NCERT Textbook - बल तथा गति के नियम Notes | EduRev

सामान्य विज्ञानं (General Science) for UPSC Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - बल तथा गति के नियम Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


fiNys vè;k; esa geus ,d ljy js[kk esa oLrq dh
fLFkfr] osx rFkk Roj.k osQ vk/kj ij oLrq dh xfr
dk o.kZu fd;kA geus ns[kk fd ,slh xfr esa dHkh
,d:irk gksrh gS rFkk dHkh ughaA ysfdu vHkh geus
;s ppkZ ugha dh fd xfr dk dkj.k D;k gksrk gSA
le; osQ lkFk oLrq dh pky D;ksa cnyrh gS\ D;k
lHkh izdkj dh xfr;ksa dk dksbZ dkj.k gksrk gS\ ;fn
,slk gS] rks bl dkj.k dk LoHkko D;k gS\ bl
vè;k; esa ge ,slh gh lHkh ftKklkvksa dks cq>k,¡xsA
lfn;ksa ls xfr vkSj blosQ dkj.kksa us oSKkfudksa
vkSj nk'kZfudksa dks my>k j[kk FkkA i
+
Q'kZ ij j[kh
,d xsan dks /hes ls Bksdj yxkus ij og ges'kk osQ
fy, xfr'khy ugha jgrhA ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls ;g
irk pyrk gS fd fdlh oLrq dh fojke dh voLFkk
gh mldh LokHkkfod voLFkk gSA ,slh ekU;rk rc
rd cuh jgh tc rd fd xSyhfy;ks vkSj vkbtd
U;wVu us oLrqvksa dh xfr osQ ckjs esa ,d iw.kZr%
fHkUUk ladYiuk IkzLrqr dhA
vius izfrfnu osQ thou esa ge ns[krs gSa fd ,d
fLFkj oLrq dks xfr nsus osQ fy, ;k xfr'khy oLrq
dks jksdus osQ fy, gesa oqQN Ikz;kl djuk iM+rk gSA
lkekU; Hkk"kk esa blosQ fy, gesa 'kkjhfjd Ikz;kl
djuk iM+rk gS rFkk ge dgrs gSa fd fdlh oLrq dks
xfr dh voLFkk esa ykus osQ fy, gesa mls [khapuk]
/osQyuk ;k Bksdj yxkuk iM+rk gSA [khapus] /osQyus
;k Bksdj yxkus dh blh fØ;k ij cy dh voèkkj.kk
vk/kfjr gSA vc ge cy osQ fo"k; esa fopkj djrs
gSaA ;g D;k gS\ okLro esa cy dks u rks fdlh us
ns[kk gS] u p[kk gS vkSj u gh eglwl fd;k gSA
gkyk¡fd cy dk izHkko ge Ikzk;% ns[krs ;k eglwl
djrs gSaA fdlh oLrq ij cy yxkus ij D;k gksrk gS]
;g tkudj ge cy dh O;k[;k dj ldrs gSaA oLrq
dks [khapuk] /osQyuk ;k Bksdj yxkuk] ;s lHkh
fØ;k,¡ oLrq dks xfr nsus dh ;qfDr;k¡ gSa (fp=k 9-1)A
gekjs }kjk fdlh rjg dk cy yxkus ij gh muesa
xfr gksrh gSA
cy rFkk xfr osQ fu;e
(Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion)
vè;k; 9
(a) /osQyus ij VªkWyh] yxk, x, cy dh
fn'kk esa xfr djrh gSA
(c) gkWdh fLVd ls xsan dks vkxs dh vksj Bksdj yxkrs gSaA
(b) njkt dks [khapk tkrk gSA
fp=k 9.1: oLrqvksa dks /osQydj] [khapdj ;k Bksdj yxkdj
mudh xfr dh voLFkk dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA
fiNyh d{kkvksa esa vftZr Kku osQ vk/kj Ikj
vki bl ckr ls ifjfpr gSa fd fdlh oLrq esa osx
dk ifjek.k cnyus (vFkkZr~ oLrq dh xfr dks rs”k
;k /heh djus) osQ fy, ;k mldh xfr dh fn'kk
cnyus osQ fy, cy dk Ikz;ksx gksrk gSA vki ;g Hkh
Page 2


fiNys vè;k; esa geus ,d ljy js[kk esa oLrq dh
fLFkfr] osx rFkk Roj.k osQ vk/kj ij oLrq dh xfr
dk o.kZu fd;kA geus ns[kk fd ,slh xfr esa dHkh
,d:irk gksrh gS rFkk dHkh ughaA ysfdu vHkh geus
;s ppkZ ugha dh fd xfr dk dkj.k D;k gksrk gSA
le; osQ lkFk oLrq dh pky D;ksa cnyrh gS\ D;k
lHkh izdkj dh xfr;ksa dk dksbZ dkj.k gksrk gS\ ;fn
,slk gS] rks bl dkj.k dk LoHkko D;k gS\ bl
vè;k; esa ge ,slh gh lHkh ftKklkvksa dks cq>k,¡xsA
lfn;ksa ls xfr vkSj blosQ dkj.kksa us oSKkfudksa
vkSj nk'kZfudksa dks my>k j[kk FkkA i
+
Q'kZ ij j[kh
,d xsan dks /hes ls Bksdj yxkus ij og ges'kk osQ
fy, xfr'khy ugha jgrhA ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls ;g
irk pyrk gS fd fdlh oLrq dh fojke dh voLFkk
gh mldh LokHkkfod voLFkk gSA ,slh ekU;rk rc
rd cuh jgh tc rd fd xSyhfy;ks vkSj vkbtd
U;wVu us oLrqvksa dh xfr osQ ckjs esa ,d iw.kZr%
fHkUUk ladYiuk IkzLrqr dhA
vius izfrfnu osQ thou esa ge ns[krs gSa fd ,d
fLFkj oLrq dks xfr nsus osQ fy, ;k xfr'khy oLrq
dks jksdus osQ fy, gesa oqQN Ikz;kl djuk iM+rk gSA
lkekU; Hkk"kk esa blosQ fy, gesa 'kkjhfjd Ikz;kl
djuk iM+rk gS rFkk ge dgrs gSa fd fdlh oLrq dks
xfr dh voLFkk esa ykus osQ fy, gesa mls [khapuk]
/osQyuk ;k Bksdj yxkuk iM+rk gSA [khapus] /osQyus
;k Bksdj yxkus dh blh fØ;k ij cy dh voèkkj.kk
vk/kfjr gSA vc ge cy osQ fo"k; esa fopkj djrs
gSaA ;g D;k gS\ okLro esa cy dks u rks fdlh us
ns[kk gS] u p[kk gS vkSj u gh eglwl fd;k gSA
gkyk¡fd cy dk izHkko ge Ikzk;% ns[krs ;k eglwl
djrs gSaA fdlh oLrq ij cy yxkus ij D;k gksrk gS]
;g tkudj ge cy dh O;k[;k dj ldrs gSaA oLrq
dks [khapuk] /osQyuk ;k Bksdj yxkuk] ;s lHkh
fØ;k,¡ oLrq dks xfr nsus dh ;qfDr;k¡ gSa (fp=k 9-1)A
gekjs }kjk fdlh rjg dk cy yxkus ij gh muesa
xfr gksrh gSA
cy rFkk xfr osQ fu;e
(Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion)
vè;k; 9
(a) /osQyus ij VªkWyh] yxk, x, cy dh
fn'kk esa xfr djrh gSA
(c) gkWdh fLVd ls xsan dks vkxs dh vksj Bksdj yxkrs gSaA
(b) njkt dks [khapk tkrk gSA
fp=k 9.1: oLrqvksa dks /osQydj] [khapdj ;k Bksdj yxkdj
mudh xfr dh voLFkk dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA
fiNyh d{kkvksa esa vftZr Kku osQ vk/kj Ikj
vki bl ckr ls ifjfpr gSa fd fdlh oLrq esa osx
dk ifjek.k cnyus (vFkkZr~ oLrq dh xfr dks rs”k
;k /heh djus) osQ fy, ;k mldh xfr dh fn'kk
cnyus osQ fy, cy dk Ikz;ksx gksrk gSA vki ;g Hkh
tkurs gSa fd fdlh cy osQ Ikz;ksx }kjk oLrq
dk vkdkj ;k vko`Qfr Hkh cnyh tk ldrh gS
(fp=k 9-2)A
(a)
(b)
fp=k 9.2: (a) cy yxkus ij fLizax iSQyrh gSA
(b) cy yxkus ij xksykdkj xsan vaMkdkj gks
tkrh gSA
9.1 larqfyr vkSj vlarqfyr cy
fp=k 9-3 esa ydM+h dk ,d fiaM ,d lery est
ij j[kk gSA fp=k esa n'kkZ, vuqlkj] nks /kxs X vkSj
Y fiaM osQ foijhr fljkas ls tqM+s gSaA vxj ge fdlh
cy }kjk /kxs X dks [khaprs gSa] rks fiaM nkfguh vksj
f[klduk 'kq: djrk gSA mlh izdkj vxj ge /kxs
Y dks [khaprs gSa] rks fiaM ckb± vksj f[klduk 'kq:
djrk gSA ysfdu vxj fiaM dks nksuksa vksj ls leku
cy }kjk [khapk tkrk gS] rks ,slh n'kk esa fiaM xfr
ugha djrkA bl rjg osQ cyksa dks larqfyr cy dgrs
gSa rFkk ;g xfr dh voLFkk dks ifjofrZr ugha
djrkA vc ,d ,slh voLFkk dh dYiuk djsa]
ftlesa fHkUu ifjek.k osQ nks foijhr cy fiaM dks
[khaprs gSaA bl voLFkk esa] fiaM vf/d cy okyh
fn'kk esa f[klduk 'kq: djsxkA bl izdkj nksuksa cy
larqfyr ugha gSa vkSj vlarqfyr cy fiaM osQ f[kldus
dh fn'kk esa dk;Z djrk gSA blls ;g irk pyrk gS
fd fdlh Hkh fiaM ij yxus okyk vlarqfyr cy
mls xfr iznku djrk gSA
(a)(b) (c)
fp=k 9.4
fp=k 9.3: ydM+h osQ ,d fiaM ij yxs nks cy
D;k gksrk gS tc oqQN cPps ,d cDls dks
[kqjnjs i
+
Q'kZ ij /osQyus dh dksf'k'k djrs gSa\ ;fn
os de cy osQ lkFk cDls dks /osQyrs gSa] rks cDlk
ugha f[kldrk gS] D;ksafd ?k"kZ.k cy /osQyus dh
foijhr fn'kk esa dke dj jgk gS ¹fp=k 9-4-(a)ºA
;g ?k"kZ.k cy nksuksa laioZQ lrgksa osQ chp esa mRiUu
gksrk gS vFkkZr~ cDls osQ uhps dh lrg rFkk i
+
Q'kZ dh
[kqjnjh lrg osQ chpA ;g ?k"kZ.k cy] èkosQyus esa
yxs cy dks larqfyr djrk gS vkSj ;gh dkj.k gS
fd cDlk ugha f[kldrk gSA fp=k 9-4(b) esa cPps
cDls dks ”kksj ls /osQyrs gSa ysfdu cDlk fiQj Hkh
cy rFkk xfr osQ fu;e
127
Page 3


fiNys vè;k; esa geus ,d ljy js[kk esa oLrq dh
fLFkfr] osx rFkk Roj.k osQ vk/kj ij oLrq dh xfr
dk o.kZu fd;kA geus ns[kk fd ,slh xfr esa dHkh
,d:irk gksrh gS rFkk dHkh ughaA ysfdu vHkh geus
;s ppkZ ugha dh fd xfr dk dkj.k D;k gksrk gSA
le; osQ lkFk oLrq dh pky D;ksa cnyrh gS\ D;k
lHkh izdkj dh xfr;ksa dk dksbZ dkj.k gksrk gS\ ;fn
,slk gS] rks bl dkj.k dk LoHkko D;k gS\ bl
vè;k; esa ge ,slh gh lHkh ftKklkvksa dks cq>k,¡xsA
lfn;ksa ls xfr vkSj blosQ dkj.kksa us oSKkfudksa
vkSj nk'kZfudksa dks my>k j[kk FkkA i
+
Q'kZ ij j[kh
,d xsan dks /hes ls Bksdj yxkus ij og ges'kk osQ
fy, xfr'khy ugha jgrhA ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls ;g
irk pyrk gS fd fdlh oLrq dh fojke dh voLFkk
gh mldh LokHkkfod voLFkk gSA ,slh ekU;rk rc
rd cuh jgh tc rd fd xSyhfy;ks vkSj vkbtd
U;wVu us oLrqvksa dh xfr osQ ckjs esa ,d iw.kZr%
fHkUUk ladYiuk IkzLrqr dhA
vius izfrfnu osQ thou esa ge ns[krs gSa fd ,d
fLFkj oLrq dks xfr nsus osQ fy, ;k xfr'khy oLrq
dks jksdus osQ fy, gesa oqQN Ikz;kl djuk iM+rk gSA
lkekU; Hkk"kk esa blosQ fy, gesa 'kkjhfjd Ikz;kl
djuk iM+rk gS rFkk ge dgrs gSa fd fdlh oLrq dks
xfr dh voLFkk esa ykus osQ fy, gesa mls [khapuk]
/osQyuk ;k Bksdj yxkuk iM+rk gSA [khapus] /osQyus
;k Bksdj yxkus dh blh fØ;k ij cy dh voèkkj.kk
vk/kfjr gSA vc ge cy osQ fo"k; esa fopkj djrs
gSaA ;g D;k gS\ okLro esa cy dks u rks fdlh us
ns[kk gS] u p[kk gS vkSj u gh eglwl fd;k gSA
gkyk¡fd cy dk izHkko ge Ikzk;% ns[krs ;k eglwl
djrs gSaA fdlh oLrq ij cy yxkus ij D;k gksrk gS]
;g tkudj ge cy dh O;k[;k dj ldrs gSaA oLrq
dks [khapuk] /osQyuk ;k Bksdj yxkuk] ;s lHkh
fØ;k,¡ oLrq dks xfr nsus dh ;qfDr;k¡ gSa (fp=k 9-1)A
gekjs }kjk fdlh rjg dk cy yxkus ij gh muesa
xfr gksrh gSA
cy rFkk xfr osQ fu;e
(Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion)
vè;k; 9
(a) /osQyus ij VªkWyh] yxk, x, cy dh
fn'kk esa xfr djrh gSA
(c) gkWdh fLVd ls xsan dks vkxs dh vksj Bksdj yxkrs gSaA
(b) njkt dks [khapk tkrk gSA
fp=k 9.1: oLrqvksa dks /osQydj] [khapdj ;k Bksdj yxkdj
mudh xfr dh voLFkk dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA
fiNyh d{kkvksa esa vftZr Kku osQ vk/kj Ikj
vki bl ckr ls ifjfpr gSa fd fdlh oLrq esa osx
dk ifjek.k cnyus (vFkkZr~ oLrq dh xfr dks rs”k
;k /heh djus) osQ fy, ;k mldh xfr dh fn'kk
cnyus osQ fy, cy dk Ikz;ksx gksrk gSA vki ;g Hkh
tkurs gSa fd fdlh cy osQ Ikz;ksx }kjk oLrq
dk vkdkj ;k vko`Qfr Hkh cnyh tk ldrh gS
(fp=k 9-2)A
(a)
(b)
fp=k 9.2: (a) cy yxkus ij fLizax iSQyrh gSA
(b) cy yxkus ij xksykdkj xsan vaMkdkj gks
tkrh gSA
9.1 larqfyr vkSj vlarqfyr cy
fp=k 9-3 esa ydM+h dk ,d fiaM ,d lery est
ij j[kk gSA fp=k esa n'kkZ, vuqlkj] nks /kxs X vkSj
Y fiaM osQ foijhr fljkas ls tqM+s gSaA vxj ge fdlh
cy }kjk /kxs X dks [khaprs gSa] rks fiaM nkfguh vksj
f[klduk 'kq: djrk gSA mlh izdkj vxj ge /kxs
Y dks [khaprs gSa] rks fiaM ckb± vksj f[klduk 'kq:
djrk gSA ysfdu vxj fiaM dks nksuksa vksj ls leku
cy }kjk [khapk tkrk gS] rks ,slh n'kk esa fiaM xfr
ugha djrkA bl rjg osQ cyksa dks larqfyr cy dgrs
gSa rFkk ;g xfr dh voLFkk dks ifjofrZr ugha
djrkA vc ,d ,slh voLFkk dh dYiuk djsa]
ftlesa fHkUu ifjek.k osQ nks foijhr cy fiaM dks
[khaprs gSaA bl voLFkk esa] fiaM vf/d cy okyh
fn'kk esa f[klduk 'kq: djsxkA bl izdkj nksuksa cy
larqfyr ugha gSa vkSj vlarqfyr cy fiaM osQ f[kldus
dh fn'kk esa dk;Z djrk gSA blls ;g irk pyrk gS
fd fdlh Hkh fiaM ij yxus okyk vlarqfyr cy
mls xfr iznku djrk gSA
(a)(b) (c)
fp=k 9.4
fp=k 9.3: ydM+h osQ ,d fiaM ij yxs nks cy
D;k gksrk gS tc oqQN cPps ,d cDls dks
[kqjnjs i
+
Q'kZ ij /osQyus dh dksf'k'k djrs gSa\ ;fn
os de cy osQ lkFk cDls dks /osQyrs gSa] rks cDlk
ugha f[kldrk gS] D;ksafd ?k"kZ.k cy /osQyus dh
foijhr fn'kk esa dke dj jgk gS ¹fp=k 9-4-(a)ºA
;g ?k"kZ.k cy nksuksa laioZQ lrgksa osQ chp esa mRiUu
gksrk gS vFkkZr~ cDls osQ uhps dh lrg rFkk i
+
Q'kZ dh
[kqjnjh lrg osQ chpA ;g ?k"kZ.k cy] èkosQyus esa
yxs cy dks larqfyr djrk gS vkSj ;gh dkj.k gS
fd cDlk ugha f[kldrk gSA fp=k 9-4(b) esa cPps
cDls dks ”kksj ls /osQyrs gSa ysfdu cDlk fiQj Hkh
cy rFkk xfr osQ fu;e
127
foKku
128
ugha f[kldrk gSA ,slk blfy, gS D;ksafd ?k"kZ.k cy
vHkh Hkh /osQyus okys cy dks larqfyr dj jgk gSA
vxj cPps cDls dks ”;knk ”kksj ls èkosQyrs gSa rc
èkosQyus okyk cy ?k"kZ.k cy ls vfèkd gks tkrk gS
¹fp=k 9-4(c)ºA ;gk¡ vlarqfyr cy dk;Z djrk gS]
blfy, cDlk f[kldus yxrk gSA
tc ge lkbfdy pykrs gSa] rks D;k gksrk gS\
iSMy pykuk can djus ij lkbfdy dh xfr /heh
gksus yxrh gSA ,slk blfy, gksrk gS] D;ksafd ?k"kZ.k cy
xfr dh fn'kk osQ foijhr fn'kk esa dk;Z djrk gSA
lkbfdy dks xfr esa j[kus osQ fy, gesa fiQj ls iSMy
pykuk iM+rk gSA bl voLFkk esa ,slk izrhr gksrk gS
fd fdlh oLrq dks lrr~ xfr'khy cuk, j[kus osQ
fy, ,d vlarqfyr cy dh vko';drk gSA rFkkfi
og fcyoqQy xyr gSA dksbZ oLrq leku osx osQ lkFk
osQoy rHkh xfr'khy jg ldrh gS] tc ml ij yxus
okyk cy (cká rFkk ?k"kZ.k) larqfyr gksrs gSa rFkk
oLrq ij dksbZ usV cká cy dk;Z ugha djrk gSA vxj
fdlh oLrq ij vlarqfyr cy yxk;k tkrk gS] rks
mlosQ osx esa ifjorZu ;k mldh fn'kk esa ifjorZu
gksrk gSA bl izdkj fdlh oLrq dks Rofjr djus osQ
fy, ,d vlarqfyr cy dh vko';drk gksrh gS vkSj
mldh xfr ;k xfr dh fn'kk esa rc rd ifjorZu
gksrk jgsxk tc rd ;g larqfyr cy ml ij dk;Z
djrk jgsxkA rFkkfi] ;g cy gVk ysus ij] oLrq izkIr
gq, osx ls xfreku jgsxhA
9.2 Xkfr dk izFke fu;e
oLrqvksa dh fdlh vkur ry ij xfr dks ns[kdj
xSyhfy;ks us ;g fu"d"kZ fudkyk fd tc rd dksbZ
cká cy dk;Z ugha djrk] oLrq,¡ ,d fuf'pr xfr
ls pyrh gSaA mUgksaus ns[kk fd dk¡p dh xksyh vkur
ry ij yq<+drh gS rks mldk osx c<+ tkrk gS ¹fp=k
9-4(a)ºA vxys vè;k; esa vki Ik<+saxs fd xksyh
vlarqfyr xq#Roh; cy osQ dkj.k uhps fxjrh gS
vkSj uhps igq¡prs&igq¡prs ;g ,d fuf'pr osx izkIr
dj ysrh gSA fp=k 9-5(b) esa n'kkZ, vuqlkj] tc ;g
dk¡p dh xksyh Åij dh vksj p<+rh gS rc bldk
osx ?kVrk gSA fp=k 9-5(c) esa nksuksa vksj ls ,d
vkn'kZ ?k"kZ.kjfgr vkur ry ij ,d xksyh fLFkj gSA
xSyhfy;ks us roZQ fn;k fd tc xksyh dks ckb± vksj
ls NksM+k tkrk gS rc ;g <ky ij uhps dh vksj
yq<+osQxh rFkk nkb± vksj osQ vkur ry ij mruh gh
Å¡pkbZ rd tk,xh] ftruh Å¡pkbZ ls mls NksM+k x;k
FkkA ;fn nksuksa vksj osQ ryksa osQ >qdko leku gSa rks
xksyh mruh gh nwjh p<+sxh ftruh nwj rd fd og
yq<+dh FkhA vxj nkb± vksj osQ vkur ry osQ dks.k
dks /hjs&/hjs de fd;k tk, rks xksyh dks ewy
Å¡pkbZ izkIr djus osQ fy, vf/d nwjh r; djuh
gksxhA vxj bl ry dks {kSfrt dj fn;k tk,
(vFkkZr~ <ky dks 'kwU; dj fn;k tk,) rks xksyh ewy
Å¡apkbZ izkIr djus osQ fy, {kSfrt ry ij yxkrkj
pyrh gh jgsxhA ;gk¡ xksyh ij yxus okyk vlarqfyr
cy 'kwU; gSA bl izdkj ;g Kkr gksrk gS fd xksyh
dh xfr dks cnyus osQ fy, ,d vlarqfyr cká
cy dh vko';drk gksrh gS ysfdu xksyh dh xfr
fp=k 9.5: (a) fdlh dk¡p dh xksyh dk vkur ry ij uhps
dh vksj yq<+duk_ (b)  xksyh dh mQij dh vksj
xfr_ rFkk (c) dk¡p dh xksyh dh f}&vkur ry
ij xfr
Page 4


fiNys vè;k; esa geus ,d ljy js[kk esa oLrq dh
fLFkfr] osx rFkk Roj.k osQ vk/kj ij oLrq dh xfr
dk o.kZu fd;kA geus ns[kk fd ,slh xfr esa dHkh
,d:irk gksrh gS rFkk dHkh ughaA ysfdu vHkh geus
;s ppkZ ugha dh fd xfr dk dkj.k D;k gksrk gSA
le; osQ lkFk oLrq dh pky D;ksa cnyrh gS\ D;k
lHkh izdkj dh xfr;ksa dk dksbZ dkj.k gksrk gS\ ;fn
,slk gS] rks bl dkj.k dk LoHkko D;k gS\ bl
vè;k; esa ge ,slh gh lHkh ftKklkvksa dks cq>k,¡xsA
lfn;ksa ls xfr vkSj blosQ dkj.kksa us oSKkfudksa
vkSj nk'kZfudksa dks my>k j[kk FkkA i
+
Q'kZ ij j[kh
,d xsan dks /hes ls Bksdj yxkus ij og ges'kk osQ
fy, xfr'khy ugha jgrhA ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls ;g
irk pyrk gS fd fdlh oLrq dh fojke dh voLFkk
gh mldh LokHkkfod voLFkk gSA ,slh ekU;rk rc
rd cuh jgh tc rd fd xSyhfy;ks vkSj vkbtd
U;wVu us oLrqvksa dh xfr osQ ckjs esa ,d iw.kZr%
fHkUUk ladYiuk IkzLrqr dhA
vius izfrfnu osQ thou esa ge ns[krs gSa fd ,d
fLFkj oLrq dks xfr nsus osQ fy, ;k xfr'khy oLrq
dks jksdus osQ fy, gesa oqQN Ikz;kl djuk iM+rk gSA
lkekU; Hkk"kk esa blosQ fy, gesa 'kkjhfjd Ikz;kl
djuk iM+rk gS rFkk ge dgrs gSa fd fdlh oLrq dks
xfr dh voLFkk esa ykus osQ fy, gesa mls [khapuk]
/osQyuk ;k Bksdj yxkuk iM+rk gSA [khapus] /osQyus
;k Bksdj yxkus dh blh fØ;k ij cy dh voèkkj.kk
vk/kfjr gSA vc ge cy osQ fo"k; esa fopkj djrs
gSaA ;g D;k gS\ okLro esa cy dks u rks fdlh us
ns[kk gS] u p[kk gS vkSj u gh eglwl fd;k gSA
gkyk¡fd cy dk izHkko ge Ikzk;% ns[krs ;k eglwl
djrs gSaA fdlh oLrq ij cy yxkus ij D;k gksrk gS]
;g tkudj ge cy dh O;k[;k dj ldrs gSaA oLrq
dks [khapuk] /osQyuk ;k Bksdj yxkuk] ;s lHkh
fØ;k,¡ oLrq dks xfr nsus dh ;qfDr;k¡ gSa (fp=k 9-1)A
gekjs }kjk fdlh rjg dk cy yxkus ij gh muesa
xfr gksrh gSA
cy rFkk xfr osQ fu;e
(Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion)
vè;k; 9
(a) /osQyus ij VªkWyh] yxk, x, cy dh
fn'kk esa xfr djrh gSA
(c) gkWdh fLVd ls xsan dks vkxs dh vksj Bksdj yxkrs gSaA
(b) njkt dks [khapk tkrk gSA
fp=k 9.1: oLrqvksa dks /osQydj] [khapdj ;k Bksdj yxkdj
mudh xfr dh voLFkk dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA
fiNyh d{kkvksa esa vftZr Kku osQ vk/kj Ikj
vki bl ckr ls ifjfpr gSa fd fdlh oLrq esa osx
dk ifjek.k cnyus (vFkkZr~ oLrq dh xfr dks rs”k
;k /heh djus) osQ fy, ;k mldh xfr dh fn'kk
cnyus osQ fy, cy dk Ikz;ksx gksrk gSA vki ;g Hkh
tkurs gSa fd fdlh cy osQ Ikz;ksx }kjk oLrq
dk vkdkj ;k vko`Qfr Hkh cnyh tk ldrh gS
(fp=k 9-2)A
(a)
(b)
fp=k 9.2: (a) cy yxkus ij fLizax iSQyrh gSA
(b) cy yxkus ij xksykdkj xsan vaMkdkj gks
tkrh gSA
9.1 larqfyr vkSj vlarqfyr cy
fp=k 9-3 esa ydM+h dk ,d fiaM ,d lery est
ij j[kk gSA fp=k esa n'kkZ, vuqlkj] nks /kxs X vkSj
Y fiaM osQ foijhr fljkas ls tqM+s gSaA vxj ge fdlh
cy }kjk /kxs X dks [khaprs gSa] rks fiaM nkfguh vksj
f[klduk 'kq: djrk gSA mlh izdkj vxj ge /kxs
Y dks [khaprs gSa] rks fiaM ckb± vksj f[klduk 'kq:
djrk gSA ysfdu vxj fiaM dks nksuksa vksj ls leku
cy }kjk [khapk tkrk gS] rks ,slh n'kk esa fiaM xfr
ugha djrkA bl rjg osQ cyksa dks larqfyr cy dgrs
gSa rFkk ;g xfr dh voLFkk dks ifjofrZr ugha
djrkA vc ,d ,slh voLFkk dh dYiuk djsa]
ftlesa fHkUu ifjek.k osQ nks foijhr cy fiaM dks
[khaprs gSaA bl voLFkk esa] fiaM vf/d cy okyh
fn'kk esa f[klduk 'kq: djsxkA bl izdkj nksuksa cy
larqfyr ugha gSa vkSj vlarqfyr cy fiaM osQ f[kldus
dh fn'kk esa dk;Z djrk gSA blls ;g irk pyrk gS
fd fdlh Hkh fiaM ij yxus okyk vlarqfyr cy
mls xfr iznku djrk gSA
(a)(b) (c)
fp=k 9.4
fp=k 9.3: ydM+h osQ ,d fiaM ij yxs nks cy
D;k gksrk gS tc oqQN cPps ,d cDls dks
[kqjnjs i
+
Q'kZ ij /osQyus dh dksf'k'k djrs gSa\ ;fn
os de cy osQ lkFk cDls dks /osQyrs gSa] rks cDlk
ugha f[kldrk gS] D;ksafd ?k"kZ.k cy /osQyus dh
foijhr fn'kk esa dke dj jgk gS ¹fp=k 9-4-(a)ºA
;g ?k"kZ.k cy nksuksa laioZQ lrgksa osQ chp esa mRiUu
gksrk gS vFkkZr~ cDls osQ uhps dh lrg rFkk i
+
Q'kZ dh
[kqjnjh lrg osQ chpA ;g ?k"kZ.k cy] èkosQyus esa
yxs cy dks larqfyr djrk gS vkSj ;gh dkj.k gS
fd cDlk ugha f[kldrk gSA fp=k 9-4(b) esa cPps
cDls dks ”kksj ls /osQyrs gSa ysfdu cDlk fiQj Hkh
cy rFkk xfr osQ fu;e
127
foKku
128
ugha f[kldrk gSA ,slk blfy, gS D;ksafd ?k"kZ.k cy
vHkh Hkh /osQyus okys cy dks larqfyr dj jgk gSA
vxj cPps cDls dks ”;knk ”kksj ls èkosQyrs gSa rc
èkosQyus okyk cy ?k"kZ.k cy ls vfèkd gks tkrk gS
¹fp=k 9-4(c)ºA ;gk¡ vlarqfyr cy dk;Z djrk gS]
blfy, cDlk f[kldus yxrk gSA
tc ge lkbfdy pykrs gSa] rks D;k gksrk gS\
iSMy pykuk can djus ij lkbfdy dh xfr /heh
gksus yxrh gSA ,slk blfy, gksrk gS] D;ksafd ?k"kZ.k cy
xfr dh fn'kk osQ foijhr fn'kk esa dk;Z djrk gSA
lkbfdy dks xfr esa j[kus osQ fy, gesa fiQj ls iSMy
pykuk iM+rk gSA bl voLFkk esa ,slk izrhr gksrk gS
fd fdlh oLrq dks lrr~ xfr'khy cuk, j[kus osQ
fy, ,d vlarqfyr cy dh vko';drk gSA rFkkfi
og fcyoqQy xyr gSA dksbZ oLrq leku osx osQ lkFk
osQoy rHkh xfr'khy jg ldrh gS] tc ml ij yxus
okyk cy (cká rFkk ?k"kZ.k) larqfyr gksrs gSa rFkk
oLrq ij dksbZ usV cká cy dk;Z ugha djrk gSA vxj
fdlh oLrq ij vlarqfyr cy yxk;k tkrk gS] rks
mlosQ osx esa ifjorZu ;k mldh fn'kk esa ifjorZu
gksrk gSA bl izdkj fdlh oLrq dks Rofjr djus osQ
fy, ,d vlarqfyr cy dh vko';drk gksrh gS vkSj
mldh xfr ;k xfr dh fn'kk esa rc rd ifjorZu
gksrk jgsxk tc rd ;g larqfyr cy ml ij dk;Z
djrk jgsxkA rFkkfi] ;g cy gVk ysus ij] oLrq izkIr
gq, osx ls xfreku jgsxhA
9.2 Xkfr dk izFke fu;e
oLrqvksa dh fdlh vkur ry ij xfr dks ns[kdj
xSyhfy;ks us ;g fu"d"kZ fudkyk fd tc rd dksbZ
cká cy dk;Z ugha djrk] oLrq,¡ ,d fuf'pr xfr
ls pyrh gSaA mUgksaus ns[kk fd dk¡p dh xksyh vkur
ry ij yq<+drh gS rks mldk osx c<+ tkrk gS ¹fp=k
9-4(a)ºA vxys vè;k; esa vki Ik<+saxs fd xksyh
vlarqfyr xq#Roh; cy osQ dkj.k uhps fxjrh gS
vkSj uhps igq¡prs&igq¡prs ;g ,d fuf'pr osx izkIr
dj ysrh gSA fp=k 9-5(b) esa n'kkZ, vuqlkj] tc ;g
dk¡p dh xksyh Åij dh vksj p<+rh gS rc bldk
osx ?kVrk gSA fp=k 9-5(c) esa nksuksa vksj ls ,d
vkn'kZ ?k"kZ.kjfgr vkur ry ij ,d xksyh fLFkj gSA
xSyhfy;ks us roZQ fn;k fd tc xksyh dks ckb± vksj
ls NksM+k tkrk gS rc ;g <ky ij uhps dh vksj
yq<+osQxh rFkk nkb± vksj osQ vkur ry ij mruh gh
Å¡pkbZ rd tk,xh] ftruh Å¡pkbZ ls mls NksM+k x;k
FkkA ;fn nksuksa vksj osQ ryksa osQ >qdko leku gSa rks
xksyh mruh gh nwjh p<+sxh ftruh nwj rd fd og
yq<+dh FkhA vxj nkb± vksj osQ vkur ry osQ dks.k
dks /hjs&/hjs de fd;k tk, rks xksyh dks ewy
Å¡pkbZ izkIr djus osQ fy, vf/d nwjh r; djuh
gksxhA vxj bl ry dks {kSfrt dj fn;k tk,
(vFkkZr~ <ky dks 'kwU; dj fn;k tk,) rks xksyh ewy
Å¡apkbZ izkIr djus osQ fy, {kSfrt ry ij yxkrkj
pyrh gh jgsxhA ;gk¡ xksyh ij yxus okyk vlarqfyr
cy 'kwU; gSA bl izdkj ;g Kkr gksrk gS fd xksyh
dh xfr dks cnyus osQ fy, ,d vlarqfyr cká
cy dh vko';drk gksrh gS ysfdu xksyh dh xfr
fp=k 9.5: (a) fdlh dk¡p dh xksyh dk vkur ry ij uhps
dh vksj yq<+duk_ (b)  xksyh dh mQij dh vksj
xfr_ rFkk (c) dk¡p dh xksyh dh f}&vkur ry
ij xfr
cy rFkk xfr osQ fu;e
129
dks ,d:i cuk, j[kus osQ fy, fdlh usV cy dh
vko';drk ugha gksrh gSA okLrfod voLFkk esa 'kwU;
vlarqfyr cká cy izkIr djuk dfBu gSA ,slk xfr
dh foijhr fn'kk esa yxus okys ?k"kZ.k cy osQ dkj.k
gksrk gSA bl izdkj O;ogkj esa xksyh oqQN nwj pyus osQ
ckn #d tkrh gSA ?k"kZ.k osQ izHkko dks U;wure djus
osQ fy, fpduh dk¡p dh xksyh rFkk fpdus lery
dk Ikz;ksx ,oa lery dh lrg ij fpdukbZ;qDr inkFkZ
(yqczhosaQV) dk ysi fd;k tkrk gSA
U;wVu us cy ,oa xfr osQ ckjs esa xSyhfy;ks osQ
fopkjksa dks vkxs fodflr fd;kA mUgksaus rhu ekSfyd
fu;eksa dks izLrqr fd;k tks fdlh oLrq dh xfr dks
of.kZr djrs gSaA bu fu;eksa dks U;wVu osQ xfr osQ
fu;eksa osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA xfr dk izFke
fu;e bl izdkj gS%
izR;sd oLrq viuh fLFkj voLFkk ;k ljy js[kk
esa ,dleku xfr dh voLFkk esa cuh jgrh gS tc
rd fd ml ij dksbZ ckgjh cy dk;Zjr u gksA
nwljs 'kCnksa esa] lHkh oLrq,¡ viuh xfr dh voLFkk
esa ifjorZu dk fojks/ djrh gSaA xq.kkRed :Ik esa
fdlh oLrq osQ fojkekoLFkk esa jgus ;k leku osx ls
xfr'khy jgus dh izo`fÙk dks tM+Ro dgrs gSaA ;gh
dkj.k gS fd xfr osQ igys fu;e dks tM+Ro dk
fu;e Hkh dgrs gSaA
xSyhfy;ks xSfyyh dk tUe 15
iQjojh lu~ 1564 esa bVyh osQ
ihlk 'kgj esa gqvk FkkA xSyhfy;ks
dh cpiu ls gh xf.kr rFkk
izko`Qfrd n'kZu esa #fp FkhA
ijarq firk fousatks xSfyyh] mUgsa
,d fpfdRld  cukuk pkgrs
FksA rnuqlkj xSyhfy;ks us lu~
1581 esa fpfdRlk mikf/ osQ fy, ihlk
fo'ofo|ky; esa ukekadu fy;kA bl ikB~;ozQe
dks os dHkh iwjk ugha dj ik, D;ksafd mudh
okLrfod #fp xf.kr esa FkhA lu~ 1586 esa mUgksaus
viuh izFke oSKkfudh iqLrd ^n fyfVy cSysal*
(yk oSysaflVk) fy[kh] ftlesa mUgksaus ,d rqyk
}kjk inkFkks± osQ vkisf{kd ?kuRo (vFkok fof'k"V
xq#Ro) izkIr djus dh vkoQhZfeMh”k dh fof/
dk o.kZu fd;kA lu~ 1589 esa mUgksaus viuh
fuca/ Js.kh ^Mh ekSV~* esa ur lery osQ iz;ksx ls]
fdlh fxjrh gqbZ oLrq osQ fxjus dh nj de gksus
lacaèkh vius fl¼kar dks izLrqr fd;kA
lu~ 1592 esa mUgsa osful x.kjkT; osQ ikMqvk
fo'ofo|ky; esa xf.kr osQ izksisQlj in ij fu;qDr
fd;k x;k FkkA ;gk¡ Hkh mUgksaus yxkrkj xfrt
fl¼karksa ij izs{k.k fd;kA mUgksaus ur lery rFkk
yksyd laca/h vius vè;;u }kjk fu;r Roj.k ls
xfr'khy oLrqvksa ls lacaf/r ifj"o`Qr fu;e
izfrikfnr fd;kA
xSyhfy;ks ,d oqQ'ky f'kYidkj Hkh FksA mUgksaus
fofHkUu izdkj osQ nwjnf'kZ;ksa dh Js.kh fodflr
dh ftudh izdkf'kd n{krk ml le; miyC/
nwjnf'kZ;ksa ls dkiQh mÙke FkhA lu~ 1640 osQ
vkl&ikl mUgksaus izFke yksyd ?kM+h dh lajpuk
dhA muosQ [kxksyh; vkfo"dkjksa dh ,d iqLrd
^LVkjh eSlsatj* esa xSyhfy;ks us panzek ij igkM+ksa]
NksVs&NksVs flrkjksa ls feydj cuh vkdk'kxaxk rFkk
c`gLifr xzg osQ ifjr% pkj NksVs fiaMksa dks ?kwers gq,
ns[kus dk nkok fd;kA mUgksaus viuh iqLrdksa ^fMLdkslZ
vkWu ÝyksfVax ckWMh”k* rFkk ^ysVlZ vkWu fn lu
LikWV* esa lw;Z ij mifLFkr /Ccksa osQ lanHkZ esa vius
izs{k.kksa dk jgL;ksn~?kkVu fd;kA
vius Lo;a osQ }kjk fufeZr nwjnf'kZ;ksa osQ iz;ksx
}kjk 'kfu rFkk 'kqozQ xzg osQ fujh{k.k ls xSyhfy;ks
us ;g roZQ fn;k fd lHkh xzg lw;Z osQ ifjr% gh
d{kh; xfr djrs gSa u fd i`Foh osQ ifjr% ;g
fopkj ml le; izpfyr fopkj/kjk osQ foijhr FkkA
xSyhfy;ks xSfyyh
(1564 – 1642)
Page 5


fiNys vè;k; esa geus ,d ljy js[kk esa oLrq dh
fLFkfr] osx rFkk Roj.k osQ vk/kj ij oLrq dh xfr
dk o.kZu fd;kA geus ns[kk fd ,slh xfr esa dHkh
,d:irk gksrh gS rFkk dHkh ughaA ysfdu vHkh geus
;s ppkZ ugha dh fd xfr dk dkj.k D;k gksrk gSA
le; osQ lkFk oLrq dh pky D;ksa cnyrh gS\ D;k
lHkh izdkj dh xfr;ksa dk dksbZ dkj.k gksrk gS\ ;fn
,slk gS] rks bl dkj.k dk LoHkko D;k gS\ bl
vè;k; esa ge ,slh gh lHkh ftKklkvksa dks cq>k,¡xsA
lfn;ksa ls xfr vkSj blosQ dkj.kksa us oSKkfudksa
vkSj nk'kZfudksa dks my>k j[kk FkkA i
+
Q'kZ ij j[kh
,d xsan dks /hes ls Bksdj yxkus ij og ges'kk osQ
fy, xfr'khy ugha jgrhA ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls ;g
irk pyrk gS fd fdlh oLrq dh fojke dh voLFkk
gh mldh LokHkkfod voLFkk gSA ,slh ekU;rk rc
rd cuh jgh tc rd fd xSyhfy;ks vkSj vkbtd
U;wVu us oLrqvksa dh xfr osQ ckjs esa ,d iw.kZr%
fHkUUk ladYiuk IkzLrqr dhA
vius izfrfnu osQ thou esa ge ns[krs gSa fd ,d
fLFkj oLrq dks xfr nsus osQ fy, ;k xfr'khy oLrq
dks jksdus osQ fy, gesa oqQN Ikz;kl djuk iM+rk gSA
lkekU; Hkk"kk esa blosQ fy, gesa 'kkjhfjd Ikz;kl
djuk iM+rk gS rFkk ge dgrs gSa fd fdlh oLrq dks
xfr dh voLFkk esa ykus osQ fy, gesa mls [khapuk]
/osQyuk ;k Bksdj yxkuk iM+rk gSA [khapus] /osQyus
;k Bksdj yxkus dh blh fØ;k ij cy dh voèkkj.kk
vk/kfjr gSA vc ge cy osQ fo"k; esa fopkj djrs
gSaA ;g D;k gS\ okLro esa cy dks u rks fdlh us
ns[kk gS] u p[kk gS vkSj u gh eglwl fd;k gSA
gkyk¡fd cy dk izHkko ge Ikzk;% ns[krs ;k eglwl
djrs gSaA fdlh oLrq ij cy yxkus ij D;k gksrk gS]
;g tkudj ge cy dh O;k[;k dj ldrs gSaA oLrq
dks [khapuk] /osQyuk ;k Bksdj yxkuk] ;s lHkh
fØ;k,¡ oLrq dks xfr nsus dh ;qfDr;k¡ gSa (fp=k 9-1)A
gekjs }kjk fdlh rjg dk cy yxkus ij gh muesa
xfr gksrh gSA
cy rFkk xfr osQ fu;e
(Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion) (Force and Laws of Motion)
vè;k; 9
(a) /osQyus ij VªkWyh] yxk, x, cy dh
fn'kk esa xfr djrh gSA
(c) gkWdh fLVd ls xsan dks vkxs dh vksj Bksdj yxkrs gSaA
(b) njkt dks [khapk tkrk gSA
fp=k 9.1: oLrqvksa dks /osQydj] [khapdj ;k Bksdj yxkdj
mudh xfr dh voLFkk dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA
fiNyh d{kkvksa esa vftZr Kku osQ vk/kj Ikj
vki bl ckr ls ifjfpr gSa fd fdlh oLrq esa osx
dk ifjek.k cnyus (vFkkZr~ oLrq dh xfr dks rs”k
;k /heh djus) osQ fy, ;k mldh xfr dh fn'kk
cnyus osQ fy, cy dk Ikz;ksx gksrk gSA vki ;g Hkh
tkurs gSa fd fdlh cy osQ Ikz;ksx }kjk oLrq
dk vkdkj ;k vko`Qfr Hkh cnyh tk ldrh gS
(fp=k 9-2)A
(a)
(b)
fp=k 9.2: (a) cy yxkus ij fLizax iSQyrh gSA
(b) cy yxkus ij xksykdkj xsan vaMkdkj gks
tkrh gSA
9.1 larqfyr vkSj vlarqfyr cy
fp=k 9-3 esa ydM+h dk ,d fiaM ,d lery est
ij j[kk gSA fp=k esa n'kkZ, vuqlkj] nks /kxs X vkSj
Y fiaM osQ foijhr fljkas ls tqM+s gSaA vxj ge fdlh
cy }kjk /kxs X dks [khaprs gSa] rks fiaM nkfguh vksj
f[klduk 'kq: djrk gSA mlh izdkj vxj ge /kxs
Y dks [khaprs gSa] rks fiaM ckb± vksj f[klduk 'kq:
djrk gSA ysfdu vxj fiaM dks nksuksa vksj ls leku
cy }kjk [khapk tkrk gS] rks ,slh n'kk esa fiaM xfr
ugha djrkA bl rjg osQ cyksa dks larqfyr cy dgrs
gSa rFkk ;g xfr dh voLFkk dks ifjofrZr ugha
djrkA vc ,d ,slh voLFkk dh dYiuk djsa]
ftlesa fHkUu ifjek.k osQ nks foijhr cy fiaM dks
[khaprs gSaA bl voLFkk esa] fiaM vf/d cy okyh
fn'kk esa f[klduk 'kq: djsxkA bl izdkj nksuksa cy
larqfyr ugha gSa vkSj vlarqfyr cy fiaM osQ f[kldus
dh fn'kk esa dk;Z djrk gSA blls ;g irk pyrk gS
fd fdlh Hkh fiaM ij yxus okyk vlarqfyr cy
mls xfr iznku djrk gSA
(a)(b) (c)
fp=k 9.4
fp=k 9.3: ydM+h osQ ,d fiaM ij yxs nks cy
D;k gksrk gS tc oqQN cPps ,d cDls dks
[kqjnjs i
+
Q'kZ ij /osQyus dh dksf'k'k djrs gSa\ ;fn
os de cy osQ lkFk cDls dks /osQyrs gSa] rks cDlk
ugha f[kldrk gS] D;ksafd ?k"kZ.k cy /osQyus dh
foijhr fn'kk esa dke dj jgk gS ¹fp=k 9-4-(a)ºA
;g ?k"kZ.k cy nksuksa laioZQ lrgksa osQ chp esa mRiUu
gksrk gS vFkkZr~ cDls osQ uhps dh lrg rFkk i
+
Q'kZ dh
[kqjnjh lrg osQ chpA ;g ?k"kZ.k cy] èkosQyus esa
yxs cy dks larqfyr djrk gS vkSj ;gh dkj.k gS
fd cDlk ugha f[kldrk gSA fp=k 9-4(b) esa cPps
cDls dks ”kksj ls /osQyrs gSa ysfdu cDlk fiQj Hkh
cy rFkk xfr osQ fu;e
127
foKku
128
ugha f[kldrk gSA ,slk blfy, gS D;ksafd ?k"kZ.k cy
vHkh Hkh /osQyus okys cy dks larqfyr dj jgk gSA
vxj cPps cDls dks ”;knk ”kksj ls èkosQyrs gSa rc
èkosQyus okyk cy ?k"kZ.k cy ls vfèkd gks tkrk gS
¹fp=k 9-4(c)ºA ;gk¡ vlarqfyr cy dk;Z djrk gS]
blfy, cDlk f[kldus yxrk gSA
tc ge lkbfdy pykrs gSa] rks D;k gksrk gS\
iSMy pykuk can djus ij lkbfdy dh xfr /heh
gksus yxrh gSA ,slk blfy, gksrk gS] D;ksafd ?k"kZ.k cy
xfr dh fn'kk osQ foijhr fn'kk esa dk;Z djrk gSA
lkbfdy dks xfr esa j[kus osQ fy, gesa fiQj ls iSMy
pykuk iM+rk gSA bl voLFkk esa ,slk izrhr gksrk gS
fd fdlh oLrq dks lrr~ xfr'khy cuk, j[kus osQ
fy, ,d vlarqfyr cy dh vko';drk gSA rFkkfi
og fcyoqQy xyr gSA dksbZ oLrq leku osx osQ lkFk
osQoy rHkh xfr'khy jg ldrh gS] tc ml ij yxus
okyk cy (cká rFkk ?k"kZ.k) larqfyr gksrs gSa rFkk
oLrq ij dksbZ usV cká cy dk;Z ugha djrk gSA vxj
fdlh oLrq ij vlarqfyr cy yxk;k tkrk gS] rks
mlosQ osx esa ifjorZu ;k mldh fn'kk esa ifjorZu
gksrk gSA bl izdkj fdlh oLrq dks Rofjr djus osQ
fy, ,d vlarqfyr cy dh vko';drk gksrh gS vkSj
mldh xfr ;k xfr dh fn'kk esa rc rd ifjorZu
gksrk jgsxk tc rd ;g larqfyr cy ml ij dk;Z
djrk jgsxkA rFkkfi] ;g cy gVk ysus ij] oLrq izkIr
gq, osx ls xfreku jgsxhA
9.2 Xkfr dk izFke fu;e
oLrqvksa dh fdlh vkur ry ij xfr dks ns[kdj
xSyhfy;ks us ;g fu"d"kZ fudkyk fd tc rd dksbZ
cká cy dk;Z ugha djrk] oLrq,¡ ,d fuf'pr xfr
ls pyrh gSaA mUgksaus ns[kk fd dk¡p dh xksyh vkur
ry ij yq<+drh gS rks mldk osx c<+ tkrk gS ¹fp=k
9-4(a)ºA vxys vè;k; esa vki Ik<+saxs fd xksyh
vlarqfyr xq#Roh; cy osQ dkj.k uhps fxjrh gS
vkSj uhps igq¡prs&igq¡prs ;g ,d fuf'pr osx izkIr
dj ysrh gSA fp=k 9-5(b) esa n'kkZ, vuqlkj] tc ;g
dk¡p dh xksyh Åij dh vksj p<+rh gS rc bldk
osx ?kVrk gSA fp=k 9-5(c) esa nksuksa vksj ls ,d
vkn'kZ ?k"kZ.kjfgr vkur ry ij ,d xksyh fLFkj gSA
xSyhfy;ks us roZQ fn;k fd tc xksyh dks ckb± vksj
ls NksM+k tkrk gS rc ;g <ky ij uhps dh vksj
yq<+osQxh rFkk nkb± vksj osQ vkur ry ij mruh gh
Å¡pkbZ rd tk,xh] ftruh Å¡pkbZ ls mls NksM+k x;k
FkkA ;fn nksuksa vksj osQ ryksa osQ >qdko leku gSa rks
xksyh mruh gh nwjh p<+sxh ftruh nwj rd fd og
yq<+dh FkhA vxj nkb± vksj osQ vkur ry osQ dks.k
dks /hjs&/hjs de fd;k tk, rks xksyh dks ewy
Å¡pkbZ izkIr djus osQ fy, vf/d nwjh r; djuh
gksxhA vxj bl ry dks {kSfrt dj fn;k tk,
(vFkkZr~ <ky dks 'kwU; dj fn;k tk,) rks xksyh ewy
Å¡apkbZ izkIr djus osQ fy, {kSfrt ry ij yxkrkj
pyrh gh jgsxhA ;gk¡ xksyh ij yxus okyk vlarqfyr
cy 'kwU; gSA bl izdkj ;g Kkr gksrk gS fd xksyh
dh xfr dks cnyus osQ fy, ,d vlarqfyr cká
cy dh vko';drk gksrh gS ysfdu xksyh dh xfr
fp=k 9.5: (a) fdlh dk¡p dh xksyh dk vkur ry ij uhps
dh vksj yq<+duk_ (b)  xksyh dh mQij dh vksj
xfr_ rFkk (c) dk¡p dh xksyh dh f}&vkur ry
ij xfr
cy rFkk xfr osQ fu;e
129
dks ,d:i cuk, j[kus osQ fy, fdlh usV cy dh
vko';drk ugha gksrh gSA okLrfod voLFkk esa 'kwU;
vlarqfyr cká cy izkIr djuk dfBu gSA ,slk xfr
dh foijhr fn'kk esa yxus okys ?k"kZ.k cy osQ dkj.k
gksrk gSA bl izdkj O;ogkj esa xksyh oqQN nwj pyus osQ
ckn #d tkrh gSA ?k"kZ.k osQ izHkko dks U;wure djus
osQ fy, fpduh dk¡p dh xksyh rFkk fpdus lery
dk Ikz;ksx ,oa lery dh lrg ij fpdukbZ;qDr inkFkZ
(yqczhosaQV) dk ysi fd;k tkrk gSA
U;wVu us cy ,oa xfr osQ ckjs esa xSyhfy;ks osQ
fopkjksa dks vkxs fodflr fd;kA mUgksaus rhu ekSfyd
fu;eksa dks izLrqr fd;k tks fdlh oLrq dh xfr dks
of.kZr djrs gSaA bu fu;eksa dks U;wVu osQ xfr osQ
fu;eksa osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA xfr dk izFke
fu;e bl izdkj gS%
izR;sd oLrq viuh fLFkj voLFkk ;k ljy js[kk
esa ,dleku xfr dh voLFkk esa cuh jgrh gS tc
rd fd ml ij dksbZ ckgjh cy dk;Zjr u gksA
nwljs 'kCnksa esa] lHkh oLrq,¡ viuh xfr dh voLFkk
esa ifjorZu dk fojks/ djrh gSaA xq.kkRed :Ik esa
fdlh oLrq osQ fojkekoLFkk esa jgus ;k leku osx ls
xfr'khy jgus dh izo`fÙk dks tM+Ro dgrs gSaA ;gh
dkj.k gS fd xfr osQ igys fu;e dks tM+Ro dk
fu;e Hkh dgrs gSaA
xSyhfy;ks xSfyyh dk tUe 15
iQjojh lu~ 1564 esa bVyh osQ
ihlk 'kgj esa gqvk FkkA xSyhfy;ks
dh cpiu ls gh xf.kr rFkk
izko`Qfrd n'kZu esa #fp FkhA
ijarq firk fousatks xSfyyh] mUgsa
,d fpfdRld  cukuk pkgrs
FksA rnuqlkj xSyhfy;ks us lu~
1581 esa fpfdRlk mikf/ osQ fy, ihlk
fo'ofo|ky; esa ukekadu fy;kA bl ikB~;ozQe
dks os dHkh iwjk ugha dj ik, D;ksafd mudh
okLrfod #fp xf.kr esa FkhA lu~ 1586 esa mUgksaus
viuh izFke oSKkfudh iqLrd ^n fyfVy cSysal*
(yk oSysaflVk) fy[kh] ftlesa mUgksaus ,d rqyk
}kjk inkFkks± osQ vkisf{kd ?kuRo (vFkok fof'k"V
xq#Ro) izkIr djus dh vkoQhZfeMh”k dh fof/
dk o.kZu fd;kA lu~ 1589 esa mUgksaus viuh
fuca/ Js.kh ^Mh ekSV~* esa ur lery osQ iz;ksx ls]
fdlh fxjrh gqbZ oLrq osQ fxjus dh nj de gksus
lacaèkh vius fl¼kar dks izLrqr fd;kA
lu~ 1592 esa mUgsa osful x.kjkT; osQ ikMqvk
fo'ofo|ky; esa xf.kr osQ izksisQlj in ij fu;qDr
fd;k x;k FkkA ;gk¡ Hkh mUgksaus yxkrkj xfrt
fl¼karksa ij izs{k.k fd;kA mUgksaus ur lery rFkk
yksyd laca/h vius vè;;u }kjk fu;r Roj.k ls
xfr'khy oLrqvksa ls lacaf/r ifj"o`Qr fu;e
izfrikfnr fd;kA
xSyhfy;ks ,d oqQ'ky f'kYidkj Hkh FksA mUgksaus
fofHkUu izdkj osQ nwjnf'kZ;ksa dh Js.kh fodflr
dh ftudh izdkf'kd n{krk ml le; miyC/
nwjnf'kZ;ksa ls dkiQh mÙke FkhA lu~ 1640 osQ
vkl&ikl mUgksaus izFke yksyd ?kM+h dh lajpuk
dhA muosQ [kxksyh; vkfo"dkjksa dh ,d iqLrd
^LVkjh eSlsatj* esa xSyhfy;ks us panzek ij igkM+ksa]
NksVs&NksVs flrkjksa ls feydj cuh vkdk'kxaxk rFkk
c`gLifr xzg osQ ifjr% pkj NksVs fiaMksa dks ?kwers gq,
ns[kus dk nkok fd;kA mUgksaus viuh iqLrdksa ^fMLdkslZ
vkWu ÝyksfVax ckWMh”k* rFkk ^ysVlZ vkWu fn lu
LikWV* esa lw;Z ij mifLFkr /Ccksa osQ lanHkZ esa vius
izs{k.kksa dk jgL;ksn~?kkVu fd;kA
vius Lo;a osQ }kjk fufeZr nwjnf'kZ;ksa osQ iz;ksx
}kjk 'kfu rFkk 'kqozQ xzg osQ fujh{k.k ls xSyhfy;ks
us ;g roZQ fn;k fd lHkh xzg lw;Z osQ ifjr% gh
d{kh; xfr djrs gSa u fd i`Foh osQ ifjr% ;g
fopkj ml le; izpfyr fopkj/kjk osQ foijhr FkkA
xSyhfy;ks xSfyyh
(1564 – 1642)
foKku
130
• ,d vU; xksVh (;k LVªkbdj) dks viuh vaxqfy;ksa
ls rhozrk ls {kSfrt >Vdk nsdj <sjh dh lcls
uhps okyh xksVh ij Vdjkb,A ;fn vki xksVh
dks Ik;kZIr rhozrk ls Vdjkrs gSa rks vki ns[ksaxs
fd osQoy uhps okyh xksVh gh 'kh?kzrk ls <sjh
ls ckgj vkrh gSA uhps okyh xksVh osQ ckgj vk
tkus osQ ckn 'ks"k xksfV;k¡ vius tM+Ro osQ dkj.k
yacor~ fn'kk esa uhps dh vksj ^fxj* tkrh gaSA
fdlh eksVj xkM+h esa ;k=kk djrs le; gksus okys
vuqHkoksa dh O;k[;k tM+Ro osQ fu;e }kjk dh tk
ldrh gSA lhV osQ lkis{k ge rc rd fojkekOkLFkk esa
jgrs gSa tc rd fd eksVjxkM+h dks jksdus osQ fy, czsd
u yxkbZ tk,A czsd yxk, tkus ij xkM+h osQ lkFk lhV
Hkh fojkekoLFkk esa vk tkrh gS] ijarq gekjk 'kjhj
tM+Ro osQ dkj.k xfrt voLFkk esa gh cus jgus dh
izo`fÙk j[krk gSA vpkud czsd yxus ij lhV osQ vkxs
yxs iSuy ls Vdjkdj ge ?kk;y Hkh gks ldrs gSaA bl
rjg dh nq?kZVukvksa ls cpus osQ fy, lqj{kk csYV dk
mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;s lqj{kk csYV gekjs vkxs c<+us
dh xfr dks /hek djrh gSA blosQ foijhr vuqHko
gesa rc gksrk gS tc ge eksVj cl eas [kM+s gksrs gSa ,oa
eksVj cl vpkud py iM+rh gSA bl fLFkfr esa ge
ihNs dh vksj >qd tkrs gSaA ,slk blfy, gksrk gS]
D;ksafd eksVj cl osQ vpkud xfr esa vk tkus ls
gekjk iSj] tks eksVj cl osQ i
+
Q'kZ osQ laioZQ esa jgrk
gS] xfr esa vk tkrk gSA ijarq 'kjhj dk Åijh Hkkx
tM+Ro osQ dkj.k bl xfr dk fojks/ djrk gSA
tc dksbZ eksVjdkj rhoz xfr osQ lkFk fdlh
rh{.k eksM+ ij eqM+rh gS rks ge ,d vksj >qdus
yxrs gSaA bls Hkh tM+Ro osQ fu;e ls le>k tk
ldrk gSA gekjk 'kjhj viuh ,d ljy js[kh; xfr
dks cuk, j[kuk pkgrk gSA tc eksVj dkj dh fn'kk
dks cnyus osQ fy, batu }kjk ,d vlarqfyr cy
yxk;k tkrk gS rc ge vius 'kjhj osQ tM+Ro osQ
dkj.k lhV ij ,d vksj >qd tkrs gSaA
,d oLrq rc rd viuh fojkekoLFkk esa jgsxh
tc rd fd ml ij dksbZ vlarqfyr cy ugha yxk gSA
bls fuEu xfrfof/ }kjk iznf'kZr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
fØ;kdyki _____________ 9.1
• fp=k 9-6 esa n'kkZ, vuqlkj ,d gh rjg dh
oSQje dh xksfV;ksa dks ,d osQ Åij ,d j[kdj
<sjh cuk,¡A
fØ;kdyki _____________ 9.2
• dk¡p osQ ,d [kkyh fxykl osQ Åij ,d dM+s
rk'k dk iÙkk j[ksaA
• vc fp=k 9-7 esa n'kkZ, vuqlkj iÙks osQ Åij
ik¡p #Ik;s dk ,d flDdk j[ksaA iÙks dks vaxqfy;ksa
ls rhoz {kSfrt >Vdk nsaA
• vki ik,¡xs fd iÙkk vkxs f[kld tkrk gS rFkk
flDdk vius tM+Ro osQ dkj.k uhps dh vksj
fxykl esa fxj tkrk gSA ,slk blfy, gksrk gS
D;ksafd iÙks osQ gVus osQ ckn Hkh flDdk viuh
fojkekoLFkk dks cuk, j[kuk pkgrk gSA
fp=k 9.6:fdlh rhoz xfr dh oSQje dh xksVh (;k
LVªkbdj) ls Vdjk dj <sjh osQ lcls uhps
okyh xksVh gh <sjh ls ckgj vkrh gSA
fp=k 9.7: vaxqyh ls rk'k osQ iÙks dks >Vdk nsus ij iÙks osQ
mQij j[kk flDdk uhps dh vksj fxykl esa fxj
tkrk gSA
fØ;kdyki _____________ 9.3
• ikuh ls Hkjk fxykl fdlh Vªs ij jf[k,A
• Vªs dks gkFk ls idM+dj ftruh rsth ls gks
losQ] ?kwe tkb,A
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