NCERT Textbook - भक्ति-सूफी परंपराए Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - भक्ति-सूफी परंपराए Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


140
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
vè;k; pkj esa geus i<+k fd izFke lgÏkCnh osQ eè; rd
vkrs&vkrs Hkkjrh; miegk}hi dk ifjos'k èkkfeZd bekjrksa µ Lrwi]
fogkj vkSj eafnjksa esa fpfÉr gks x;kA ;fn ;g bekjrsa fdlh fo'ks"k
èkkfeZd fo'oklksa vkSj vkpj.kksa dk izrhd gSa] ogha vU; èkkfeZd
fo'oklksa dk iqu£uekZ.k ge lkfgfR;d ijaijk tSls iqjk.kksa osQ vkèkkj
ij Hkh dj ldrs gSa ftudk orZeku Lo:i yxHkx mlh le;
cuuk vkjaHk gks x;k FkkA blosQ vykok ,sls èkkfeZd fo'okl Hkh
gSa tks lkfgfR;d vkSj n`f"Vd nksuksa gh nLrkos”kksa esa vR;ar èkwfey gSaA
bl dky osQ uwru lkfgfR;d Ïksrksa esa lar dfo;ksa dh jpuk,¡ gSa
ftuesa mUgksaus tulkèkkj.k dh {ks=kh; Hkk"kkvksa esa ekSf[kd :i ls vius
dks O;Dr fd;k FkkA ;g jpuk,¡ tks vfèkdrj laxhrc¼ gSa larksa osQ
vuq;kf;;ksa }kjk mudh e`R;q osQ mijkar ladfyr dh xb±A ;s ijaijk,¡
izokgeku Fkhaµvuq;kf;;ksa dh dbZ ihf<+;ksa us ewy lans'k dk u osQoy
foLrkj fd;k vfirq mu fopkjksa dks] tks fHkUu jktuhfrd] lkekftd
vkSj lkaLo`Qfrd lanHkZ esa lafnXèk o vuko';d yxs] mUgsa ;k rks
ifjofrZr dj fn;k vFkok R;kx fn;kA bu Ïksrksa dk ewY;kadu
bfrgkldkjksa osQ fy, ,d pqukSrh gSA
bfrgkldkj bu lar dfo;ksa osQ vuq;kf;;ksa (tks muosQ laiznk;
ls Fks) }kjk fy[kh xbZ mudh thofu;ksa dk Hkh bLrseky djrs gSaA
gkyk¡fd ;g thofu;k¡ v{kj'k% lR; ugha gSa rFkkfi buls ;g Kkr
gksrk gS fd vuq;k;h bu iFk&izn'kZd L=kh iq#"kksa osQ thou dks fdl
rjg ls ns[krs FksA
tSlkfd ge ns[ksaxs fd ;s Ïksr ,d fozQ;kRed vkSj fofoèk n`';
;kstuk dks le>us dh varnZ`f"V iznku djrs gSaA vkb, vc ge
blosQ oqQN ewy rRoksa dks ckjhdh ls ns[krs gSaA
HkfDr&lwI
+
kQh ijaijk,¡
èkkfeZd fo'oklksa esa cnyko vkSj J¼k xzaFk
(yxHkx vkBoha ls vBkjgoha lnh rd )
fp=k 6-1
ef.kDopDdkj dh ckjgoha 'krkCnh dh dkaL; ewfrZA ;s f'ko osQ vuq;k;h Fks
vkSj rfey esa HkfDrxku dh jpuk djrs FksA
fo"k;
N%
Page 2


140
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
vè;k; pkj esa geus i<+k fd izFke lgÏkCnh osQ eè; rd
vkrs&vkrs Hkkjrh; miegk}hi dk ifjos'k èkkfeZd bekjrksa µ Lrwi]
fogkj vkSj eafnjksa esa fpfÉr gks x;kA ;fn ;g bekjrsa fdlh fo'ks"k
èkkfeZd fo'oklksa vkSj vkpj.kksa dk izrhd gSa] ogha vU; èkkfeZd
fo'oklksa dk iqu£uekZ.k ge lkfgfR;d ijaijk tSls iqjk.kksa osQ vkèkkj
ij Hkh dj ldrs gSa ftudk orZeku Lo:i yxHkx mlh le;
cuuk vkjaHk gks x;k FkkA blosQ vykok ,sls èkkfeZd fo'okl Hkh
gSa tks lkfgfR;d vkSj n`f"Vd nksuksa gh nLrkos”kksa esa vR;ar èkwfey gSaA
bl dky osQ uwru lkfgfR;d Ïksrksa esa lar dfo;ksa dh jpuk,¡ gSa
ftuesa mUgksaus tulkèkkj.k dh {ks=kh; Hkk"kkvksa esa ekSf[kd :i ls vius
dks O;Dr fd;k FkkA ;g jpuk,¡ tks vfèkdrj laxhrc¼ gSa larksa osQ
vuq;kf;;ksa }kjk mudh e`R;q osQ mijkar ladfyr dh xb±A ;s ijaijk,¡
izokgeku Fkhaµvuq;kf;;ksa dh dbZ ihf<+;ksa us ewy lans'k dk u osQoy
foLrkj fd;k vfirq mu fopkjksa dks] tks fHkUu jktuhfrd] lkekftd
vkSj lkaLo`Qfrd lanHkZ esa lafnXèk o vuko';d yxs] mUgsa ;k rks
ifjofrZr dj fn;k vFkok R;kx fn;kA bu Ïksrksa dk ewY;kadu
bfrgkldkjksa osQ fy, ,d pqukSrh gSA
bfrgkldkj bu lar dfo;ksa osQ vuq;kf;;ksa (tks muosQ laiznk;
ls Fks) }kjk fy[kh xbZ mudh thofu;ksa dk Hkh bLrseky djrs gSaA
gkyk¡fd ;g thofu;k¡ v{kj'k% lR; ugha gSa rFkkfi buls ;g Kkr
gksrk gS fd vuq;k;h bu iFk&izn'kZd L=kh iq#"kksa osQ thou dks fdl
rjg ls ns[krs FksA
tSlkfd ge ns[ksaxs fd ;s Ïksr ,d fozQ;kRed vkSj fofoèk n`';
;kstuk dks le>us dh varnZ`f"V iznku djrs gSaA vkb, vc ge
blosQ oqQN ewy rRoksa dks ckjhdh ls ns[krs gSaA
HkfDr&lwI
+
kQh ijaijk,¡
èkkfeZd fo'oklksa esa cnyko vkSj J¼k xzaFk
(yxHkx vkBoha ls vBkjgoha lnh rd )
fp=k 6-1
ef.kDopDdkj dh ckjgoha 'krkCnh dh dkaL; ewfrZA ;s f'ko osQ vuq;k;h Fks
vkSj rfey esa HkfDrxku dh jpuk djrs FksA
fo"k;
N%
141
HkfDr&lwI
+
kQh ijaijk,¡
¶egku¸ vkSj ¶y?kq¸ ijaijk,¡
¶egku¸ vkSj ¶y?kq¸ tSls 'kCn chloha
'krkCnh osQ lekt'kkL=kh jkcVZ jsMiQhYM
}kjk ,d o`Q"kd lekt osQ lkaLo`Qfrd
vkpj.kksa dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, eqfnzr
fd, x,A bl lekt'kkL=kh us ns[kk fd
fdlku mu deZdkaMksa vkSj i¼fr;ksa dk
vuqdj.k djrs Fks ftudk lekt osQ
izHkqRo'kkyh oxZ tSls iqjksfgr vkSj jktk }kjk
ikyu fd;k tkrk FkkA bu deZdkaMksa dks
jsMiQhYM us ¶egku¸ ijaijk dh laKk nhA
lkFk gh o`Q"kd leqnk; vU; yksdkpkjksa dk
Hkh ikyu djrs Fks tks bl egku ifjikVh ls
loZFkk fHkUu FksA mlus bUgsa ¶y?kq¸ ijaijk
osQ uke ls vfHkfgr fd;kA jsMiQhYM us
;g Hkh ns[kk fd egku vkSj y?kq nksuksa gh
ijaijkvksa esa le; osQ lkFk gq, ikjLifjd
vknku&iznku osQ dkj.k ifjorZu gq,A
gkyk¡fd fo}ku bu izfozQ;kvksa vkSj
oxhZdj.k osQ egRo ls budkj ugha djrs
rFkkfi os bu 'kCnksa esa tks inlksikukRed
Loj mHkj dj vkrk gS mldh voekuuk
djrs gSaA bls yf{kr djus dk ,d rjhdk
gS bu 'kCnksa dks m¼j.k fpÉ osQ lkFk
izLrqr djuk tSls ¶y?kq¸ vkSj ¶egku¸A
1- èkkfeZd fo'oklksa vkSj vkpj.kksa dh
   xaxk&tequh cukoV
laHkor% bl dky dh lcls izHkkoh fof'k"Vrk ;g gS fd lkfgR; vkSj
ewfrZdyk nksuksa esa gh vusd rjg osQ nsoh&nsork vfèkdkfèkd n`f"Vxr
gksrs gSaA ,d Lrj ij ;g rF; bl ckr dk |ksrd gS fd fo".kq] f'ko
vkSj nsoh] ftUgsa vusd :iksa esa O;Dr fd;k x;k Fkk] dh vkjkèkuk dh
ifjikVh u osQoy pyrh jgh vfirq vkSj vfèkd foLr`r gqbZA
1-1 iwtk iz.kkfy;ksa dk leUo;
os bfrgkldkj tks bl fodkl dks le>us dk iz;kl djrs gSa] mudk
lq>ko gS fd ;gk¡ de ls de nks izfozQ;k,¡ dk;Zjr FkhaA ,d izfozQ;k
czkã.kh; fopkjèkkjk osQ izpkj dh FkhA bldk izlkj ikSjkf.kd xzaFkksa dh
jpuk] ladyu vkSj ifjj{k.k }kjk gqvkA ;s xzaFk ljy laLo`Qr Nanksa esa
Fks tks oSfnd fo|k ls foghu fL=k;ksa vkSj 'kwnzksa }kjk Hkh xzkg~; FksA blh
dky dh ,d vU; izfozQ;k Fkh L=kh] 'kwnzksa o vU; lkekftd oxks± dh
vkLFkkvksa vkSj vkpj.kksa dks czkã.kksa }kjk Loho`Qr fd;k tkuk vkSj mls
,d u;k :i iznku djukA oLrqr% lekt'kkfL=k;ksa dk ;g ekuuk gS fd
lewps miegk}hi esa vusd èkkfeZd fopkjèkkjk,¡ vkSj i¼fr;k¡ ¶egku¸
laLo`Qr&ikSjkf.kd ifjikVh rFkk ¶y?kq¸ ijaijk osQ chp gq, vfojy
laokn dk ifj.kke gSaA
bl izfozQ;k dk lcls fof'k"V mnkgj.k iqjh] mM+hlk esa feyrk gS
tgk¡ eq[; nsork dks ckjgoha 'krkCnh rd vkrs&vkrs txUukFk
('kkfCnd vFkZ esa laiw.kZ fo'o dk Lokeh)] fo".kq osQ ,d Lo:i osQ
:i esa izLrqr fd;k x;kA
fp=k 6-2
;g vko`Qfr (nkfgus) txUukFk dh gS tks
viuh cgu lqHknzk (eè;) vkSj HkkbZ cyjke
(ck,¡) osQ lkFk gSaA
Page 3


140
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
vè;k; pkj esa geus i<+k fd izFke lgÏkCnh osQ eè; rd
vkrs&vkrs Hkkjrh; miegk}hi dk ifjos'k èkkfeZd bekjrksa µ Lrwi]
fogkj vkSj eafnjksa esa fpfÉr gks x;kA ;fn ;g bekjrsa fdlh fo'ks"k
èkkfeZd fo'oklksa vkSj vkpj.kksa dk izrhd gSa] ogha vU; èkkfeZd
fo'oklksa dk iqu£uekZ.k ge lkfgfR;d ijaijk tSls iqjk.kksa osQ vkèkkj
ij Hkh dj ldrs gSa ftudk orZeku Lo:i yxHkx mlh le;
cuuk vkjaHk gks x;k FkkA blosQ vykok ,sls èkkfeZd fo'okl Hkh
gSa tks lkfgfR;d vkSj n`f"Vd nksuksa gh nLrkos”kksa esa vR;ar èkwfey gSaA
bl dky osQ uwru lkfgfR;d Ïksrksa esa lar dfo;ksa dh jpuk,¡ gSa
ftuesa mUgksaus tulkèkkj.k dh {ks=kh; Hkk"kkvksa esa ekSf[kd :i ls vius
dks O;Dr fd;k FkkA ;g jpuk,¡ tks vfèkdrj laxhrc¼ gSa larksa osQ
vuq;kf;;ksa }kjk mudh e`R;q osQ mijkar ladfyr dh xb±A ;s ijaijk,¡
izokgeku Fkhaµvuq;kf;;ksa dh dbZ ihf<+;ksa us ewy lans'k dk u osQoy
foLrkj fd;k vfirq mu fopkjksa dks] tks fHkUu jktuhfrd] lkekftd
vkSj lkaLo`Qfrd lanHkZ esa lafnXèk o vuko';d yxs] mUgsa ;k rks
ifjofrZr dj fn;k vFkok R;kx fn;kA bu Ïksrksa dk ewY;kadu
bfrgkldkjksa osQ fy, ,d pqukSrh gSA
bfrgkldkj bu lar dfo;ksa osQ vuq;kf;;ksa (tks muosQ laiznk;
ls Fks) }kjk fy[kh xbZ mudh thofu;ksa dk Hkh bLrseky djrs gSaA
gkyk¡fd ;g thofu;k¡ v{kj'k% lR; ugha gSa rFkkfi buls ;g Kkr
gksrk gS fd vuq;k;h bu iFk&izn'kZd L=kh iq#"kksa osQ thou dks fdl
rjg ls ns[krs FksA
tSlkfd ge ns[ksaxs fd ;s Ïksr ,d fozQ;kRed vkSj fofoèk n`';
;kstuk dks le>us dh varnZ`f"V iznku djrs gSaA vkb, vc ge
blosQ oqQN ewy rRoksa dks ckjhdh ls ns[krs gSaA
HkfDr&lwI
+
kQh ijaijk,¡
èkkfeZd fo'oklksa esa cnyko vkSj J¼k xzaFk
(yxHkx vkBoha ls vBkjgoha lnh rd )
fp=k 6-1
ef.kDopDdkj dh ckjgoha 'krkCnh dh dkaL; ewfrZA ;s f'ko osQ vuq;k;h Fks
vkSj rfey esa HkfDrxku dh jpuk djrs FksA
fo"k;
N%
141
HkfDr&lwI
+
kQh ijaijk,¡
¶egku¸ vkSj ¶y?kq¸ ijaijk,¡
¶egku¸ vkSj ¶y?kq¸ tSls 'kCn chloha
'krkCnh osQ lekt'kkL=kh jkcVZ jsMiQhYM
}kjk ,d o`Q"kd lekt osQ lkaLo`Qfrd
vkpj.kksa dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, eqfnzr
fd, x,A bl lekt'kkL=kh us ns[kk fd
fdlku mu deZdkaMksa vkSj i¼fr;ksa dk
vuqdj.k djrs Fks ftudk lekt osQ
izHkqRo'kkyh oxZ tSls iqjksfgr vkSj jktk }kjk
ikyu fd;k tkrk FkkA bu deZdkaMksa dks
jsMiQhYM us ¶egku¸ ijaijk dh laKk nhA
lkFk gh o`Q"kd leqnk; vU; yksdkpkjksa dk
Hkh ikyu djrs Fks tks bl egku ifjikVh ls
loZFkk fHkUu FksA mlus bUgsa ¶y?kq¸ ijaijk
osQ uke ls vfHkfgr fd;kA jsMiQhYM us
;g Hkh ns[kk fd egku vkSj y?kq nksuksa gh
ijaijkvksa esa le; osQ lkFk gq, ikjLifjd
vknku&iznku osQ dkj.k ifjorZu gq,A
gkyk¡fd fo}ku bu izfozQ;kvksa vkSj
oxhZdj.k osQ egRo ls budkj ugha djrs
rFkkfi os bu 'kCnksa esa tks inlksikukRed
Loj mHkj dj vkrk gS mldh voekuuk
djrs gSaA bls yf{kr djus dk ,d rjhdk
gS bu 'kCnksa dks m¼j.k fpÉ osQ lkFk
izLrqr djuk tSls ¶y?kq¸ vkSj ¶egku¸A
1- èkkfeZd fo'oklksa vkSj vkpj.kksa dh
   xaxk&tequh cukoV
laHkor% bl dky dh lcls izHkkoh fof'k"Vrk ;g gS fd lkfgR; vkSj
ewfrZdyk nksuksa esa gh vusd rjg osQ nsoh&nsork vfèkdkfèkd n`f"Vxr
gksrs gSaA ,d Lrj ij ;g rF; bl ckr dk |ksrd gS fd fo".kq] f'ko
vkSj nsoh] ftUgsa vusd :iksa esa O;Dr fd;k x;k Fkk] dh vkjkèkuk dh
ifjikVh u osQoy pyrh jgh vfirq vkSj vfèkd foLr`r gqbZA
1-1 iwtk iz.kkfy;ksa dk leUo;
os bfrgkldkj tks bl fodkl dks le>us dk iz;kl djrs gSa] mudk
lq>ko gS fd ;gk¡ de ls de nks izfozQ;k,¡ dk;Zjr FkhaA ,d izfozQ;k
czkã.kh; fopkjèkkjk osQ izpkj dh FkhA bldk izlkj ikSjkf.kd xzaFkksa dh
jpuk] ladyu vkSj ifjj{k.k }kjk gqvkA ;s xzaFk ljy laLo`Qr Nanksa esa
Fks tks oSfnd fo|k ls foghu fL=k;ksa vkSj 'kwnzksa }kjk Hkh xzkg~; FksA blh
dky dh ,d vU; izfozQ;k Fkh L=kh] 'kwnzksa o vU; lkekftd oxks± dh
vkLFkkvksa vkSj vkpj.kksa dks czkã.kksa }kjk Loho`Qr fd;k tkuk vkSj mls
,d u;k :i iznku djukA oLrqr% lekt'kkfL=k;ksa dk ;g ekuuk gS fd
lewps miegk}hi esa vusd èkkfeZd fopkjèkkjk,¡ vkSj i¼fr;k¡ ¶egku¸
laLo`Qr&ikSjkf.kd ifjikVh rFkk ¶y?kq¸ ijaijk osQ chp gq, vfojy
laokn dk ifj.kke gSaA
bl izfozQ;k dk lcls fof'k"V mnkgj.k iqjh] mM+hlk esa feyrk gS
tgk¡ eq[; nsork dks ckjgoha 'krkCnh rd vkrs&vkrs txUukFk
('kkfCnd vFkZ esa laiw.kZ fo'o dk Lokeh)] fo".kq osQ ,d Lo:i osQ
:i esa izLrqr fd;k x;kA
fp=k 6-2
;g vko`Qfr (nkfgus) txUukFk dh gS tks
viuh cgu lqHknzk (eè;) vkSj HkkbZ cyjke
(ck,¡) osQ lkFk gSaA
142
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
;fn fp=k 6-2 dh fp=k 4-26 (vè;k; pkj) ls rqyuk dh tk,
rks ge ns[ksaxs fd nsork dks cgqr fHkUu rjhosQ ls izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA
bl mnkgj.k esa ,d LFkkuh; nsork dks ftldh izfrek dks igys vkSj
vkt Hkh ydM+h ls LFkkuh; tutkfr osQ fo'ks"kKksa }kjk x<+k tkrk gS]
fo".kq osQ :i esa izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA fo".kq dk ;g :i ns'k osQ vU;
Hkkxksa esa feyus okys Lo:iksa ls loZFkk fHkUu FkkA
leUo; osQ ,sls mnkgj.k nsoh laiznk;ksa esa Hkh feyrs gSaA nsoh
dh mikluk vfèkdrj flanwj ls iksrs x, iRFkj osQ :i esa gh dh
tkrh FkhA bu LFkkuh; nsfo;ksa dks ikSjkf.kd ijaijk osQ Hkhrj eq[;
nsorkvksa dh iRuh osQ :i esa ekU;rk nh xbZµdHkh og y{eh osQ
:i esa fo".kq dh iRuh cuha vkSj dHkh f'ko dh iRuh ikoZrh osQ
:i esa lkeus vkb±A
1-2 Hksn vkSj la?k"kZ
vfèkdk'kar% nsoh dh vkjkèkuk i¼fr dks rkaf=kd uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA
rkaf=kd iwtk i¼fr miegk}hi osQ dbZ Hkkxksa esa izpfyr FkhµblosQ
varxZr L=kh vkSj iq#"k nksuksa gh 'kkfey gks ldrs FksA blosQ vfrfjDr
deZdkaMh; lanHkZ esa oxZ vkSj o.kZ osQ Hksn dh vogsyuk dh tkrh FkhA
bl i¼fr osQ fopkjksa us 'kSo vkSj ckS¼ n'kZu dks Hkh izHkkfor fd;k
[kklrkSj ls miegk}hi osQ iwohZ] mÙkjh vkSj nf{k.kh Hkkxksa esaA vkxkeh
lgÏkCnh esa bu leLr fo'oklksa vkSj vkpkjksa dk oxhZdj.k ¶¯gnw¸ osQ
:i esa gqvkA ;fn ge oSfnd vkSj ikSjkf.kd ijaijk osQ chp rqyuk djsa
rks ;g fo"kerk vkSj vfèkd Li"V :i ls mHkj dj vkrh gSA oSfnd
nsooqQy osQ vfXu] banz vkSj lkse tSls nsork iwjh rjg xkS.k gks x, vkSj
lkfgR; o ewfrZdyk nksuksa esa gh mudk fu:i.k ugha fn[krkA gkyk¡fd
oSfnd ea=kksa esa fo".kq] f'ko vkSj nsoh dh >yd feyrh gS] bldh
rqyuk buosQ fo'kn] ikSjkf.kd feFkdksa ls dnkfi ugha dh tk ldrhA
¯drq bu vlaxfr;ksa osQ ckotwn osnksa dks izkekf.kd ekuk tkrk jgkA
blesa dksbZ vk'p;Z dh ckr ugha fd dHkh la?k"kZ dh fLFkfr Hkh
mRiUu gks tkrh FkhA oSfnd ifjikVh osQ iz'kald mu lHkh vkpkjksa dh
fuank djrs Fks tks bZ'oj dh mikluk osQ fy, ea=kksa osQ mPpkj.k osQ lkFk
;Kksa osQ laiknu ls ijs FksA blosQ foijhr] os yksx Fks tks rkaf=kd
vkjkèkuk esa yxs Fks vkSj oSfnd lÙkk dh vogsyuk djrs FksA blosQ
vykok HkDr vius b"Vnso fo".kq ;k f'ko dks Hkh dbZ ckj loksZPp
iz{ksfir djrs FksA vU; ijaijkvksa tSls ckS¼ vFkok tSu èkeZ ls Hkh lacaèk
vdlj rukoiw.kZ gks tkrs FksA ;|fi Li"V }a} de fn[kkbZ iM+rs FksA
fp=k 6-3
ckS¼ nsoh] ekfjph dh ewfrZ (yxHkx nloha
'krkCnh] fcgkj)A ;g fofHkUu /kfeZd fo'oklksa
vkSj fØ;kdykiksa osQ ,dhdj.k dh izfØ;k
dk mnkgj.k izLrqr djrh gSA
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

video lectures

,

mock tests for examination

,

NCERT Textbook - भक्ति-सूफी परंपराए Notes | EduRev

,

past year papers

,

Important questions

,

ppt

,

study material

,

Extra Questions

,

Objective type Questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Semester Notes

,

practice quizzes

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

NCERT Textbook - भक्ति-सूफी परंपराए Notes | EduRev

,

pdf

,

NCERT Textbook - भक्ति-सूफी परंपराए Notes | EduRev

,

Exam

,

Summary

,

Sample Paper

,

Free

,

MCQs

,

Viva Questions

;