egk}hi gSA ;g
nf{k.kh vesfjdk ls ,d ladjs LFky ls tqM+k gS ftls iukek LFkylaf/
D;k vki tkurs gSa\
U;w”khySaM osQ ,MeaM
fgysjh rFkk Hkkjr osQ
rsuftax ukSxsZ 'ksjik 29 ebZ] 1953
dks Ik`Foh osQ lcls m¡Qps f'k[kj
ekmaV ,ojsLV ij p<+us okys igys
O;fDr FksA
tkiku dh tqadks rkcsbZ fo'o
dh igyh efgyk Fkh ftlus 16
ebZ] 1975 dks ,ojsLV ij dne
j[kkA cpsanzh iky Hkkjr dh igyh
efgyk ftlus 23 ebZ] 1984 dks
,ojsLV ij viuk dne j[kkA
34
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
dgk tkrk gSA ;g egk}hi iwjh
rjg ls mÙkjh ,oa if'peh
xksykèkZZ esa fLFkr gSA ;g egk}hi
rhu egklkxjksa ls f?kjk gSA D;k
vki bu egklkxjksa osQ uke crk
ldrs gSa\
nf{k.k vesfjdk dk
vfèkdka'k Hkkx nf{k.kh xksykèkZZ
esa fLFkr gSA blosQ iwoZ ,oa
if'pe esa dkSu ls nks egklkxj
fLFkr gSa\ fo'o dh lcls yach
ioZr  Ük`a[kyk ,aMh”k blosQ mÙkj
ls nf{k.k dh vksj iQSyh gS (fp=k
5-1)A nf{k.k vesfjdk esa fo'o
dh lcls cM+h unh ves”ku
cgrh gSA
vkLVªsfy;k fo'o dk lcls
NksVk egk}hi gS] tks fd iwjh rjg ls nf{k.kh xksykèkZZ esa fLFkr gSA ;g
pkjksa rjiQ ls egklkxjksa rFkk leqnzksa ls f?kjk gSA bls }hih; egk}hi
dgk tkrk gSA
vaVkoQZfVdk ,d cgqr cM+k egk}hi gS] tks fd nf{k.kh xksykèkZZ
esa fLFkr gSA nf{k.k èkzqo bl egk}hi osQ eè; esa fLFkr gSA p¡wfd] ;g
nf{k.k èkzqo {ks=k esa fLFkr gS] blfy, ;g ges'kk eksVh ciZQ dh ijrksa
ls <dk jgrk gSA ;gk¡ fdlh Hkh izdkj dk LFkk;h ekuo fuokl ugha
gSA cgqr ls ns'kksa osQ 'kksèk osaQnz ;gk¡ fLFkr gSaA Hkkjr osQ Hkh 'kksèk
laLFkku ;gk¡ gSaA buosQ uke gSa eS=kh rFkk nf{k.k xaxks=khA
tyeaMy
Ik`Foh dks uhyk xzg dgk tkrk gSA Ik`Foh dk 71 izfr'kr Hkkx ty
rFkk 29 izfr'kr Hkkx LFky gSA tyeaMy esa ty osQ lHkh :i
mifLFkr gSaA blesa egklkxj ,oa ufn;k¡] >hysa] fgeufn;k¡] Hkwfexr
ty rFkk ok;qeaMy dh tyok"Ik lHkh lfEefyr gSaA
Ik`Foh ij ik, tkus okys ty dk 97 izfr'kr ls vf/d Hkkx
egklkxjksa esa ik;k tkrk gS ,oa og bruk vfèkd [kkjk gksrk gS fd
fp=k  5.2 : LFkylaf/ vkSj tylaf/
Hkkjr ,oa Jhyadk osQ chp
fLFkr tylaf/ dk uke
crkvksA
35
i`Foh osQ izeq[k ifjeaMy
ekuo osQ mi;ksx esa ugha vk ldrk gSA 'ks"k ty dk cgqr cM+k Hkkx
ciZQ dh ijrksa ,oa fgeufn;ksa rFkk Hkwfexr ty osQ :Ik esa ik;k tkrk
gSA ty dk cgqr de Hkkx vyo.k ty osQ :Ik esa ik;k tkrk gS]
tks euq"; osQ bLrseky esa vkrk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd uhys xzg esa jgus
osQ ckotwn ge ikuh dh deh eglwl djrs gSaA
egklkxj
Ekgklkxj tyeaMy osQ eq[; Hkkx gSaA ;s vkil esa ,d nwljs ls tqM+s
gq, gSaA
egklkxjh; ty ges'kk xfr'khy jgrk gSA rjaxsa] Tokj&HkkVk
rFkk egklkxjh; èkkjk,¡  egklkxjh; ty dh rhu eq[; xfr;k¡ gSaA
cM+s ls NksVs vkdkj osQ vkèkkj ij Øe'k% pkj egklkxj izeq[k gSa&
fp=k  5.3 : egk}hiksa osQ rqyukRed vkdkj
fp=k 5-3 esa fn, x, oxksZa dks fxfu, ,oa fuEufyf[kr osQ mÙkj nhft, %
(d) lcls cM+s egk}hi oQk uke fyf[k,] ([k) dkSu cM+k gSµ ;wjksi ;k vkLVªsfy;k\
mÙkj
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