NCERT Textbook - महासागरों और महाद्वीपों का वितरण Notes | EduRev

भूगोल (Geography) for UPSC Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - महासागरों और महाद्वीपों का वितरण Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


egklkxjksa vkSj egk}hiksa dk forj.k
vè;k;
Nys vè;k; esa vkius HkwxHkZ osQ fo"k; esa i<+kA
vki lalkj osQ ekufp=k ls Hkh ifjfpr gSaA vki
tkurs gSa fd i`Foh osQ 29 izfr'kr Hkkx ij egk}hi vkSj
ckdh ij egklkxj iSQys gq, gSaA egk}hiksa vkSj egklkxjksa
dh vofLFkfr] tSlkfd vkt ekufp=k ij fn[kkbZ nsrh gS]
ges'kk ls ,slh ugha jgh gSA blosQ vfrfjDr] ;g Hkh
,d rF; gS fd vkus okys le; esa Hkh egk}hi o
egklkxjksa dh fLFkfr vkt tSlh ugha jgsxhA vxj ,slk
gS rks iz'u ;g gS fd iqjkdky esa budh vofLFkfr oSQlh
Fkh\ budh vofLFkfr esa ifjorZu D;ksa vkSj oSQls gksrk
gS\ ;fn ;g lp gS fd egk}hiksa vkSj egklkxjksa dh
vofLFkfr esa ifjorZu gqvk gS vkSj vHkh Hkh gks jgk gS]
rks vki ;g tkudj vk'p;Zpfdr gksaxs fd oSKkfud
;g lc oSQls tkurs gSa\ mUgksaus bu egk}hiksa ,oa
egklkxjksa dh igys dh fLFkfr dk fu/kZj.k oSQls fd;k
gksxk\ bUgha iz'uksa osQ mÙkj vkSj buls lacaf/r iz'u gh
bl vè;k; dk fo"k; gSaA
egk}hih; izokg (Continental drift)
vVykafVd egklkxjh; rVjs[kk dh vko`Qfr dks è;ku ls
ns[ksaA bl egklkxj osQ nksuksa rjiQ dh rVjs[kk esa
vk'p;Ztud lefefr (Symmetry) gSA blh lekurk
osQ dkj.k cgqr ls oSKkfudksa us nf{k.kh o mÙkjh vesfjdk
rFkk ;wjksi o vizQhdk osQ ,d lkFk tqM+s gksus dh
laHkkouk dks O;Dr fd;kA foKku osQ bfrgkl osQ Kkr
vfHkys[kksa ls irk pyrk gS fd lu~ 1596 esa ,d Mp
ekufp=kosÙkk vczkge vkWjVsfy;l (Abraham
Ortelius) us loZizFke bl laHkkouk dks O;Dr fd;k
FkkA ,UVksfu;ks iSysXjhuh (Antonio Pellegrini) us
,d ekufp=k cuk;k] ftlesa rhuksa egk}hiksa dks bdêòk
fn[kk;k x;k FkkA teZu ekSlefon vYizsQM osxuj (Alfred
wegner) us ¶egk}hih; foLFkkiu fl¼kar¸ lu~ 1912
esa izLrkfor fd;kA ;g fl¼kar egk}hi ,oa egklkxjksa
osQ forj.k ls gh lacaf/r FkkA
bl fl¼kar dh vk/kjHkwr ladYiuk ;g Fkh fd
lHkh egk}hi ,d vosQys Hkw[kaM esa tqM+s gq, FksA osxuj
osQ vuqlkj vkt osQ lHkh egk}hi bl Hkw[kaM osQ Hkkx
Fks rFkk ;g ,d cM+s egklkxj ls f?kjk gqvk FkkA mUgksaus
bl cM+s egk}hi dks iSaft;k (Pangaea) dk uke
fn;kA iSaft;k dk vFkZ gS& laiw.kZ i`FohA fo'kky egklkxj
dks iSaFkkyklk (Panthalassa) dgk] ftldk vFkZ gS&
ty gh tyA osxuj osQ roZQ osQ vuqlkj yxHkx 20
djksM+ o"kZ igys bl cM+s egk}hi iSaft;k dk foHkktu
vkjaHk gqvkA iSaft;k igys nks cM+s egk}hih; fiaMksa ykjsf'k;k
(Laurasia) vkSj xksaMokukySaM (Gondwanaland)
ozQe'k% mÙkjh o nf{k.kh Hkw[kaMksa osQ :i esa foHkDr gqvkA
blosQ ckn ykjsf'k;k o xksMokukySaM /hjs&/hjs vusd
NksVs fgLlksa esa c¡V x,] tks vkt osQ egk}hi osQ :i gSaA
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ i{k esa vusd izek.k Hkh izLrqr
fd, x, gSa] buesa ls oqQN bl izdkj gSaA
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ i{k esa izek.k (Evidences
in support of continental drift)
egk}hiksa esa lkE;
nf{k.k vesfjdk o vizQhdk osQ vkeus&lkeus dh rVjs[kk,¡
vn~Hkqr o =kqfVjfgr lkE; fn[kkrh gSaA ;g Hkh è;ku nsus
;ksX; gS fd 1964 bZ0 esa cqyMZ (Bullard) us ,d
fi
Page 2


egklkxjksa vkSj egk}hiksa dk forj.k
vè;k;
Nys vè;k; esa vkius HkwxHkZ osQ fo"k; esa i<+kA
vki lalkj osQ ekufp=k ls Hkh ifjfpr gSaA vki
tkurs gSa fd i`Foh osQ 29 izfr'kr Hkkx ij egk}hi vkSj
ckdh ij egklkxj iSQys gq, gSaA egk}hiksa vkSj egklkxjksa
dh vofLFkfr] tSlkfd vkt ekufp=k ij fn[kkbZ nsrh gS]
ges'kk ls ,slh ugha jgh gSA blosQ vfrfjDr] ;g Hkh
,d rF; gS fd vkus okys le; esa Hkh egk}hi o
egklkxjksa dh fLFkfr vkt tSlh ugha jgsxhA vxj ,slk
gS rks iz'u ;g gS fd iqjkdky esa budh vofLFkfr oSQlh
Fkh\ budh vofLFkfr esa ifjorZu D;ksa vkSj oSQls gksrk
gS\ ;fn ;g lp gS fd egk}hiksa vkSj egklkxjksa dh
vofLFkfr esa ifjorZu gqvk gS vkSj vHkh Hkh gks jgk gS]
rks vki ;g tkudj vk'p;Zpfdr gksaxs fd oSKkfud
;g lc oSQls tkurs gSa\ mUgksaus bu egk}hiksa ,oa
egklkxjksa dh igys dh fLFkfr dk fu/kZj.k oSQls fd;k
gksxk\ bUgha iz'uksa osQ mÙkj vkSj buls lacaf/r iz'u gh
bl vè;k; dk fo"k; gSaA
egk}hih; izokg (Continental drift)
vVykafVd egklkxjh; rVjs[kk dh vko`Qfr dks è;ku ls
ns[ksaA bl egklkxj osQ nksuksa rjiQ dh rVjs[kk esa
vk'p;Ztud lefefr (Symmetry) gSA blh lekurk
osQ dkj.k cgqr ls oSKkfudksa us nf{k.kh o mÙkjh vesfjdk
rFkk ;wjksi o vizQhdk osQ ,d lkFk tqM+s gksus dh
laHkkouk dks O;Dr fd;kA foKku osQ bfrgkl osQ Kkr
vfHkys[kksa ls irk pyrk gS fd lu~ 1596 esa ,d Mp
ekufp=kosÙkk vczkge vkWjVsfy;l (Abraham
Ortelius) us loZizFke bl laHkkouk dks O;Dr fd;k
FkkA ,UVksfu;ks iSysXjhuh (Antonio Pellegrini) us
,d ekufp=k cuk;k] ftlesa rhuksa egk}hiksa dks bdêòk
fn[kk;k x;k FkkA teZu ekSlefon vYizsQM osxuj (Alfred
wegner) us ¶egk}hih; foLFkkiu fl¼kar¸ lu~ 1912
esa izLrkfor fd;kA ;g fl¼kar egk}hi ,oa egklkxjksa
osQ forj.k ls gh lacaf/r FkkA
bl fl¼kar dh vk/kjHkwr ladYiuk ;g Fkh fd
lHkh egk}hi ,d vosQys Hkw[kaM esa tqM+s gq, FksA osxuj
osQ vuqlkj vkt osQ lHkh egk}hi bl Hkw[kaM osQ Hkkx
Fks rFkk ;g ,d cM+s egklkxj ls f?kjk gqvk FkkA mUgksaus
bl cM+s egk}hi dks iSaft;k (Pangaea) dk uke
fn;kA iSaft;k dk vFkZ gS& laiw.kZ i`FohA fo'kky egklkxj
dks iSaFkkyklk (Panthalassa) dgk] ftldk vFkZ gS&
ty gh tyA osxuj osQ roZQ osQ vuqlkj yxHkx 20
djksM+ o"kZ igys bl cM+s egk}hi iSaft;k dk foHkktu
vkjaHk gqvkA iSaft;k igys nks cM+s egk}hih; fiaMksa ykjsf'k;k
(Laurasia) vkSj xksaMokukySaM (Gondwanaland)
ozQe'k% mÙkjh o nf{k.kh Hkw[kaMksa osQ :i esa foHkDr gqvkA
blosQ ckn ykjsf'k;k o xksMokukySaM /hjs&/hjs vusd
NksVs fgLlksa esa c¡V x,] tks vkt osQ egk}hi osQ :i gSaA
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ i{k esa vusd izek.k Hkh izLrqr
fd, x, gSa] buesa ls oqQN bl izdkj gSaA
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ i{k esa izek.k (Evidences
in support of continental drift)
egk}hiksa esa lkE;
nf{k.k vesfjdk o vizQhdk osQ vkeus&lkeus dh rVjs[kk,¡
vn~Hkqr o =kqfVjfgr lkE; fn[kkrh gSaA ;g Hkh è;ku nsus
;ksX; gS fd 1964 bZ0 esa cqyMZ (Bullard) us ,d
fi
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
32
oaQI;wVj izksxzke dh lgk;rk ls vVykafVd rVksa dks
tksM+rs gq, ,d ekufp=k rS;kj fd;k FkkA rVksa dk ;g
lkE; fcYoqQy lgh fl¼ gqvkA lkE; fcBkus dh ;g
dksf'k'k vkt dh rVjs[kk dh vis{kk 1]000 iSQne dh
xgjkbZ dh rVjs[kk osQ lkFk dh xbZ FkhA
egklkxjksa osQ ikj pêðkuksa dh vk;q esa lekurk
vk/qfud le; esa fodflr dh xbZ jsfM;ksfefVªd dky
fu/kZj.k (Radiometric dating) fof/ ls egklkxjksa
osQ ikj egk}hiksa dh pêðkuksa osQ fuekZ.k osQ le; dks
ljyrk ls tkuk tk ldrk gSA 200 djksM+ o"kZ izkphu
'kSy lewgksa dh ,d iêðh czkthy rV vkSj if'peh
vizQhdk osQ rV ij feyrh gSa] tks vkil esa esy [kkrh
gSA nf{k.kh vesfjdk o vizQhdk dh rVjs[kk osQ lkFk
ik, tkus okys vkjafHkd leqnzh fu{ksi tqjsfld dky
(Jurassic age) osQ gSaA blls ;g irk pyrk gS fd
bl le; ls igys egklkxj dh mifLFkfr ogk¡ ugha FkhA
fVykbV (Tillite)
fVykbV os volknh pêðkusa gSa] tks fgekuh fu{ksi.k ls
fufeZr gksrh gSaA Hkkjr esa ik, tkus okys xksaMokuk Js.kh
osQ ryNVksa osQ izfr:i nf{k.k xksyk¼Z osQ N% fofHkUu
LFky[kaMksa esa feyrs gSaA xksaMokuk Js.kh osQ vk/kj ry esa
?kus fVykbV gSa] tks foLr`r o yacs le; rd fgevkoj.k
;k fgekPNknu dh vksj bafxr djrs gSaA blh ozQe osQ
izfr:i Hkkjr osQ vfrfjDr vizQhdk] iQkWdySaM }hi]
eSMkxkLdj] vaVkoZQfVd vkSj vkLVªsfy;k esa feyrs gSaA
xksaMokuk Js.kh osQ ryNVksa dh ;g lekurk Li"V djrh
gS fd bu LFky[kaMksa osQ bfrgkl esa Hkh lekurk jgh gSA
fgekuh fufeZr fVykbV pêðkusa iqjkru tyok;q vkSj
egk}hiksa osQ foLFkkiu osQ Li"V izek.k izLrqr djrs gSaA
Iyslj fu{ksi (Placer deposits)
?kkuk rV ij lksus osQ cM+s fu{ksiksa dh mifLFkfr o mn~xe
pêðkuksa dh vuqifLFkfr ,d vk'p;Ztud rF; gSA
lksuk;qDr f'kjk,¡ (Gold bearing veins) czkthy esa
ikbZ tkrh gSaA vr% ;g Li"V gS fd ?kkuk esa feyus okys
lksus osQ fu{ksi czkthy iBkj ls ml le; fudys gksaxs]
tc ;s nksuksa egk}hi ,d nwljs ls tqM+s FksA
thok'eksa dk forj.k (Distribution of fossils)
;fn leqnzh vojks/d osQ nksuksa foijhr fdukjksa ij ty
o LFky esa ik, tkus okys ikS/ksa o tarqvksa dh leku
iztkfr;k¡ ikbZ tk,] rks muosQ forj.k dh O;k[;k esa
leL;k,¡ mRiUu gksrh gSaA bl izs{k.k ls fd ^ySewj*
Hkkjr] eSMkxkLdj o vizQhdk esa feyrs gSa] oqQN oSKkfudksa
us bu rhuksa LFky[kaMksa dks tksM+dj ,d lrr~ LFky[kaM
^ysewfj;k* (Lemuria) dh mifLFkfr dks LohdkjkA
eslkslkjl (Mesosaurus) uke osQ NksVs jsaxus okys
tho osQoy mFkys [kkjs ikuh esa gh jg ldrs Fks& budh
vfLFk;k¡ osQoy nf{k.k vizQhdk osQ nf{k.kh osQi izkar
vkSj czkthy esa bjkoj 'kSy lewg esa gh feyrs gSaA ;s
nksuksa LFkku vkt ,d nwljs ls 4]800 fd0eh0 dh nwjh
ij gSa vkSj buosQ chp esa ,d egklkxj fo|eku gSA
izokg laca/h cy (Force for drifting)
osxuj osQ vuqlkj egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ nks dkj.k Fks%
(1) iksyj ;k /qzoh; Ýyhbax cy (Polar fleeing
force) vkSj (2) Tokjh; cy (Tidal force)A
/qzoh; Ýyhbax cy i`Foh osQ ?kw.kZu ls lacaf/r gSA vki
tkurs gSa fd i`Foh dh vko`Qfr ,d laiw.kZ xksys tSlh
ugha gS_ oju~ ;g Hkweè;js[kk ij mHkjh gqbZ gSA ;g mHkkj
i`Foh osQ ?kw.kZu osQ dkj.k gSA nwljk cy] tks osxuj
egksn; us lq>k;k& og Tokjh; cy gS] tks lw;Z o panzek
osQ vkd"kZ.k ls laca¼ gS] ftlls egklkxjksa esa Tokj iSnk
gksrs gSaA osxuj dk ekuuk Fkk fd djksM+ksa o"kks± osQ nkSjku
;s cy izHkko'kkyh gksdj foLFkkiu osQ fy, l{ke gks
x,A ;|fi cgqr ls oSKkfud bu nksuksa gh cyksa dks
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ fy, loZFkk vi;kZIr le>rs gSaA
laogu&/kjk fl¼kar (Convectional current
theory)
1930 osQ n'kd eas vkFkZj gksEl (Arthur Holmes)
us eSaVy (Mantle) Hkkx esa laogu&/kjkvksa osQ izHkko
dh laHkkouk O;Dr dhA ;s /kjk,¡ jsfM;ks,fDVo rRoksa ls
mRiUu rki fHkUurk ls eSaVy Hkkx esa mRiUu gksrh gSaA
gksEl us roZQ fn;k fd iwjs eSaVy Hkkx esa bl izdkj dh
/kjkvksa dk ra=k fo|eku gSA ;g mu izokg cyksa dh
O;k[;k izLrqr djus dk iz;kl Fkk] ftlosQ vk/kj ij
ledkyhu oSKkfudksa us egk}hih; foLFkkiu fl¼kar dks
udkj fn;kA
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egklkxjksa vkSj egk}hiksa dk forj.k
vè;k;
Nys vè;k; esa vkius HkwxHkZ osQ fo"k; esa i<+kA
vki lalkj osQ ekufp=k ls Hkh ifjfpr gSaA vki
tkurs gSa fd i`Foh osQ 29 izfr'kr Hkkx ij egk}hi vkSj
ckdh ij egklkxj iSQys gq, gSaA egk}hiksa vkSj egklkxjksa
dh vofLFkfr] tSlkfd vkt ekufp=k ij fn[kkbZ nsrh gS]
ges'kk ls ,slh ugha jgh gSA blosQ vfrfjDr] ;g Hkh
,d rF; gS fd vkus okys le; esa Hkh egk}hi o
egklkxjksa dh fLFkfr vkt tSlh ugha jgsxhA vxj ,slk
gS rks iz'u ;g gS fd iqjkdky esa budh vofLFkfr oSQlh
Fkh\ budh vofLFkfr esa ifjorZu D;ksa vkSj oSQls gksrk
gS\ ;fn ;g lp gS fd egk}hiksa vkSj egklkxjksa dh
vofLFkfr esa ifjorZu gqvk gS vkSj vHkh Hkh gks jgk gS]
rks vki ;g tkudj vk'p;Zpfdr gksaxs fd oSKkfud
;g lc oSQls tkurs gSa\ mUgksaus bu egk}hiksa ,oa
egklkxjksa dh igys dh fLFkfr dk fu/kZj.k oSQls fd;k
gksxk\ bUgha iz'uksa osQ mÙkj vkSj buls lacaf/r iz'u gh
bl vè;k; dk fo"k; gSaA
egk}hih; izokg (Continental drift)
vVykafVd egklkxjh; rVjs[kk dh vko`Qfr dks è;ku ls
ns[ksaA bl egklkxj osQ nksuksa rjiQ dh rVjs[kk esa
vk'p;Ztud lefefr (Symmetry) gSA blh lekurk
osQ dkj.k cgqr ls oSKkfudksa us nf{k.kh o mÙkjh vesfjdk
rFkk ;wjksi o vizQhdk osQ ,d lkFk tqM+s gksus dh
laHkkouk dks O;Dr fd;kA foKku osQ bfrgkl osQ Kkr
vfHkys[kksa ls irk pyrk gS fd lu~ 1596 esa ,d Mp
ekufp=kosÙkk vczkge vkWjVsfy;l (Abraham
Ortelius) us loZizFke bl laHkkouk dks O;Dr fd;k
FkkA ,UVksfu;ks iSysXjhuh (Antonio Pellegrini) us
,d ekufp=k cuk;k] ftlesa rhuksa egk}hiksa dks bdêòk
fn[kk;k x;k FkkA teZu ekSlefon vYizsQM osxuj (Alfred
wegner) us ¶egk}hih; foLFkkiu fl¼kar¸ lu~ 1912
esa izLrkfor fd;kA ;g fl¼kar egk}hi ,oa egklkxjksa
osQ forj.k ls gh lacaf/r FkkA
bl fl¼kar dh vk/kjHkwr ladYiuk ;g Fkh fd
lHkh egk}hi ,d vosQys Hkw[kaM esa tqM+s gq, FksA osxuj
osQ vuqlkj vkt osQ lHkh egk}hi bl Hkw[kaM osQ Hkkx
Fks rFkk ;g ,d cM+s egklkxj ls f?kjk gqvk FkkA mUgksaus
bl cM+s egk}hi dks iSaft;k (Pangaea) dk uke
fn;kA iSaft;k dk vFkZ gS& laiw.kZ i`FohA fo'kky egklkxj
dks iSaFkkyklk (Panthalassa) dgk] ftldk vFkZ gS&
ty gh tyA osxuj osQ roZQ osQ vuqlkj yxHkx 20
djksM+ o"kZ igys bl cM+s egk}hi iSaft;k dk foHkktu
vkjaHk gqvkA iSaft;k igys nks cM+s egk}hih; fiaMksa ykjsf'k;k
(Laurasia) vkSj xksaMokukySaM (Gondwanaland)
ozQe'k% mÙkjh o nf{k.kh Hkw[kaMksa osQ :i esa foHkDr gqvkA
blosQ ckn ykjsf'k;k o xksMokukySaM /hjs&/hjs vusd
NksVs fgLlksa esa c¡V x,] tks vkt osQ egk}hi osQ :i gSaA
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ i{k esa vusd izek.k Hkh izLrqr
fd, x, gSa] buesa ls oqQN bl izdkj gSaA
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ i{k esa izek.k (Evidences
in support of continental drift)
egk}hiksa esa lkE;
nf{k.k vesfjdk o vizQhdk osQ vkeus&lkeus dh rVjs[kk,¡
vn~Hkqr o =kqfVjfgr lkE; fn[kkrh gSaA ;g Hkh è;ku nsus
;ksX; gS fd 1964 bZ0 esa cqyMZ (Bullard) us ,d
fi
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
32
oaQI;wVj izksxzke dh lgk;rk ls vVykafVd rVksa dks
tksM+rs gq, ,d ekufp=k rS;kj fd;k FkkA rVksa dk ;g
lkE; fcYoqQy lgh fl¼ gqvkA lkE; fcBkus dh ;g
dksf'k'k vkt dh rVjs[kk dh vis{kk 1]000 iSQne dh
xgjkbZ dh rVjs[kk osQ lkFk dh xbZ FkhA
egklkxjksa osQ ikj pêðkuksa dh vk;q esa lekurk
vk/qfud le; esa fodflr dh xbZ jsfM;ksfefVªd dky
fu/kZj.k (Radiometric dating) fof/ ls egklkxjksa
osQ ikj egk}hiksa dh pêðkuksa osQ fuekZ.k osQ le; dks
ljyrk ls tkuk tk ldrk gSA 200 djksM+ o"kZ izkphu
'kSy lewgksa dh ,d iêðh czkthy rV vkSj if'peh
vizQhdk osQ rV ij feyrh gSa] tks vkil esa esy [kkrh
gSA nf{k.kh vesfjdk o vizQhdk dh rVjs[kk osQ lkFk
ik, tkus okys vkjafHkd leqnzh fu{ksi tqjsfld dky
(Jurassic age) osQ gSaA blls ;g irk pyrk gS fd
bl le; ls igys egklkxj dh mifLFkfr ogk¡ ugha FkhA
fVykbV (Tillite)
fVykbV os volknh pêðkusa gSa] tks fgekuh fu{ksi.k ls
fufeZr gksrh gSaA Hkkjr esa ik, tkus okys xksaMokuk Js.kh
osQ ryNVksa osQ izfr:i nf{k.k xksyk¼Z osQ N% fofHkUu
LFky[kaMksa esa feyrs gSaA xksaMokuk Js.kh osQ vk/kj ry esa
?kus fVykbV gSa] tks foLr`r o yacs le; rd fgevkoj.k
;k fgekPNknu dh vksj bafxr djrs gSaA blh ozQe osQ
izfr:i Hkkjr osQ vfrfjDr vizQhdk] iQkWdySaM }hi]
eSMkxkLdj] vaVkoZQfVd vkSj vkLVªsfy;k esa feyrs gSaA
xksaMokuk Js.kh osQ ryNVksa dh ;g lekurk Li"V djrh
gS fd bu LFky[kaMksa osQ bfrgkl esa Hkh lekurk jgh gSA
fgekuh fufeZr fVykbV pêðkusa iqjkru tyok;q vkSj
egk}hiksa osQ foLFkkiu osQ Li"V izek.k izLrqr djrs gSaA
Iyslj fu{ksi (Placer deposits)
?kkuk rV ij lksus osQ cM+s fu{ksiksa dh mifLFkfr o mn~xe
pêðkuksa dh vuqifLFkfr ,d vk'p;Ztud rF; gSA
lksuk;qDr f'kjk,¡ (Gold bearing veins) czkthy esa
ikbZ tkrh gSaA vr% ;g Li"V gS fd ?kkuk esa feyus okys
lksus osQ fu{ksi czkthy iBkj ls ml le; fudys gksaxs]
tc ;s nksuksa egk}hi ,d nwljs ls tqM+s FksA
thok'eksa dk forj.k (Distribution of fossils)
;fn leqnzh vojks/d osQ nksuksa foijhr fdukjksa ij ty
o LFky esa ik, tkus okys ikS/ksa o tarqvksa dh leku
iztkfr;k¡ ikbZ tk,] rks muosQ forj.k dh O;k[;k esa
leL;k,¡ mRiUu gksrh gSaA bl izs{k.k ls fd ^ySewj*
Hkkjr] eSMkxkLdj o vizQhdk esa feyrs gSa] oqQN oSKkfudksa
us bu rhuksa LFky[kaMksa dks tksM+dj ,d lrr~ LFky[kaM
^ysewfj;k* (Lemuria) dh mifLFkfr dks LohdkjkA
eslkslkjl (Mesosaurus) uke osQ NksVs jsaxus okys
tho osQoy mFkys [kkjs ikuh esa gh jg ldrs Fks& budh
vfLFk;k¡ osQoy nf{k.k vizQhdk osQ nf{k.kh osQi izkar
vkSj czkthy esa bjkoj 'kSy lewg esa gh feyrs gSaA ;s
nksuksa LFkku vkt ,d nwljs ls 4]800 fd0eh0 dh nwjh
ij gSa vkSj buosQ chp esa ,d egklkxj fo|eku gSA
izokg laca/h cy (Force for drifting)
osxuj osQ vuqlkj egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ nks dkj.k Fks%
(1) iksyj ;k /qzoh; Ýyhbax cy (Polar fleeing
force) vkSj (2) Tokjh; cy (Tidal force)A
/qzoh; Ýyhbax cy i`Foh osQ ?kw.kZu ls lacaf/r gSA vki
tkurs gSa fd i`Foh dh vko`Qfr ,d laiw.kZ xksys tSlh
ugha gS_ oju~ ;g Hkweè;js[kk ij mHkjh gqbZ gSA ;g mHkkj
i`Foh osQ ?kw.kZu osQ dkj.k gSA nwljk cy] tks osxuj
egksn; us lq>k;k& og Tokjh; cy gS] tks lw;Z o panzek
osQ vkd"kZ.k ls laca¼ gS] ftlls egklkxjksa esa Tokj iSnk
gksrs gSaA osxuj dk ekuuk Fkk fd djksM+ksa o"kks± osQ nkSjku
;s cy izHkko'kkyh gksdj foLFkkiu osQ fy, l{ke gks
x,A ;|fi cgqr ls oSKkfud bu nksuksa gh cyksa dks
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ fy, loZFkk vi;kZIr le>rs gSaA
laogu&/kjk fl¼kar (Convectional current
theory)
1930 osQ n'kd eas vkFkZj gksEl (Arthur Holmes)
us eSaVy (Mantle) Hkkx esa laogu&/kjkvksa osQ izHkko
dh laHkkouk O;Dr dhA ;s /kjk,¡ jsfM;ks,fDVo rRoksa ls
mRiUu rki fHkUurk ls eSaVy Hkkx esa mRiUu gksrh gSaA
gksEl us roZQ fn;k fd iwjs eSaVy Hkkx esa bl izdkj dh
/kjkvksa dk ra=k fo|eku gSA ;g mu izokg cyksa dh
O;k[;k izLrqr djus dk iz;kl Fkk] ftlosQ vk/kj ij
ledkyhu oSKkfudksa us egk}hih; foLFkkiu fl¼kar dks
udkj fn;kA
egklkxjksa vkSj egk}hiksa dk forj.k
33
egklkxjh; v/Lry dk ekufp=k.k (Mapping of
the ocean floor)
egklkxjksa dh cukoV vkSj vkdkj ij foLr`r 'kks/] ;g
Li"V djrs gSa fd egklkxjksa dk v/Lry ,d foLr`r
eSnku ugha gS] oju~ mueas Hkh mPpkop ik;k tkrk gSA
;q¼ksÙkj dky (Post-war period) egklkxjh; vèkLry
osQ fu:i.k vfHk;ku us egklkxjh; mPpkop laca/h
foLr`r tkudkjh izLrqr dh vkSj ;g fn[kk;k fd blosQ
v/Lryh esa tyeXu ioZrh; dVosaQ o xgjh [kkb;k¡ gSa]
tks izk;% egk}hiksa osQ fdukjksa ij fLFkr gSaA eè; egklkxjh;
dVosaQ Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj osQ :i esa lcls vf/d lfozQ;
ik;h xbZA egklkxjh; iiZVh dh pêðkuksa osQ dky fu/kZj.k
(Dating) us ;g rF; Li"V dj fn;k fd egklkxjksa osQ
fury dh pêðkusa egk}hih; Hkkxksa esa ikbZ tkus okyh pêðkuksa
dh vis{kk uohu gSaA egklkxjh; dVd osQ nksuksa rjiQ dh
pêðkusa] tks dVd ls cjkcj nwjh ij fLFkr gSa] mu dh
vk;q o jpuk esa Hkh vk'p;Ztud lekurk ikbZ tkrh gSA
tk ldrk gSA ;s Hkkx gSa % (1) egk}hih; lhek] (2)
xgjs leqnzh csflu vkSj (3) eè;&egklkxjh; dVdA
egk}hih; lhek (Continental margins)
;s egk}hih; fdukjksa vkSj xgjs leqnzh csflu osQ chp
dk Hkkx gSA blesa egk}hih; eXurV] egk}hih; <ky]
egk}hih; mHkkj vkSj xgjh egklkxjh; [kkb;k¡ vkfn
'kkfey gSaA egklkxjksa o egk}hiksa osQ forj.k dks le>us
osQ fy, xgjh&egklkxjh; [kkb;ksa osQ {ks=k fo'ks"k egRoiw.kZ
vkSj jkspd gSaA
foryh; eSnku (Abyssal Plains)
;s foLr`r eSnku egk}hih; rVksa o eè; egklkxjh;
dVdksa osQ chp ik, tkrs gSaA foryh; eSnku] og {ks=k
gSa] tgk¡ egk}hiksa ls cgkdj yk, x, volkn buosQ rVksa
ls nwj fu{ksfir gksrs gSaA
eè; egklkxjh; dVd (Mid-oceanic ridges)
eè; egklkxjh; dVd vkil esa tqM+s gq, ioZrksa dh
,d Ük`a[kyk cukrh gSA egklkxjh; ty esa Mwch gqbZ] ;g
i`Foh osQ /jkry ij ikbZ tkus okyh laHkor% lcls yach
ioZr  Ük`a[kyk gSA bu dVdksa osQ eè;orhZ f'k[kj ij ,d
fjÝV] ,d izHkktd iBkj vkSj bldh yackbZ osQ lkFk&lkFk
ik'oZ eaMy bldh fo'ks"krk gSA eè;orhZ Hkkx esa mifLFkr
nzks.kh okLro esa lfozQ; Tokykeq[kh {ks=k gSA fiNys
vè;k; esa eè;&egklkxjh; Tokykeq[kh osQ :i esa ,sls
Tokykeqf[k;ksa dh tkudkjh nh xbZ gSA
HkwoaQi o Tokykeqf[k;ksa dk forj.k (Distribution
of earthquakes and volcanoes)
HkwoaQih; xfrfof/ vkSj Tokykeq[kh forj.k dk fn, x,
ekfup=k 4-5 (v) vkSj (c) eas vè;;u djsaA vki
vVykafVd egklkxj osQ eè;orhZ Hkkx esa] rV js[kk osQ
yxHkx lekukarj] ,d fcanq js[kk ns[ksaxsA ;g vkxs fgan
egklkxj rd tkrh gSA Hkkjrh; miegk}hi osQ FkksM+k
nf{k.k esa ;g nks Hkkxksa esa c¡V tkrh gS] ftldh ,d 'kk[kk
iwohZ vizQhdk dh vksj pyh tkrh gS vkSj nwljh e;uekj
ls gksrh gqbZ U;w fxuh ij ,d ,slh gh js[kk ls fey tkrh
egklkxjh; v/Lry dh cukoV (Ocean floor
configuration)
bl Hkkx esa ge egklkxjh; ry dh cukoV ls
lacaf/r oqQN ,sls rF;ksa dk vè;;u djsaxs] tks egklkxj
o egk}hiksa osQ forj.k dks le>us esa ennxkj gksaxsA
egklkxjh; ry dh vko`Qfr;k¡ vè;k; 13 esa foLrkj ls
of.kZr gSaA xgjkbZ o mPpkop osQ izdkj osQ vk/kj ij]
egklkxjh; ry dks rhu izeq[k Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k
fp=k 4-1 % egklkxjh; v/Lry (Ocean floor)
Page 4


egklkxjksa vkSj egk}hiksa dk forj.k
vè;k;
Nys vè;k; esa vkius HkwxHkZ osQ fo"k; esa i<+kA
vki lalkj osQ ekufp=k ls Hkh ifjfpr gSaA vki
tkurs gSa fd i`Foh osQ 29 izfr'kr Hkkx ij egk}hi vkSj
ckdh ij egklkxj iSQys gq, gSaA egk}hiksa vkSj egklkxjksa
dh vofLFkfr] tSlkfd vkt ekufp=k ij fn[kkbZ nsrh gS]
ges'kk ls ,slh ugha jgh gSA blosQ vfrfjDr] ;g Hkh
,d rF; gS fd vkus okys le; esa Hkh egk}hi o
egklkxjksa dh fLFkfr vkt tSlh ugha jgsxhA vxj ,slk
gS rks iz'u ;g gS fd iqjkdky esa budh vofLFkfr oSQlh
Fkh\ budh vofLFkfr esa ifjorZu D;ksa vkSj oSQls gksrk
gS\ ;fn ;g lp gS fd egk}hiksa vkSj egklkxjksa dh
vofLFkfr esa ifjorZu gqvk gS vkSj vHkh Hkh gks jgk gS]
rks vki ;g tkudj vk'p;Zpfdr gksaxs fd oSKkfud
;g lc oSQls tkurs gSa\ mUgksaus bu egk}hiksa ,oa
egklkxjksa dh igys dh fLFkfr dk fu/kZj.k oSQls fd;k
gksxk\ bUgha iz'uksa osQ mÙkj vkSj buls lacaf/r iz'u gh
bl vè;k; dk fo"k; gSaA
egk}hih; izokg (Continental drift)
vVykafVd egklkxjh; rVjs[kk dh vko`Qfr dks è;ku ls
ns[ksaA bl egklkxj osQ nksuksa rjiQ dh rVjs[kk esa
vk'p;Ztud lefefr (Symmetry) gSA blh lekurk
osQ dkj.k cgqr ls oSKkfudksa us nf{k.kh o mÙkjh vesfjdk
rFkk ;wjksi o vizQhdk osQ ,d lkFk tqM+s gksus dh
laHkkouk dks O;Dr fd;kA foKku osQ bfrgkl osQ Kkr
vfHkys[kksa ls irk pyrk gS fd lu~ 1596 esa ,d Mp
ekufp=kosÙkk vczkge vkWjVsfy;l (Abraham
Ortelius) us loZizFke bl laHkkouk dks O;Dr fd;k
FkkA ,UVksfu;ks iSysXjhuh (Antonio Pellegrini) us
,d ekufp=k cuk;k] ftlesa rhuksa egk}hiksa dks bdêòk
fn[kk;k x;k FkkA teZu ekSlefon vYizsQM osxuj (Alfred
wegner) us ¶egk}hih; foLFkkiu fl¼kar¸ lu~ 1912
esa izLrkfor fd;kA ;g fl¼kar egk}hi ,oa egklkxjksa
osQ forj.k ls gh lacaf/r FkkA
bl fl¼kar dh vk/kjHkwr ladYiuk ;g Fkh fd
lHkh egk}hi ,d vosQys Hkw[kaM esa tqM+s gq, FksA osxuj
osQ vuqlkj vkt osQ lHkh egk}hi bl Hkw[kaM osQ Hkkx
Fks rFkk ;g ,d cM+s egklkxj ls f?kjk gqvk FkkA mUgksaus
bl cM+s egk}hi dks iSaft;k (Pangaea) dk uke
fn;kA iSaft;k dk vFkZ gS& laiw.kZ i`FohA fo'kky egklkxj
dks iSaFkkyklk (Panthalassa) dgk] ftldk vFkZ gS&
ty gh tyA osxuj osQ roZQ osQ vuqlkj yxHkx 20
djksM+ o"kZ igys bl cM+s egk}hi iSaft;k dk foHkktu
vkjaHk gqvkA iSaft;k igys nks cM+s egk}hih; fiaMksa ykjsf'k;k
(Laurasia) vkSj xksaMokukySaM (Gondwanaland)
ozQe'k% mÙkjh o nf{k.kh Hkw[kaMksa osQ :i esa foHkDr gqvkA
blosQ ckn ykjsf'k;k o xksMokukySaM /hjs&/hjs vusd
NksVs fgLlksa esa c¡V x,] tks vkt osQ egk}hi osQ :i gSaA
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ i{k esa vusd izek.k Hkh izLrqr
fd, x, gSa] buesa ls oqQN bl izdkj gSaA
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ i{k esa izek.k (Evidences
in support of continental drift)
egk}hiksa esa lkE;
nf{k.k vesfjdk o vizQhdk osQ vkeus&lkeus dh rVjs[kk,¡
vn~Hkqr o =kqfVjfgr lkE; fn[kkrh gSaA ;g Hkh è;ku nsus
;ksX; gS fd 1964 bZ0 esa cqyMZ (Bullard) us ,d
fi
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
32
oaQI;wVj izksxzke dh lgk;rk ls vVykafVd rVksa dks
tksM+rs gq, ,d ekufp=k rS;kj fd;k FkkA rVksa dk ;g
lkE; fcYoqQy lgh fl¼ gqvkA lkE; fcBkus dh ;g
dksf'k'k vkt dh rVjs[kk dh vis{kk 1]000 iSQne dh
xgjkbZ dh rVjs[kk osQ lkFk dh xbZ FkhA
egklkxjksa osQ ikj pêðkuksa dh vk;q esa lekurk
vk/qfud le; esa fodflr dh xbZ jsfM;ksfefVªd dky
fu/kZj.k (Radiometric dating) fof/ ls egklkxjksa
osQ ikj egk}hiksa dh pêðkuksa osQ fuekZ.k osQ le; dks
ljyrk ls tkuk tk ldrk gSA 200 djksM+ o"kZ izkphu
'kSy lewgksa dh ,d iêðh czkthy rV vkSj if'peh
vizQhdk osQ rV ij feyrh gSa] tks vkil esa esy [kkrh
gSA nf{k.kh vesfjdk o vizQhdk dh rVjs[kk osQ lkFk
ik, tkus okys vkjafHkd leqnzh fu{ksi tqjsfld dky
(Jurassic age) osQ gSaA blls ;g irk pyrk gS fd
bl le; ls igys egklkxj dh mifLFkfr ogk¡ ugha FkhA
fVykbV (Tillite)
fVykbV os volknh pêðkusa gSa] tks fgekuh fu{ksi.k ls
fufeZr gksrh gSaA Hkkjr esa ik, tkus okys xksaMokuk Js.kh
osQ ryNVksa osQ izfr:i nf{k.k xksyk¼Z osQ N% fofHkUu
LFky[kaMksa esa feyrs gSaA xksaMokuk Js.kh osQ vk/kj ry esa
?kus fVykbV gSa] tks foLr`r o yacs le; rd fgevkoj.k
;k fgekPNknu dh vksj bafxr djrs gSaA blh ozQe osQ
izfr:i Hkkjr osQ vfrfjDr vizQhdk] iQkWdySaM }hi]
eSMkxkLdj] vaVkoZQfVd vkSj vkLVªsfy;k esa feyrs gSaA
xksaMokuk Js.kh osQ ryNVksa dh ;g lekurk Li"V djrh
gS fd bu LFky[kaMksa osQ bfrgkl esa Hkh lekurk jgh gSA
fgekuh fufeZr fVykbV pêðkusa iqjkru tyok;q vkSj
egk}hiksa osQ foLFkkiu osQ Li"V izek.k izLrqr djrs gSaA
Iyslj fu{ksi (Placer deposits)
?kkuk rV ij lksus osQ cM+s fu{ksiksa dh mifLFkfr o mn~xe
pêðkuksa dh vuqifLFkfr ,d vk'p;Ztud rF; gSA
lksuk;qDr f'kjk,¡ (Gold bearing veins) czkthy esa
ikbZ tkrh gSaA vr% ;g Li"V gS fd ?kkuk esa feyus okys
lksus osQ fu{ksi czkthy iBkj ls ml le; fudys gksaxs]
tc ;s nksuksa egk}hi ,d nwljs ls tqM+s FksA
thok'eksa dk forj.k (Distribution of fossils)
;fn leqnzh vojks/d osQ nksuksa foijhr fdukjksa ij ty
o LFky esa ik, tkus okys ikS/ksa o tarqvksa dh leku
iztkfr;k¡ ikbZ tk,] rks muosQ forj.k dh O;k[;k esa
leL;k,¡ mRiUu gksrh gSaA bl izs{k.k ls fd ^ySewj*
Hkkjr] eSMkxkLdj o vizQhdk esa feyrs gSa] oqQN oSKkfudksa
us bu rhuksa LFky[kaMksa dks tksM+dj ,d lrr~ LFky[kaM
^ysewfj;k* (Lemuria) dh mifLFkfr dks LohdkjkA
eslkslkjl (Mesosaurus) uke osQ NksVs jsaxus okys
tho osQoy mFkys [kkjs ikuh esa gh jg ldrs Fks& budh
vfLFk;k¡ osQoy nf{k.k vizQhdk osQ nf{k.kh osQi izkar
vkSj czkthy esa bjkoj 'kSy lewg esa gh feyrs gSaA ;s
nksuksa LFkku vkt ,d nwljs ls 4]800 fd0eh0 dh nwjh
ij gSa vkSj buosQ chp esa ,d egklkxj fo|eku gSA
izokg laca/h cy (Force for drifting)
osxuj osQ vuqlkj egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ nks dkj.k Fks%
(1) iksyj ;k /qzoh; Ýyhbax cy (Polar fleeing
force) vkSj (2) Tokjh; cy (Tidal force)A
/qzoh; Ýyhbax cy i`Foh osQ ?kw.kZu ls lacaf/r gSA vki
tkurs gSa fd i`Foh dh vko`Qfr ,d laiw.kZ xksys tSlh
ugha gS_ oju~ ;g Hkweè;js[kk ij mHkjh gqbZ gSA ;g mHkkj
i`Foh osQ ?kw.kZu osQ dkj.k gSA nwljk cy] tks osxuj
egksn; us lq>k;k& og Tokjh; cy gS] tks lw;Z o panzek
osQ vkd"kZ.k ls laca¼ gS] ftlls egklkxjksa esa Tokj iSnk
gksrs gSaA osxuj dk ekuuk Fkk fd djksM+ksa o"kks± osQ nkSjku
;s cy izHkko'kkyh gksdj foLFkkiu osQ fy, l{ke gks
x,A ;|fi cgqr ls oSKkfud bu nksuksa gh cyksa dks
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ fy, loZFkk vi;kZIr le>rs gSaA
laogu&/kjk fl¼kar (Convectional current
theory)
1930 osQ n'kd eas vkFkZj gksEl (Arthur Holmes)
us eSaVy (Mantle) Hkkx esa laogu&/kjkvksa osQ izHkko
dh laHkkouk O;Dr dhA ;s /kjk,¡ jsfM;ks,fDVo rRoksa ls
mRiUu rki fHkUurk ls eSaVy Hkkx esa mRiUu gksrh gSaA
gksEl us roZQ fn;k fd iwjs eSaVy Hkkx esa bl izdkj dh
/kjkvksa dk ra=k fo|eku gSA ;g mu izokg cyksa dh
O;k[;k izLrqr djus dk iz;kl Fkk] ftlosQ vk/kj ij
ledkyhu oSKkfudksa us egk}hih; foLFkkiu fl¼kar dks
udkj fn;kA
egklkxjksa vkSj egk}hiksa dk forj.k
33
egklkxjh; v/Lry dk ekufp=k.k (Mapping of
the ocean floor)
egklkxjksa dh cukoV vkSj vkdkj ij foLr`r 'kks/] ;g
Li"V djrs gSa fd egklkxjksa dk v/Lry ,d foLr`r
eSnku ugha gS] oju~ mueas Hkh mPpkop ik;k tkrk gSA
;q¼ksÙkj dky (Post-war period) egklkxjh; vèkLry
osQ fu:i.k vfHk;ku us egklkxjh; mPpkop laca/h
foLr`r tkudkjh izLrqr dh vkSj ;g fn[kk;k fd blosQ
v/Lryh esa tyeXu ioZrh; dVosaQ o xgjh [kkb;k¡ gSa]
tks izk;% egk}hiksa osQ fdukjksa ij fLFkr gSaA eè; egklkxjh;
dVosaQ Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj osQ :i esa lcls vf/d lfozQ;
ik;h xbZA egklkxjh; iiZVh dh pêðkuksa osQ dky fu/kZj.k
(Dating) us ;g rF; Li"V dj fn;k fd egklkxjksa osQ
fury dh pêðkusa egk}hih; Hkkxksa esa ikbZ tkus okyh pêðkuksa
dh vis{kk uohu gSaA egklkxjh; dVd osQ nksuksa rjiQ dh
pêðkusa] tks dVd ls cjkcj nwjh ij fLFkr gSa] mu dh
vk;q o jpuk esa Hkh vk'p;Ztud lekurk ikbZ tkrh gSA
tk ldrk gSA ;s Hkkx gSa % (1) egk}hih; lhek] (2)
xgjs leqnzh csflu vkSj (3) eè;&egklkxjh; dVdA
egk}hih; lhek (Continental margins)
;s egk}hih; fdukjksa vkSj xgjs leqnzh csflu osQ chp
dk Hkkx gSA blesa egk}hih; eXurV] egk}hih; <ky]
egk}hih; mHkkj vkSj xgjh egklkxjh; [kkb;k¡ vkfn
'kkfey gSaA egklkxjksa o egk}hiksa osQ forj.k dks le>us
osQ fy, xgjh&egklkxjh; [kkb;ksa osQ {ks=k fo'ks"k egRoiw.kZ
vkSj jkspd gSaA
foryh; eSnku (Abyssal Plains)
;s foLr`r eSnku egk}hih; rVksa o eè; egklkxjh;
dVdksa osQ chp ik, tkrs gSaA foryh; eSnku] og {ks=k
gSa] tgk¡ egk}hiksa ls cgkdj yk, x, volkn buosQ rVksa
ls nwj fu{ksfir gksrs gSaA
eè; egklkxjh; dVd (Mid-oceanic ridges)
eè; egklkxjh; dVd vkil esa tqM+s gq, ioZrksa dh
,d Ük`a[kyk cukrh gSA egklkxjh; ty esa Mwch gqbZ] ;g
i`Foh osQ /jkry ij ikbZ tkus okyh laHkor% lcls yach
ioZr  Ük`a[kyk gSA bu dVdksa osQ eè;orhZ f'k[kj ij ,d
fjÝV] ,d izHkktd iBkj vkSj bldh yackbZ osQ lkFk&lkFk
ik'oZ eaMy bldh fo'ks"krk gSA eè;orhZ Hkkx esa mifLFkr
nzks.kh okLro esa lfozQ; Tokykeq[kh {ks=k gSA fiNys
vè;k; esa eè;&egklkxjh; Tokykeq[kh osQ :i esa ,sls
Tokykeqf[k;ksa dh tkudkjh nh xbZ gSA
HkwoaQi o Tokykeqf[k;ksa dk forj.k (Distribution
of earthquakes and volcanoes)
HkwoaQih; xfrfof/ vkSj Tokykeq[kh forj.k dk fn, x,
ekfup=k 4-5 (v) vkSj (c) eas vè;;u djsaA vki
vVykafVd egklkxj osQ eè;orhZ Hkkx esa] rV js[kk osQ
yxHkx lekukarj] ,d fcanq js[kk ns[ksaxsA ;g vkxs fgan
egklkxj rd tkrh gSA Hkkjrh; miegk}hi osQ FkksM+k
nf{k.k esa ;g nks Hkkxksa esa c¡V tkrh gS] ftldh ,d 'kk[kk
iwohZ vizQhdk dh vksj pyh tkrh gS vkSj nwljh e;uekj
ls gksrh gqbZ U;w fxuh ij ,d ,slh gh js[kk ls fey tkrh
egklkxjh; v/Lry dh cukoV (Ocean floor
configuration)
bl Hkkx esa ge egklkxjh; ry dh cukoV ls
lacaf/r oqQN ,sls rF;ksa dk vè;;u djsaxs] tks egklkxj
o egk}hiksa osQ forj.k dks le>us esa ennxkj gksaxsA
egklkxjh; ry dh vko`Qfr;k¡ vè;k; 13 esa foLrkj ls
of.kZr gSaA xgjkbZ o mPpkop osQ izdkj osQ vk/kj ij]
egklkxjh; ry dks rhu izeq[k Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k
fp=k 4-1 % egklkxjh; v/Lry (Ocean floor)
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
34
 fp=k 4-2 % HkwoaQi o Tokykeqf[k;ksa dk forj.k
gSA vki ;g ik,¡xs fd ;g fcanqjs[kk eè;&egklkxjh;
dVdksa osQ le:i gSA HkwoaQih; laosQUnz.k dk nwljk {ks=k
Nk;kafdr es[kyk (Shaded belt) osQ ekè;e ls
fn[kk;k x;k gS] tks vYikbu&fgeky; (Alpine-
Himalayan) Jsf.k;ksa osQ vkSj iz'kkar egklkxjh;
fdukjksa osQ le:i gSA lkekU;r% eè; egklkxjh;
dVdksa osQ {ks=k esa HkwoaQi osQ mn~xe osaQnz de xgjkbZ ij
gSa tcfd vYikbu&fgeky; iêðh o iz'kkar egklkxjh;
fdukjksa ij ;s osaQnz vf/d xgjkbZ ij gSaA Tokykeq[kh
ekufp=k Hkh blh dk vuqdj.k djrs gSaA iz'kkar egklkxj
osQ fdukjksa dks lfozQ; Tokykeq[kh osQ {ks=k gksus osQ dkj.k
^fjax vkWiQ iQk;j* (Ring of fire) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
lkxjh; v/Lry dk foLrkj
tSlk fd mQij o.kZu fd;k x;k gS] izokg mijkar
vè;;uksa us egRoiw.kZ tkudkjh izLrqr dh] tks osxuj osQ
egk}hih; foLFkkiu fl¼kar osQ le; miyC/ ugha FkhA
pêðkuksa osQ iqjk pqacdh; vè;;u vkSj egklkxjh; ry
osQ ekufp=k.k us fo'ks"k :i ls fuEu rF;ksa dks mtkxj
fd;k%
(i) ;g ns[kk x;k fd eè; egklkxjh; dVdksa osQ
lkFk&lkFk Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj lkekU; fozQ;k gS
vkSj ;s mn~xkj bl {ks=k esa cM+h ek=kk esa ykok
ckgj fudkyrs gSaA
(ii) egklkxjh; dVd osQ eè; Hkkx osQ nksuksa rjiQ
leku nwjh ij ikbZ tkus okyh pêðkuksa osQ fuekZ.k
dk le;] lajpuk] la?kVu vkSj pqacdh; xq.kksa
esa lekurk ikbZ tkrh gSA egklkxjh; dVdksa osQ
lehi dh pêðkuksa esa lkekU; pqacdRo /qzo.k
(Normal polarity) ikbZ tkrh gS rFkk ;s
pêðkusa uohure gSaA dVdksa osQ 'kh"kZ ls nwj
pêðkuksa dh vk;q Hkh vf/d gSA
(iii) egklkxjh; iiZVh dh pêðkusa egk}hih; iiZVh
dh pêðkuksa dh vis{kk vf/d ubZ gSaA egklkxjh;
iiZVh dh pêðkusa dgha Hkh 20 djksM+ o"kZ ls
vf/d iqjkuh ugha gSaA
Page 5


egklkxjksa vkSj egk}hiksa dk forj.k
vè;k;
Nys vè;k; esa vkius HkwxHkZ osQ fo"k; esa i<+kA
vki lalkj osQ ekufp=k ls Hkh ifjfpr gSaA vki
tkurs gSa fd i`Foh osQ 29 izfr'kr Hkkx ij egk}hi vkSj
ckdh ij egklkxj iSQys gq, gSaA egk}hiksa vkSj egklkxjksa
dh vofLFkfr] tSlkfd vkt ekufp=k ij fn[kkbZ nsrh gS]
ges'kk ls ,slh ugha jgh gSA blosQ vfrfjDr] ;g Hkh
,d rF; gS fd vkus okys le; esa Hkh egk}hi o
egklkxjksa dh fLFkfr vkt tSlh ugha jgsxhA vxj ,slk
gS rks iz'u ;g gS fd iqjkdky esa budh vofLFkfr oSQlh
Fkh\ budh vofLFkfr esa ifjorZu D;ksa vkSj oSQls gksrk
gS\ ;fn ;g lp gS fd egk}hiksa vkSj egklkxjksa dh
vofLFkfr esa ifjorZu gqvk gS vkSj vHkh Hkh gks jgk gS]
rks vki ;g tkudj vk'p;Zpfdr gksaxs fd oSKkfud
;g lc oSQls tkurs gSa\ mUgksaus bu egk}hiksa ,oa
egklkxjksa dh igys dh fLFkfr dk fu/kZj.k oSQls fd;k
gksxk\ bUgha iz'uksa osQ mÙkj vkSj buls lacaf/r iz'u gh
bl vè;k; dk fo"k; gSaA
egk}hih; izokg (Continental drift)
vVykafVd egklkxjh; rVjs[kk dh vko`Qfr dks è;ku ls
ns[ksaA bl egklkxj osQ nksuksa rjiQ dh rVjs[kk esa
vk'p;Ztud lefefr (Symmetry) gSA blh lekurk
osQ dkj.k cgqr ls oSKkfudksa us nf{k.kh o mÙkjh vesfjdk
rFkk ;wjksi o vizQhdk osQ ,d lkFk tqM+s gksus dh
laHkkouk dks O;Dr fd;kA foKku osQ bfrgkl osQ Kkr
vfHkys[kksa ls irk pyrk gS fd lu~ 1596 esa ,d Mp
ekufp=kosÙkk vczkge vkWjVsfy;l (Abraham
Ortelius) us loZizFke bl laHkkouk dks O;Dr fd;k
FkkA ,UVksfu;ks iSysXjhuh (Antonio Pellegrini) us
,d ekufp=k cuk;k] ftlesa rhuksa egk}hiksa dks bdêòk
fn[kk;k x;k FkkA teZu ekSlefon vYizsQM osxuj (Alfred
wegner) us ¶egk}hih; foLFkkiu fl¼kar¸ lu~ 1912
esa izLrkfor fd;kA ;g fl¼kar egk}hi ,oa egklkxjksa
osQ forj.k ls gh lacaf/r FkkA
bl fl¼kar dh vk/kjHkwr ladYiuk ;g Fkh fd
lHkh egk}hi ,d vosQys Hkw[kaM esa tqM+s gq, FksA osxuj
osQ vuqlkj vkt osQ lHkh egk}hi bl Hkw[kaM osQ Hkkx
Fks rFkk ;g ,d cM+s egklkxj ls f?kjk gqvk FkkA mUgksaus
bl cM+s egk}hi dks iSaft;k (Pangaea) dk uke
fn;kA iSaft;k dk vFkZ gS& laiw.kZ i`FohA fo'kky egklkxj
dks iSaFkkyklk (Panthalassa) dgk] ftldk vFkZ gS&
ty gh tyA osxuj osQ roZQ osQ vuqlkj yxHkx 20
djksM+ o"kZ igys bl cM+s egk}hi iSaft;k dk foHkktu
vkjaHk gqvkA iSaft;k igys nks cM+s egk}hih; fiaMksa ykjsf'k;k
(Laurasia) vkSj xksaMokukySaM (Gondwanaland)
ozQe'k% mÙkjh o nf{k.kh Hkw[kaMksa osQ :i esa foHkDr gqvkA
blosQ ckn ykjsf'k;k o xksMokukySaM /hjs&/hjs vusd
NksVs fgLlksa esa c¡V x,] tks vkt osQ egk}hi osQ :i gSaA
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ i{k esa vusd izek.k Hkh izLrqr
fd, x, gSa] buesa ls oqQN bl izdkj gSaA
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ i{k esa izek.k (Evidences
in support of continental drift)
egk}hiksa esa lkE;
nf{k.k vesfjdk o vizQhdk osQ vkeus&lkeus dh rVjs[kk,¡
vn~Hkqr o =kqfVjfgr lkE; fn[kkrh gSaA ;g Hkh è;ku nsus
;ksX; gS fd 1964 bZ0 esa cqyMZ (Bullard) us ,d
fi
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
32
oaQI;wVj izksxzke dh lgk;rk ls vVykafVd rVksa dks
tksM+rs gq, ,d ekufp=k rS;kj fd;k FkkA rVksa dk ;g
lkE; fcYoqQy lgh fl¼ gqvkA lkE; fcBkus dh ;g
dksf'k'k vkt dh rVjs[kk dh vis{kk 1]000 iSQne dh
xgjkbZ dh rVjs[kk osQ lkFk dh xbZ FkhA
egklkxjksa osQ ikj pêðkuksa dh vk;q esa lekurk
vk/qfud le; esa fodflr dh xbZ jsfM;ksfefVªd dky
fu/kZj.k (Radiometric dating) fof/ ls egklkxjksa
osQ ikj egk}hiksa dh pêðkuksa osQ fuekZ.k osQ le; dks
ljyrk ls tkuk tk ldrk gSA 200 djksM+ o"kZ izkphu
'kSy lewgksa dh ,d iêðh czkthy rV vkSj if'peh
vizQhdk osQ rV ij feyrh gSa] tks vkil esa esy [kkrh
gSA nf{k.kh vesfjdk o vizQhdk dh rVjs[kk osQ lkFk
ik, tkus okys vkjafHkd leqnzh fu{ksi tqjsfld dky
(Jurassic age) osQ gSaA blls ;g irk pyrk gS fd
bl le; ls igys egklkxj dh mifLFkfr ogk¡ ugha FkhA
fVykbV (Tillite)
fVykbV os volknh pêðkusa gSa] tks fgekuh fu{ksi.k ls
fufeZr gksrh gSaA Hkkjr esa ik, tkus okys xksaMokuk Js.kh
osQ ryNVksa osQ izfr:i nf{k.k xksyk¼Z osQ N% fofHkUu
LFky[kaMksa esa feyrs gSaA xksaMokuk Js.kh osQ vk/kj ry esa
?kus fVykbV gSa] tks foLr`r o yacs le; rd fgevkoj.k
;k fgekPNknu dh vksj bafxr djrs gSaA blh ozQe osQ
izfr:i Hkkjr osQ vfrfjDr vizQhdk] iQkWdySaM }hi]
eSMkxkLdj] vaVkoZQfVd vkSj vkLVªsfy;k esa feyrs gSaA
xksaMokuk Js.kh osQ ryNVksa dh ;g lekurk Li"V djrh
gS fd bu LFky[kaMksa osQ bfrgkl esa Hkh lekurk jgh gSA
fgekuh fufeZr fVykbV pêðkusa iqjkru tyok;q vkSj
egk}hiksa osQ foLFkkiu osQ Li"V izek.k izLrqr djrs gSaA
Iyslj fu{ksi (Placer deposits)
?kkuk rV ij lksus osQ cM+s fu{ksiksa dh mifLFkfr o mn~xe
pêðkuksa dh vuqifLFkfr ,d vk'p;Ztud rF; gSA
lksuk;qDr f'kjk,¡ (Gold bearing veins) czkthy esa
ikbZ tkrh gSaA vr% ;g Li"V gS fd ?kkuk esa feyus okys
lksus osQ fu{ksi czkthy iBkj ls ml le; fudys gksaxs]
tc ;s nksuksa egk}hi ,d nwljs ls tqM+s FksA
thok'eksa dk forj.k (Distribution of fossils)
;fn leqnzh vojks/d osQ nksuksa foijhr fdukjksa ij ty
o LFky esa ik, tkus okys ikS/ksa o tarqvksa dh leku
iztkfr;k¡ ikbZ tk,] rks muosQ forj.k dh O;k[;k esa
leL;k,¡ mRiUu gksrh gSaA bl izs{k.k ls fd ^ySewj*
Hkkjr] eSMkxkLdj o vizQhdk esa feyrs gSa] oqQN oSKkfudksa
us bu rhuksa LFky[kaMksa dks tksM+dj ,d lrr~ LFky[kaM
^ysewfj;k* (Lemuria) dh mifLFkfr dks LohdkjkA
eslkslkjl (Mesosaurus) uke osQ NksVs jsaxus okys
tho osQoy mFkys [kkjs ikuh esa gh jg ldrs Fks& budh
vfLFk;k¡ osQoy nf{k.k vizQhdk osQ nf{k.kh osQi izkar
vkSj czkthy esa bjkoj 'kSy lewg esa gh feyrs gSaA ;s
nksuksa LFkku vkt ,d nwljs ls 4]800 fd0eh0 dh nwjh
ij gSa vkSj buosQ chp esa ,d egklkxj fo|eku gSA
izokg laca/h cy (Force for drifting)
osxuj osQ vuqlkj egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ nks dkj.k Fks%
(1) iksyj ;k /qzoh; Ýyhbax cy (Polar fleeing
force) vkSj (2) Tokjh; cy (Tidal force)A
/qzoh; Ýyhbax cy i`Foh osQ ?kw.kZu ls lacaf/r gSA vki
tkurs gSa fd i`Foh dh vko`Qfr ,d laiw.kZ xksys tSlh
ugha gS_ oju~ ;g Hkweè;js[kk ij mHkjh gqbZ gSA ;g mHkkj
i`Foh osQ ?kw.kZu osQ dkj.k gSA nwljk cy] tks osxuj
egksn; us lq>k;k& og Tokjh; cy gS] tks lw;Z o panzek
osQ vkd"kZ.k ls laca¼ gS] ftlls egklkxjksa esa Tokj iSnk
gksrs gSaA osxuj dk ekuuk Fkk fd djksM+ksa o"kks± osQ nkSjku
;s cy izHkko'kkyh gksdj foLFkkiu osQ fy, l{ke gks
x,A ;|fi cgqr ls oSKkfud bu nksuksa gh cyksa dks
egk}hih; foLFkkiu osQ fy, loZFkk vi;kZIr le>rs gSaA
laogu&/kjk fl¼kar (Convectional current
theory)
1930 osQ n'kd eas vkFkZj gksEl (Arthur Holmes)
us eSaVy (Mantle) Hkkx esa laogu&/kjkvksa osQ izHkko
dh laHkkouk O;Dr dhA ;s /kjk,¡ jsfM;ks,fDVo rRoksa ls
mRiUu rki fHkUurk ls eSaVy Hkkx esa mRiUu gksrh gSaA
gksEl us roZQ fn;k fd iwjs eSaVy Hkkx esa bl izdkj dh
/kjkvksa dk ra=k fo|eku gSA ;g mu izokg cyksa dh
O;k[;k izLrqr djus dk iz;kl Fkk] ftlosQ vk/kj ij
ledkyhu oSKkfudksa us egk}hih; foLFkkiu fl¼kar dks
udkj fn;kA
egklkxjksa vkSj egk}hiksa dk forj.k
33
egklkxjh; v/Lry dk ekufp=k.k (Mapping of
the ocean floor)
egklkxjksa dh cukoV vkSj vkdkj ij foLr`r 'kks/] ;g
Li"V djrs gSa fd egklkxjksa dk v/Lry ,d foLr`r
eSnku ugha gS] oju~ mueas Hkh mPpkop ik;k tkrk gSA
;q¼ksÙkj dky (Post-war period) egklkxjh; vèkLry
osQ fu:i.k vfHk;ku us egklkxjh; mPpkop laca/h
foLr`r tkudkjh izLrqr dh vkSj ;g fn[kk;k fd blosQ
v/Lryh esa tyeXu ioZrh; dVosaQ o xgjh [kkb;k¡ gSa]
tks izk;% egk}hiksa osQ fdukjksa ij fLFkr gSaA eè; egklkxjh;
dVosaQ Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj osQ :i esa lcls vf/d lfozQ;
ik;h xbZA egklkxjh; iiZVh dh pêðkuksa osQ dky fu/kZj.k
(Dating) us ;g rF; Li"V dj fn;k fd egklkxjksa osQ
fury dh pêðkusa egk}hih; Hkkxksa esa ikbZ tkus okyh pêðkuksa
dh vis{kk uohu gSaA egklkxjh; dVd osQ nksuksa rjiQ dh
pêðkusa] tks dVd ls cjkcj nwjh ij fLFkr gSa] mu dh
vk;q o jpuk esa Hkh vk'p;Ztud lekurk ikbZ tkrh gSA
tk ldrk gSA ;s Hkkx gSa % (1) egk}hih; lhek] (2)
xgjs leqnzh csflu vkSj (3) eè;&egklkxjh; dVdA
egk}hih; lhek (Continental margins)
;s egk}hih; fdukjksa vkSj xgjs leqnzh csflu osQ chp
dk Hkkx gSA blesa egk}hih; eXurV] egk}hih; <ky]
egk}hih; mHkkj vkSj xgjh egklkxjh; [kkb;k¡ vkfn
'kkfey gSaA egklkxjksa o egk}hiksa osQ forj.k dks le>us
osQ fy, xgjh&egklkxjh; [kkb;ksa osQ {ks=k fo'ks"k egRoiw.kZ
vkSj jkspd gSaA
foryh; eSnku (Abyssal Plains)
;s foLr`r eSnku egk}hih; rVksa o eè; egklkxjh;
dVdksa osQ chp ik, tkrs gSaA foryh; eSnku] og {ks=k
gSa] tgk¡ egk}hiksa ls cgkdj yk, x, volkn buosQ rVksa
ls nwj fu{ksfir gksrs gSaA
eè; egklkxjh; dVd (Mid-oceanic ridges)
eè; egklkxjh; dVd vkil esa tqM+s gq, ioZrksa dh
,d Ük`a[kyk cukrh gSA egklkxjh; ty esa Mwch gqbZ] ;g
i`Foh osQ /jkry ij ikbZ tkus okyh laHkor% lcls yach
ioZr  Ük`a[kyk gSA bu dVdksa osQ eè;orhZ f'k[kj ij ,d
fjÝV] ,d izHkktd iBkj vkSj bldh yackbZ osQ lkFk&lkFk
ik'oZ eaMy bldh fo'ks"krk gSA eè;orhZ Hkkx esa mifLFkr
nzks.kh okLro esa lfozQ; Tokykeq[kh {ks=k gSA fiNys
vè;k; esa eè;&egklkxjh; Tokykeq[kh osQ :i esa ,sls
Tokykeqf[k;ksa dh tkudkjh nh xbZ gSA
HkwoaQi o Tokykeqf[k;ksa dk forj.k (Distribution
of earthquakes and volcanoes)
HkwoaQih; xfrfof/ vkSj Tokykeq[kh forj.k dk fn, x,
ekfup=k 4-5 (v) vkSj (c) eas vè;;u djsaA vki
vVykafVd egklkxj osQ eè;orhZ Hkkx esa] rV js[kk osQ
yxHkx lekukarj] ,d fcanq js[kk ns[ksaxsA ;g vkxs fgan
egklkxj rd tkrh gSA Hkkjrh; miegk}hi osQ FkksM+k
nf{k.k esa ;g nks Hkkxksa esa c¡V tkrh gS] ftldh ,d 'kk[kk
iwohZ vizQhdk dh vksj pyh tkrh gS vkSj nwljh e;uekj
ls gksrh gqbZ U;w fxuh ij ,d ,slh gh js[kk ls fey tkrh
egklkxjh; v/Lry dh cukoV (Ocean floor
configuration)
bl Hkkx esa ge egklkxjh; ry dh cukoV ls
lacaf/r oqQN ,sls rF;ksa dk vè;;u djsaxs] tks egklkxj
o egk}hiksa osQ forj.k dks le>us esa ennxkj gksaxsA
egklkxjh; ry dh vko`Qfr;k¡ vè;k; 13 esa foLrkj ls
of.kZr gSaA xgjkbZ o mPpkop osQ izdkj osQ vk/kj ij]
egklkxjh; ry dks rhu izeq[k Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k
fp=k 4-1 % egklkxjh; v/Lry (Ocean floor)
HkkSfrd Hkwxksy osQ ewy fl¼kar
34
 fp=k 4-2 % HkwoaQi o Tokykeqf[k;ksa dk forj.k
gSA vki ;g ik,¡xs fd ;g fcanqjs[kk eè;&egklkxjh;
dVdksa osQ le:i gSA HkwoaQih; laosQUnz.k dk nwljk {ks=k
Nk;kafdr es[kyk (Shaded belt) osQ ekè;e ls
fn[kk;k x;k gS] tks vYikbu&fgeky; (Alpine-
Himalayan) Jsf.k;ksa osQ vkSj iz'kkar egklkxjh;
fdukjksa osQ le:i gSA lkekU;r% eè; egklkxjh;
dVdksa osQ {ks=k esa HkwoaQi osQ mn~xe osaQnz de xgjkbZ ij
gSa tcfd vYikbu&fgeky; iêðh o iz'kkar egklkxjh;
fdukjksa ij ;s osaQnz vf/d xgjkbZ ij gSaA Tokykeq[kh
ekufp=k Hkh blh dk vuqdj.k djrs gSaA iz'kkar egklkxj
osQ fdukjksa dks lfozQ; Tokykeq[kh osQ {ks=k gksus osQ dkj.k
^fjax vkWiQ iQk;j* (Ring of fire) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
lkxjh; v/Lry dk foLrkj
tSlk fd mQij o.kZu fd;k x;k gS] izokg mijkar
vè;;uksa us egRoiw.kZ tkudkjh izLrqr dh] tks osxuj osQ
egk}hih; foLFkkiu fl¼kar osQ le; miyC/ ugha FkhA
pêðkuksa osQ iqjk pqacdh; vè;;u vkSj egklkxjh; ry
osQ ekufp=k.k us fo'ks"k :i ls fuEu rF;ksa dks mtkxj
fd;k%
(i) ;g ns[kk x;k fd eè; egklkxjh; dVdksa osQ
lkFk&lkFk Tokykeq[kh mn~xkj lkekU; fozQ;k gS
vkSj ;s mn~xkj bl {ks=k esa cM+h ek=kk esa ykok
ckgj fudkyrs gSaA
(ii) egklkxjh; dVd osQ eè; Hkkx osQ nksuksa rjiQ
leku nwjh ij ikbZ tkus okyh pêðkuksa osQ fuekZ.k
dk le;] lajpuk] la?kVu vkSj pqacdh; xq.kksa
esa lekurk ikbZ tkrh gSA egklkxjh; dVdksa osQ
lehi dh pêðkuksa esa lkekU; pqacdRo /qzo.k
(Normal polarity) ikbZ tkrh gS rFkk ;s
pêðkusa uohure gSaA dVdksa osQ 'kh"kZ ls nwj
pêðkuksa dh vk;q Hkh vf/d gSA
(iii) egklkxjh; iiZVh dh pêðkusa egk}hih; iiZVh
dh pêðkuksa dh vis{kk vf/d ubZ gSaA egklkxjh;
iiZVh dh pêðkusa dgha Hkh 20 djksM+ o"kZ ls
vf/d iqjkuh ugha gSaA
egklkxjksa vkSj egk}hiksa dk forj.k
35
fp=k 4-3 % lkxjh; v/Lry foLrkj
fp=k 4-4 % HkwoSKkfud dkyksa esa egk}hiksa dh fLFkfr
(iv) xgjh [kkb;ksa esa HkwoaQi osQ mn~xe vf/d xgjkbZ
ij gSaA tcfd eè;&egklkxjh; dVdksa osQ {ks=k
esa HkwoaQi mn~xe osaQnz (Foci) de xgjkbZ ij
fo|eku gSaA
bu rF;ksa vkSj eè; egklkxjh; dVdksa osQ nksuksa
rjiQ dh pêðkuksa osQ pqacdh; xq.kksa osQ fo'ys"k.k osQ
vk/kj ij gsl (Hess) us lu~ 1961 esa ,d ifjdYiuk
izLrqr dh] ftls ^lkxjh; v/Lry foLrkj* (Sea floor
spreading) osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA gsl (Hess)
osQ rdkZuqlkj egklkxjh; dVdksa osQ 'kh"kZ ij yxkrkj
Tokykeq[kh mn~Hksnu ls egklkxjh; iiZVh esa foHksnu
gqvk vkSj u;k ykok bl njkj dks Hkjdj egklkxjh;
fp=k 4-4 % fiNys 5]400 yk[k o"kks± esa egk}hiksa dh xfrA
(1) vizQhdk_ (2) nf{k.k vesfjdk_ (3) vaVkoZQfVdk_
(4) vkWLVsªsfy;k_ (5) Hkkjr_ (6) phu_ (7) mÙkjh vesfjdk_
(8) ;wjksi_ (9) ,oa (10) lkbcsfj;k (,feykuh] 1992)
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