NCERT Textbook - महात्मा गाँधी और राष्ट्रीय आंदोलन Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - महात्मा गाँधी और राष्ट्रीय आंदोलन Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


346 Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
fp=k 13-1
ekpZ 1930 esa ued ;k=kk 'kq: djus ls iwoZ lkcjerh unh osQ fdukjs vius vkJe osQ fudV leFkZdksa ls ckr djrs egkRek xk¡èkhA
jk"Vªokn osQ bfrgkl esa izk;% ,d vosQys O;fDRk dks jk"Vª&fuekZ.k osQ lkFk tksM+dj ns[kk
tkrk gSA mnkgj.k osQ fy,] ge bVyh osQ fuekZ.k osQ lkFk xSjhckYMh dks] vesfjdh Lora=krk
;q¼ osQ lkFk tkWtZ ok¯'kxVu dks vkSj fo;ruke dks vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu ls eqDr djkus
osQ la?k"kZ ls gks ph feUg dks tksM+dj ns[krs gSaA blh rjg egkRek xk¡èkh dks Hkkjrh; jk"Vª
dk ^firk* ekuk x;k gSA
pw¡fd xk¡èkh th Lora=krk la?k"kZ eas Hkkx ysus okys lHkh usrkvksa esa lokZfèkd izHkko'kkyh vkSj
lEekfur gSa vr% mUgsa fn;k x;k mi;qZDr fo'ks"k.k xyr ugha gSA gkyk¡fd] ok¯'kxVu vFkok
gks ph feUg dh rjg egkREkk xk¡èkh dk jktuhfrd thou&o`Ùk ml lekt us gh l¡okjk vkSj
fu;af=kr fd;k] ftl lekt esa os jgrs FksA dksbZ O;fDr pkgs fdruk gh egku D;ksa u gks
og u osQoy bfrgkl cukrk gS cfYd Lo;a Hkh bfrgkl }kjk cuk;k tkrk gSA
bl vè;k; esa 1915&1948 osQ egÙoiw.kZ dky osQ nkSjku Hkkjr esa xk¡èkh th dh
xfrfofèk;ksa dk fo'ys"k.k fd;k x;k gSA ;g Hkkjrh; lekt osQ fofHkUu fgLlksa osQ lkFk
muosQ laidks± vkSj muosQ }kjk izsfjr rFkk usr`Ro fd, x, yksdfiz; la?k"kks± dh Nku&chu
djrk gSA ;g vè;k; fo|kFkhZ osQ le{k mu vyx&vyx izdkj osQ Ïksrksa dks Hkh j[krk
gS ftudk bLrseky] bfrgkldkj ,d usrk osQ thou&o`Ùk rFkk og ftu lkekftd
vkanksyuksa ls tqM+k jgk gS] osQ iqufuZekZ.k esa djrs gSaA
egkRek xk¡èkh vkSj jk"Vªh; vkanksyu
lfou; voKk vkSj mlls vkxs
vè;k;
rsjg
Page 2


346 Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
fp=k 13-1
ekpZ 1930 esa ued ;k=kk 'kq: djus ls iwoZ lkcjerh unh osQ fdukjs vius vkJe osQ fudV leFkZdksa ls ckr djrs egkRek xk¡èkhA
jk"Vªokn osQ bfrgkl esa izk;% ,d vosQys O;fDRk dks jk"Vª&fuekZ.k osQ lkFk tksM+dj ns[kk
tkrk gSA mnkgj.k osQ fy,] ge bVyh osQ fuekZ.k osQ lkFk xSjhckYMh dks] vesfjdh Lora=krk
;q¼ osQ lkFk tkWtZ ok¯'kxVu dks vkSj fo;ruke dks vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu ls eqDr djkus
osQ la?k"kZ ls gks ph feUg dks tksM+dj ns[krs gSaA blh rjg egkRek xk¡èkh dks Hkkjrh; jk"Vª
dk ^firk* ekuk x;k gSA
pw¡fd xk¡èkh th Lora=krk la?k"kZ eas Hkkx ysus okys lHkh usrkvksa esa lokZfèkd izHkko'kkyh vkSj
lEekfur gSa vr% mUgsa fn;k x;k mi;qZDr fo'ks"k.k xyr ugha gSA gkyk¡fd] ok¯'kxVu vFkok
gks ph feUg dh rjg egkREkk xk¡èkh dk jktuhfrd thou&o`Ùk ml lekt us gh l¡okjk vkSj
fu;af=kr fd;k] ftl lekt esa os jgrs FksA dksbZ O;fDr pkgs fdruk gh egku D;ksa u gks
og u osQoy bfrgkl cukrk gS cfYd Lo;a Hkh bfrgkl }kjk cuk;k tkrk gSA
bl vè;k; esa 1915&1948 osQ egÙoiw.kZ dky osQ nkSjku Hkkjr esa xk¡èkh th dh
xfrfofèk;ksa dk fo'ys"k.k fd;k x;k gSA ;g Hkkjrh; lekt osQ fofHkUu fgLlksa osQ lkFk
muosQ laidks± vkSj muosQ }kjk izsfjr rFkk usr`Ro fd, x, yksdfiz; la?k"kks± dh Nku&chu
djrk gSA ;g vè;k; fo|kFkhZ osQ le{k mu vyx&vyx izdkj osQ Ïksrksa dks Hkh j[krk
gS ftudk bLrseky] bfrgkldkj ,d usrk osQ thou&o`Ùk rFkk og ftu lkekftd
vkanksyuksa ls tqM+k jgk gS] osQ iqufuZekZ.k esa djrs gSaA
egkRek xk¡èkh vkSj jk"Vªh; vkanksyu
lfou; voKk vkSj mlls vkxs
vè;k;
rsjg
347 egkRek xk¡èkh vkSj jk"Vªh; vkanksyu
1- Lo;a dh mn~?kks"k.kk djrk ,d usrk
eksgunkl djepan xk¡èkh fons'k esa nks n'kd jgus osQ ckn tuojh
1915 esa viuh x`gHkwfe okil vk,A bu o"kks± dk vfèkdka'k fgLlk
mUgksaus nf{k.k viz+Qhdk esa fcrk;kA ;gk¡ os ,d odhy osQ :i esa x,
Fks vkSj ckn esa os bl {ks=k osQ Hkkjrh; leqnk; osQ usrk cu x,A
tSlkfd bfrgkldkj panzu nsouslu us fVIi.kh dh gS fd nf{k.k
viz+Qhdk us gh xk¡èkh th dks ^egkRek* cuk;kA nf{k.k viz+Qhdk esa gh
egkRek xk¡èkh us igyh ckj lR;kxzg osQ :i esa tkuh xbZ vfgalkRed
fojksèk dh viuh fof'k"V rduhd dk bLrseky fd;k] fofHkUu èkeks±
osQ chp lkSgknZ c<+kus dk iz;kl fd;k rFkk mPp tkrh; Hkkjrh;ksa dks
fuEu tkfr;ksa vkSj efgykvksa osQ izfr HksnHkko okys O;ogkj osQ fy,
psrkouh nhA
1915 esa tc egkRek xk¡èkh Hkkjr vk, rks ml le; dk Hkkjr
1893 esa tc os ;gk¡ ls x, Fks rc osQ le; ls vis{kko`Qr fHkUu FkkA
;|fi ;g vHkh Hkh ,d fczfV'k mifuos'k Fkk ysfdu vc ;g
jktuhfrd n`f"V ls dgha vfèkd lfozQ; gks x;k FkkA vfèkdka'k izeq[k
'kgjksa vkSj dLcksa esa vc Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxzsl dh 'kk[kk,¡ FkhaA
1905&07 osQ Lons'kh vkanksyu osQ ekè;e ls blus O;kid :i ls
eè; oxks± osQ chp viuh vihy dk foLrkj dj fy;k FkkA bl
vkanksyu us oqQN izeq[k usrkvksa dks tUe fn;k] ftuesa egkjk"Vª osQ cky
xaxkèkj fryd] caxky osQ fofiu paanz iky vkSj iatkc osQ ykyk
yktir jk; gSaA ;s rhuksa ^yky] cky vkSj iky* osQ :i esa tkus tkrs
FksA bu rhuksa dk ;g tksM+ muosQ la?k"kZ osQ vf[ky
Hkkjrh; pfj=k dh lwpuk nsrk Fkk D;ksafd rhuksa osQ
ewy fuokl {ks=k ,d nwljs ls cgqr nwj FksA bu
usrkvksa us tgk¡ vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu osQ izfr yM+kowQ
fojksèk dk leFkZu fd;k ogha ^mnkjokfn;ksa* dk
,d lewg Fkk tks ,d ozQfed o yxkrkj iz;kl
djrs jgus osQ fopkj dk fgek;rh FkkA bu mnkjokfn;ksa
esa xk¡èkh th osQ ekU; jktuhfrd ijke'kZnkrk xksiky
o`Q".k xks[kys osQ lkFk gh eksgEen vyh ftUuk Fks]
tks xk¡èkh th dh gh rjg xqtjkrh ewy osQ yanu esa
izf'kf{kr odhy FksA
xks[kys us xk¡èkh th dks ,d o"kZ rd fczfV'k
Hkkjr dh ;k=kk djus dh lykg nh ftlls fd os
bl Hkwfe vkSj blosQ yksxksa dks tku losaQA mudh
fp=k 13-2
nf{k.k vizQhdk osQ tksgsUlcX
+
kZ esa egkRek
xk¡èkh] iQjojh 1908
Page 3


346 Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
fp=k 13-1
ekpZ 1930 esa ued ;k=kk 'kq: djus ls iwoZ lkcjerh unh osQ fdukjs vius vkJe osQ fudV leFkZdksa ls ckr djrs egkRek xk¡èkhA
jk"Vªokn osQ bfrgkl esa izk;% ,d vosQys O;fDRk dks jk"Vª&fuekZ.k osQ lkFk tksM+dj ns[kk
tkrk gSA mnkgj.k osQ fy,] ge bVyh osQ fuekZ.k osQ lkFk xSjhckYMh dks] vesfjdh Lora=krk
;q¼ osQ lkFk tkWtZ ok¯'kxVu dks vkSj fo;ruke dks vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu ls eqDr djkus
osQ la?k"kZ ls gks ph feUg dks tksM+dj ns[krs gSaA blh rjg egkRek xk¡èkh dks Hkkjrh; jk"Vª
dk ^firk* ekuk x;k gSA
pw¡fd xk¡èkh th Lora=krk la?k"kZ eas Hkkx ysus okys lHkh usrkvksa esa lokZfèkd izHkko'kkyh vkSj
lEekfur gSa vr% mUgsa fn;k x;k mi;qZDr fo'ks"k.k xyr ugha gSA gkyk¡fd] ok¯'kxVu vFkok
gks ph feUg dh rjg egkREkk xk¡èkh dk jktuhfrd thou&o`Ùk ml lekt us gh l¡okjk vkSj
fu;af=kr fd;k] ftl lekt esa os jgrs FksA dksbZ O;fDr pkgs fdruk gh egku D;ksa u gks
og u osQoy bfrgkl cukrk gS cfYd Lo;a Hkh bfrgkl }kjk cuk;k tkrk gSA
bl vè;k; esa 1915&1948 osQ egÙoiw.kZ dky osQ nkSjku Hkkjr esa xk¡èkh th dh
xfrfofèk;ksa dk fo'ys"k.k fd;k x;k gSA ;g Hkkjrh; lekt osQ fofHkUu fgLlksa osQ lkFk
muosQ laidks± vkSj muosQ }kjk izsfjr rFkk usr`Ro fd, x, yksdfiz; la?k"kks± dh Nku&chu
djrk gSA ;g vè;k; fo|kFkhZ osQ le{k mu vyx&vyx izdkj osQ Ïksrksa dks Hkh j[krk
gS ftudk bLrseky] bfrgkldkj ,d usrk osQ thou&o`Ùk rFkk og ftu lkekftd
vkanksyuksa ls tqM+k jgk gS] osQ iqufuZekZ.k esa djrs gSaA
egkRek xk¡èkh vkSj jk"Vªh; vkanksyu
lfou; voKk vkSj mlls vkxs
vè;k;
rsjg
347 egkRek xk¡èkh vkSj jk"Vªh; vkanksyu
1- Lo;a dh mn~?kks"k.kk djrk ,d usrk
eksgunkl djepan xk¡èkh fons'k esa nks n'kd jgus osQ ckn tuojh
1915 esa viuh x`gHkwfe okil vk,A bu o"kks± dk vfèkdka'k fgLlk
mUgksaus nf{k.k viz+Qhdk esa fcrk;kA ;gk¡ os ,d odhy osQ :i esa x,
Fks vkSj ckn esa os bl {ks=k osQ Hkkjrh; leqnk; osQ usrk cu x,A
tSlkfd bfrgkldkj panzu nsouslu us fVIi.kh dh gS fd nf{k.k
viz+Qhdk us gh xk¡èkh th dks ^egkRek* cuk;kA nf{k.k viz+Qhdk esa gh
egkRek xk¡èkh us igyh ckj lR;kxzg osQ :i esa tkuh xbZ vfgalkRed
fojksèk dh viuh fof'k"V rduhd dk bLrseky fd;k] fofHkUu èkeks±
osQ chp lkSgknZ c<+kus dk iz;kl fd;k rFkk mPp tkrh; Hkkjrh;ksa dks
fuEu tkfr;ksa vkSj efgykvksa osQ izfr HksnHkko okys O;ogkj osQ fy,
psrkouh nhA
1915 esa tc egkRek xk¡èkh Hkkjr vk, rks ml le; dk Hkkjr
1893 esa tc os ;gk¡ ls x, Fks rc osQ le; ls vis{kko`Qr fHkUu FkkA
;|fi ;g vHkh Hkh ,d fczfV'k mifuos'k Fkk ysfdu vc ;g
jktuhfrd n`f"V ls dgha vfèkd lfozQ; gks x;k FkkA vfèkdka'k izeq[k
'kgjksa vkSj dLcksa esa vc Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxzsl dh 'kk[kk,¡ FkhaA
1905&07 osQ Lons'kh vkanksyu osQ ekè;e ls blus O;kid :i ls
eè; oxks± osQ chp viuh vihy dk foLrkj dj fy;k FkkA bl
vkanksyu us oqQN izeq[k usrkvksa dks tUe fn;k] ftuesa egkjk"Vª osQ cky
xaxkèkj fryd] caxky osQ fofiu paanz iky vkSj iatkc osQ ykyk
yktir jk; gSaA ;s rhuksa ^yky] cky vkSj iky* osQ :i esa tkus tkrs
FksA bu rhuksa dk ;g tksM+ muosQ la?k"kZ osQ vf[ky
Hkkjrh; pfj=k dh lwpuk nsrk Fkk D;ksafd rhuksa osQ
ewy fuokl {ks=k ,d nwljs ls cgqr nwj FksA bu
usrkvksa us tgk¡ vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu osQ izfr yM+kowQ
fojksèk dk leFkZu fd;k ogha ^mnkjokfn;ksa* dk
,d lewg Fkk tks ,d ozQfed o yxkrkj iz;kl
djrs jgus osQ fopkj dk fgek;rh FkkA bu mnkjokfn;ksa
esa xk¡èkh th osQ ekU; jktuhfrd ijke'kZnkrk xksiky
o`Q".k xks[kys osQ lkFk gh eksgEen vyh ftUuk Fks]
tks xk¡èkh th dh gh rjg xqtjkrh ewy osQ yanu esa
izf'kf{kr odhy FksA
xks[kys us xk¡èkh th dks ,d o"kZ rd fczfV'k
Hkkjr dh ;k=kk djus dh lykg nh ftlls fd os
bl Hkwfe vkSj blosQ yksxksa dks tku losaQA mudh
fp=k 13-2
nf{k.k vizQhdk osQ tksgsUlcX
+
kZ esa egkRek
xk¡èkh] iQjojh 1908
348 Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
igyh egÙoiw.kZ lkoZtfud mifLFkfr iQjojh 1916 esa cukjl ¯gnw
fo'ofo|ky; osQ mn~?kkVu lekjksg esa gqbZA bl lekjksg esa vkeaf=kr
O;fDr;ksa esa os jktk vkSj ekuoizseh Fks ftuosQ }kjk fn, x, nku us
cukjl ¯gnw fo'ofo|ky; dh LFkkiuk esa ;ksxnku fn;kA lekjksg esa
,uh cslsaV tSls dkaxzsl osQ oqQN egÙoiw.kZ usrk Hkh mifLFkr FksA bu
izfrf"BRk O;fDRk;ksa dh rqyuk esa xk¡èkh th vis{kko`Qr vKkr FksA mUgsa
;gk¡ Hkkjr osQ vanj mudh izfr"Bk osQ dkj.k ugha cfYd nf{k.k
vizQhdk esa muosQ }kjk fd, x, dk;Z osQ vkèkkj ij vkeaf=kr fd;k
x;k FkkA
tc xk¡èkh th dh cksyus dh ckjh vkbZ rks mUgksaus e”knwj xjhcksa dh
vksj è;ku u nsus osQ dkj.k Hkkjrh; fof'k"V oxZ dks vkM+s gkFkksa fy;kA
mUgksaus dgk fd cukjl fganw fo'ofo|ky; dh LFkkiuk ^fu'p; gh
vR;ar 'kkunkj* gS ¯oQrq mUgksaus ogk¡ èkuh o lts&l¡ojs Hknztuksa dh
mifLFkfr vkSj ^yk[kksa xjhc* Hkkjrh;ksa dh vuqifLFkfr osQ chp dh
fo"kerk ij viuh fpark izoQV dhA xk¡èkh th us fo'ks"k lqfoèkk izkIr
vkeaf=krksa ls dgk fd ^Hkkjr osQ fy, eqfDRk rc rd laHko ugha gS tc
rd fd vki vius dks bu vyadj.kksa ls eqDRk u dj ysa vkSj bUgsa
Hkkjr osQ vius georuksa dh HkykbZ esa u yxk nsa*A os dgrs x, fd]
^gekjs fy, Lo'kklu dk rc rd dksbZ vfHkizk; ugha gS tc rd ge
fdlkuksa ls muosQ Je dk yxHkx lEiw.kZ ykHk Lo;a vFkok vU; yksxksa
dks ys ysus dh vuqefr nsrs jgsaxsA gekjh eqfDRk osQoy fdlkuksa osQ
ekè;e ls gh gks ldrh gSA u rks odhy] u MkWDVj] u gh ”kehankj
bls lqjf{kr j[k ldrs gSaA* cukjl ¯gnw fo'ofo|ky; dh LFkkiuk
,d mRlo dk volj Fkk D;ksafd
;g Hkkjrh; èku vkSj Hkkjrh; iz;klksa
ls laHko ,d jk"Vªoknh fo'ofo|ky;
dh LFkkiuk dk |ksrd FkkA ysfdu
xk¡èkh th us Lo;a dks cèkkbZ nsus osQ
lqj esa lqj feykus dh vis{kk yksxksa
dks mu fdlkuksa vkSj dkexkjksa dh
;kn fnykuk pquk tks Hkkjrh; tula[;k
osQ vfèkla[; fgLls dk fuekZ.k
djus osQ ckotwn ogk¡ Jksrkvksa esa
vuqifLFkr FksA
,d n`f"V ls iQjojh 1916 esa
cukjl esa xk¡èkh th dk Hkk"k.k ek=k
okLrfod rF; dk gh mn~?kkVu Fkk
fp=k 13-3
djkaph esa egkRek xk¡èkh] ekpZ 1916
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