NCERT Textbook - माता का आँचल Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - माता का आँचल Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


1- ,d rjg dk ok| ;a=k  2- izHkkr] losjk  3- yykV  4- ,d izdkj dk fryd ftlesa yykV
ij rhu vkM+h ;k vèkZpanzkdkj js[kk,¡ cukbZ tkrh gSa
tgk¡ yM+dksa dk lax] rgk¡ ckts e`nax
1
tgk¡ cqbksa dk lax] rgk¡ [kjps dk rax
gekjs firk rM+osQ
2
 mBdj] fucV&ugkdj iwtk
djus cSB tkrs FksA ge cpiu ls gh muosQ vax
yx x, FksA ekrk ls osQoy nw/ ihus rd dk
ukrk FkkA blfy, firk osQ lkFk gh ge Hkh ckgj
dh cSBd esa gh lks;k djrsA og vius lkFk gh
gesa Hkh mBkrs vkSj lkFk gh ugyk&/qykdj iwtk
ij fcBk ysrsA ge HkHkwr dk fryd yxk nsus osQ
fy, mudks fnd djus yxrs FksA oqQN g¡ldj] oqQN >q¡>ykdj vkSj oqQN Mk¡Vdj og
gekjs pkSM+s fyykj
3
 esa f=kiqaM
4
 dj nsrs FksA gekjs fyykj esa HkHkwr [kwc [kqyrh FkhA flj
esa yach&yach tVk,¡ FkhaA HkHkwr jekus ls ge [kkls ^ce&Hkksyk* cu tkrs FksA
firk th geas cM+s I;kj ls ^HkksykukFk* dgdj iqdkjk djrsA ij vly esa gekjk uke
Fkk ^rkjosQ'ojukFk*A ge Hkh mudks ^ckcw th* dgdj iqdkjk djrs vkSj ekrk dks
^eb;k¡*A
tc ckcw th jkek;.k dk ikB djrs rc ge mudh cxy esa cSBs&cSBs vkbus esa
viuk eq¡g fugkjk djrs FksA tc og gekjh vksj ns[krs rc ge oqQN ytkdj vkSj
eqLkdjkdj vkbuk uhps j[k nsrs FksA og Hkh eqLkdjk iM+rs FksA
iwtk&ikB dj pqdus osQ ckn og jke&jke fy[kus yxrsA viuh ,d ^jkeukek cgh*
ij g”kkj jke&uke fy[kdj og mls ikB djus dh iksFkh osQ lkFk ck¡/dj j[k nsrsA fiQj
f'koiwtu lgk;
1
ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py
Page 2


1- ,d rjg dk ok| ;a=k  2- izHkkr] losjk  3- yykV  4- ,d izdkj dk fryd ftlesa yykV
ij rhu vkM+h ;k vèkZpanzkdkj js[kk,¡ cukbZ tkrh gSa
tgk¡ yM+dksa dk lax] rgk¡ ckts e`nax
1
tgk¡ cqbksa dk lax] rgk¡ [kjps dk rax
gekjs firk rM+osQ
2
 mBdj] fucV&ugkdj iwtk
djus cSB tkrs FksA ge cpiu ls gh muosQ vax
yx x, FksA ekrk ls osQoy nw/ ihus rd dk
ukrk FkkA blfy, firk osQ lkFk gh ge Hkh ckgj
dh cSBd esa gh lks;k djrsA og vius lkFk gh
gesa Hkh mBkrs vkSj lkFk gh ugyk&/qykdj iwtk
ij fcBk ysrsA ge HkHkwr dk fryd yxk nsus osQ
fy, mudks fnd djus yxrs FksA oqQN g¡ldj] oqQN >q¡>ykdj vkSj oqQN Mk¡Vdj og
gekjs pkSM+s fyykj
3
 esa f=kiqaM
4
 dj nsrs FksA gekjs fyykj esa HkHkwr [kwc [kqyrh FkhA flj
esa yach&yach tVk,¡ FkhaA HkHkwr jekus ls ge [kkls ^ce&Hkksyk* cu tkrs FksA
firk th geas cM+s I;kj ls ^HkksykukFk* dgdj iqdkjk djrsA ij vly esa gekjk uke
Fkk ^rkjosQ'ojukFk*A ge Hkh mudks ^ckcw th* dgdj iqdkjk djrs vkSj ekrk dks
^eb;k¡*A
tc ckcw th jkek;.k dk ikB djrs rc ge mudh cxy esa cSBs&cSBs vkbus esa
viuk eq¡g fugkjk djrs FksA tc og gekjh vksj ns[krs rc ge oqQN ytkdj vkSj
eqLkdjkdj vkbuk uhps j[k nsrs FksA og Hkh eqLkdjk iM+rs FksA
iwtk&ikB dj pqdus osQ ckn og jke&jke fy[kus yxrsA viuh ,d ^jkeukek cgh*
ij g”kkj jke&uke fy[kdj og mls ikB djus dh iksFkh osQ lkFk ck¡/dj j[k nsrsA fiQj
f'koiwtu lgk;
1
ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py
o`Qfrdk
2
Page 3


1- ,d rjg dk ok| ;a=k  2- izHkkr] losjk  3- yykV  4- ,d izdkj dk fryd ftlesa yykV
ij rhu vkM+h ;k vèkZpanzkdkj js[kk,¡ cukbZ tkrh gSa
tgk¡ yM+dksa dk lax] rgk¡ ckts e`nax
1
tgk¡ cqbksa dk lax] rgk¡ [kjps dk rax
gekjs firk rM+osQ
2
 mBdj] fucV&ugkdj iwtk
djus cSB tkrs FksA ge cpiu ls gh muosQ vax
yx x, FksA ekrk ls osQoy nw/ ihus rd dk
ukrk FkkA blfy, firk osQ lkFk gh ge Hkh ckgj
dh cSBd esa gh lks;k djrsA og vius lkFk gh
gesa Hkh mBkrs vkSj lkFk gh ugyk&/qykdj iwtk
ij fcBk ysrsA ge HkHkwr dk fryd yxk nsus osQ
fy, mudks fnd djus yxrs FksA oqQN g¡ldj] oqQN >q¡>ykdj vkSj oqQN Mk¡Vdj og
gekjs pkSM+s fyykj
3
 esa f=kiqaM
4
 dj nsrs FksA gekjs fyykj esa HkHkwr [kwc [kqyrh FkhA flj
esa yach&yach tVk,¡ FkhaA HkHkwr jekus ls ge [kkls ^ce&Hkksyk* cu tkrs FksA
firk th geas cM+s I;kj ls ^HkksykukFk* dgdj iqdkjk djrsA ij vly esa gekjk uke
Fkk ^rkjosQ'ojukFk*A ge Hkh mudks ^ckcw th* dgdj iqdkjk djrs vkSj ekrk dks
^eb;k¡*A
tc ckcw th jkek;.k dk ikB djrs rc ge mudh cxy esa cSBs&cSBs vkbus esa
viuk eq¡g fugkjk djrs FksA tc og gekjh vksj ns[krs rc ge oqQN ytkdj vkSj
eqLkdjkdj vkbuk uhps j[k nsrs FksA og Hkh eqLkdjk iM+rs FksA
iwtk&ikB dj pqdus osQ ckn og jke&jke fy[kus yxrsA viuh ,d ^jkeukek cgh*
ij g”kkj jke&uke fy[kdj og mls ikB djus dh iksFkh osQ lkFk ck¡/dj j[k nsrsA fiQj
f'koiwtu lgk;
1
ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py
o`Qfrdk
2
ekrk dk v¡py
3
5- ihB osQ cy ysVuk  6- feykuk] yisVuk] xw¡/uk  7- Hkj isV ls vf/d [kk ysuk
8- LFkku] volj  9- ekrk
ik¡p lkS ckj dkx”k osQ NksVs&NksVs VqdM+ksa ij jke&uke fy[kdj vkVs dh xksfy;ksa
esa yisVrs vkSj mu xksfy;ksa dks ysdj xaxk th dh vksj py iM+rs FksA
ml le; Hkh ge muosQ oaQ/s ij fojkteku jgrs FksA tc og xaxk esa ,d&,d vkVs
dh xksfy;k¡ isaQddj eNfy;ksa dks f[kykus yxrs rc Hkh ge muosQ oaQ/s ij gh cSBs&cSBs
g¡lk djrs FksA tc og eNfy;ksa dks pkjk nsdj ?kj dh vksj ykSVus yxrs rc chp jkLrs
esa >qosQ gq, isM+ksa dh Mkyksa ij gesa fcBkdj >wyk >qykrs FksA
dHkh&dHkh ckcw th gels oqQ'rh Hkh yM+rsA og f'kfFky gksdj gekjs cy dks c<+kok
nsrs vkSj ge mudks iNkM+ nssrs FksA ;g mrku
5
 iM+ tkrs vkSj ge mudh Nkrh ij p<+
tkrs FksA tc ge mudh yach&yach ew¡Nsa m[kkM+us yxrs rc og g¡lrs&g¡lrs gekjs gkFkksa
dks ew¡Nksa ls NqM+kdj mUgsa pwe ysrs FksA fiQj tc gels [k^k vkSj ehBk pqEek ek¡xrs rc
ge ckjh&ckjh dj viuk ck;k¡ vkSj nkfguk xky muosQ eq¡g dh vksj isQj nsrs FksA ck,¡
dk [k^k pqEek ysdj tc og nkfgus dk ehBk pqEek ysus yxrs rc viuh nk<+h ;k ew¡N
gekjs dksey xkyksa ij xM+k nsrs FksA ge >q¡>ykdj fiQj mudh ew¡Nsa ukspus yx tkrs FksA
bl ij og cukoVh jksuk jksus yxrs vkSj ge vyx [kM+s&[kM+s f[ky&f[kykdj g¡lus yx
tkrs FksA
muosQ lkFk g¡lrs&g¡lrs tc ge ?kj vkrs rc muosQ lkFk gh ge Hkh pkSosQ ij [kkus
cSBrs FksA og gesa vius gh gkFk ls] iwQy osQ ,d dVksjs esa xksjl vkSj Hkkr lkudj
6
f[kykrs FksA tc ge [kkdj viQj
7
 tkrs rc eb;k¡ FkksM+k vkSj f[kykus osQ fy, gB djrh
FkhA og ckcw th ls dgus yxrhµvki rks pkj&pkj nkus osQ dkSj cPps osQ eq¡g esa nsrs
tkrs gSa_ blls og FkksM+k [kkus ij Hkh le> ysrk gS fd ge cgqr [kk x,_ vki f[kykus
dk <ax ugha tkursµcPps dks Hkj&eq¡g dkSj f[kykuk pkfg,A
tc [kk,xk cM+s&cM+s dkSj] rc ik,xk nqfu;k esa BkSj
8
A
µnsf[k,] eSa f[kykrh gw¡aA ejnq, D;k tkus fd cPpksa dks oSQls f[kykuk pkfg,] vkSj
egrkjh
9
 osQ gkFk ls [kkus ij cPpksa dk isV Hkh Hkjrk gSA
;g dg og Fkkyh esa ngh&Hkkr lkurh vkSj vyx&vyx rksrk] eSuk] dcwrj] gal]
eksj vkfn osQ cukoVh uke ls dkSj cukdj ;g dgrs gq, f[kykrh tkrh fd tYnh [kk
yks] ugha rks mM+ tk,¡xs_ ij ge mUgsa bruh tYnh mM+k tkrs Fks fd mM+us dk ekSdk gh
ugha feyrk FkkA
Page 4


1- ,d rjg dk ok| ;a=k  2- izHkkr] losjk  3- yykV  4- ,d izdkj dk fryd ftlesa yykV
ij rhu vkM+h ;k vèkZpanzkdkj js[kk,¡ cukbZ tkrh gSa
tgk¡ yM+dksa dk lax] rgk¡ ckts e`nax
1
tgk¡ cqbksa dk lax] rgk¡ [kjps dk rax
gekjs firk rM+osQ
2
 mBdj] fucV&ugkdj iwtk
djus cSB tkrs FksA ge cpiu ls gh muosQ vax
yx x, FksA ekrk ls osQoy nw/ ihus rd dk
ukrk FkkA blfy, firk osQ lkFk gh ge Hkh ckgj
dh cSBd esa gh lks;k djrsA og vius lkFk gh
gesa Hkh mBkrs vkSj lkFk gh ugyk&/qykdj iwtk
ij fcBk ysrsA ge HkHkwr dk fryd yxk nsus osQ
fy, mudks fnd djus yxrs FksA oqQN g¡ldj] oqQN >q¡>ykdj vkSj oqQN Mk¡Vdj og
gekjs pkSM+s fyykj
3
 esa f=kiqaM
4
 dj nsrs FksA gekjs fyykj esa HkHkwr [kwc [kqyrh FkhA flj
esa yach&yach tVk,¡ FkhaA HkHkwr jekus ls ge [kkls ^ce&Hkksyk* cu tkrs FksA
firk th geas cM+s I;kj ls ^HkksykukFk* dgdj iqdkjk djrsA ij vly esa gekjk uke
Fkk ^rkjosQ'ojukFk*A ge Hkh mudks ^ckcw th* dgdj iqdkjk djrs vkSj ekrk dks
^eb;k¡*A
tc ckcw th jkek;.k dk ikB djrs rc ge mudh cxy esa cSBs&cSBs vkbus esa
viuk eq¡g fugkjk djrs FksA tc og gekjh vksj ns[krs rc ge oqQN ytkdj vkSj
eqLkdjkdj vkbuk uhps j[k nsrs FksA og Hkh eqLkdjk iM+rs FksA
iwtk&ikB dj pqdus osQ ckn og jke&jke fy[kus yxrsA viuh ,d ^jkeukek cgh*
ij g”kkj jke&uke fy[kdj og mls ikB djus dh iksFkh osQ lkFk ck¡/dj j[k nsrsA fiQj
f'koiwtu lgk;
1
ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py
o`Qfrdk
2
ekrk dk v¡py
3
5- ihB osQ cy ysVuk  6- feykuk] yisVuk] xw¡/uk  7- Hkj isV ls vf/d [kk ysuk
8- LFkku] volj  9- ekrk
ik¡p lkS ckj dkx”k osQ NksVs&NksVs VqdM+ksa ij jke&uke fy[kdj vkVs dh xksfy;ksa
esa yisVrs vkSj mu xksfy;ksa dks ysdj xaxk th dh vksj py iM+rs FksA
ml le; Hkh ge muosQ oaQ/s ij fojkteku jgrs FksA tc og xaxk esa ,d&,d vkVs
dh xksfy;k¡ isaQddj eNfy;ksa dks f[kykus yxrs rc Hkh ge muosQ oaQ/s ij gh cSBs&cSBs
g¡lk djrs FksA tc og eNfy;ksa dks pkjk nsdj ?kj dh vksj ykSVus yxrs rc chp jkLrs
esa >qosQ gq, isM+ksa dh Mkyksa ij gesa fcBkdj >wyk >qykrs FksA
dHkh&dHkh ckcw th gels oqQ'rh Hkh yM+rsA og f'kfFky gksdj gekjs cy dks c<+kok
nsrs vkSj ge mudks iNkM+ nssrs FksA ;g mrku
5
 iM+ tkrs vkSj ge mudh Nkrh ij p<+
tkrs FksA tc ge mudh yach&yach ew¡Nsa m[kkM+us yxrs rc og g¡lrs&g¡lrs gekjs gkFkksa
dks ew¡Nksa ls NqM+kdj mUgsa pwe ysrs FksA fiQj tc gels [k^k vkSj ehBk pqEek ek¡xrs rc
ge ckjh&ckjh dj viuk ck;k¡ vkSj nkfguk xky muosQ eq¡g dh vksj isQj nsrs FksA ck,¡
dk [k^k pqEek ysdj tc og nkfgus dk ehBk pqEek ysus yxrs rc viuh nk<+h ;k ew¡N
gekjs dksey xkyksa ij xM+k nsrs FksA ge >q¡>ykdj fiQj mudh ew¡Nsa ukspus yx tkrs FksA
bl ij og cukoVh jksuk jksus yxrs vkSj ge vyx [kM+s&[kM+s f[ky&f[kykdj g¡lus yx
tkrs FksA
muosQ lkFk g¡lrs&g¡lrs tc ge ?kj vkrs rc muosQ lkFk gh ge Hkh pkSosQ ij [kkus
cSBrs FksA og gesa vius gh gkFk ls] iwQy osQ ,d dVksjs esa xksjl vkSj Hkkr lkudj
6
f[kykrs FksA tc ge [kkdj viQj
7
 tkrs rc eb;k¡ FkksM+k vkSj f[kykus osQ fy, gB djrh
FkhA og ckcw th ls dgus yxrhµvki rks pkj&pkj nkus osQ dkSj cPps osQ eq¡g esa nsrs
tkrs gSa_ blls og FkksM+k [kkus ij Hkh le> ysrk gS fd ge cgqr [kk x,_ vki f[kykus
dk <ax ugha tkursµcPps dks Hkj&eq¡g dkSj f[kykuk pkfg,A
tc [kk,xk cM+s&cM+s dkSj] rc ik,xk nqfu;k esa BkSj
8
A
µnsf[k,] eSa f[kykrh gw¡aA ejnq, D;k tkus fd cPpksa dks oSQls f[kykuk pkfg,] vkSj
egrkjh
9
 osQ gkFk ls [kkus ij cPpksa dk isV Hkh Hkjrk gSA
;g dg og Fkkyh esa ngh&Hkkr lkurh vkSj vyx&vyx rksrk] eSuk] dcwrj] gal]
eksj vkfn osQ cukoVh uke ls dkSj cukdj ;g dgrs gq, f[kykrh tkrh fd tYnh [kk
yks] ugha rks mM+ tk,¡xs_ ij ge mUgsa bruh tYnh mM+k tkrs Fks fd mM+us dk ekSdk gh
ugha feyrk FkkA
o`Qfrdk
4
10- ljlksa dk rsy  11- ljkcksj dj nsuk  12- NksVk 'kkfe;kuk  13- Hkkst] nkor
14- Hkkstu djuk
tc ge lc cukoVh fpfM+;ksa dks pV dj tkrs Fks rc ckcw th dgus yxrsµvPNk]
vc rqe ^jktk* gks] tkvks [ksyksA
cl] ge mBdj mNyus&owQnus yxrs FksA fiQj jLlh esa c¡/k gqvk dkB dk ?kksM+k
ysdj uax&èkM+ax ckgj xyh esa fudy tkrs FksA
tc dHkh eb;k¡ gesa vpkud idM+ ikrh rc gekjs yk[k NViVkus ij Hkh ,d
pqYyw dM+ok rsy
10 
gekjs flj ij Mky gh nsrh FkhA ge jksus yxrs vkSj ckcw th ml
ij fcxM+ [kM+s gksrs_ ij og gekjs flj esa rsy cksFkdj
11
 gesa mcVdj gh NksM+rh FkhA
fiQj gekjh ukHkh vkSj fyykj esa dkty dh ¯cnh yxkdj pksVh xw¡Fkrh vkSj mlesa
iwQynkj y^
w
 ck¡/dj jaxhu oqQjrk&Vksih iguk nsrh FkhA ge [kkls ^dUgS;k* cudj ckcw th
dh xksn esa flldrs&flldrs ckgj vkrs FksA
ckgj vkrs gh gekjh ckV tksgusokyk ckydksa dk ,d >qaM fey tkrk FkkA ge mu
[ksy osQ lkfFk;ksa dks ns[krs gh] fllduk Hkwydj] ckcw th dh xksn ls mrj iM+rs vkSj
vius getksfy;ksa osQ ny esa feydj rek'ks djus yx tkrs FksA
rek'ks Hkh ,sls&oSls ugha] rjg&rjg osQ ukVd! pcwrjs dk ,d dksuk gh ukVd&?kj
curk FkkA ckcw th ftl NksVh pkSdh ij cSBdj ugkrs Fks] ogh jaxeap curhA mlh ij
ljoaQMs osQ [kaHkksa ij dkx”k dk p¡nksvk
12
 rkudj] feBkb;ksa dh nqdku yxkbZ tkrhA mlesa
fpye osQ [kksaps ij diM+s osQ Fkkyksa esa <sys osQ ya
w
] iÙkksa dh iwjh&dpkSfj;k¡] xhyh fe^h
dh tysfc;k¡] iwQVs ?kM+s osQ VqdM+ksa osQ crk'ks vkfn feBkb;k¡ ltkbZ tkrhaA Bhdjksa osQ
cV[kjs vkSj tLrs osQ NksVs&NksVs VqdM+ksa osQ iSls cursA geha yksx [kjhnkj vkSj geha yksx
nqdkunkjA ckcw th Hkh nks&pkj xksj[kiqfj, iSls [kjhn ysrs FksA
FkksM+h nsj esa feBkbZ dh nqdku c<+kdj ge yksx ?kjkSank cukrs FksA /wy dh esM+ nhokj
curh vkSj frudksa dk NIijA nkrwu osQ [kaHks] fn;klykbZ dh isfV;ksa osQ fdokM+] ?kM+s osQ
eq¡gM+s dh pwYgk&pDdh] nh, dh dM+kgh vkSj ckcw th dh iwtk okyh vkpeuh dyNh
curh FkhA ikuh osQ ?kh] /wy osQ filku vkSj ckyw dh phuh ls ge yksx T;ksukj
13
 rS;kj
djrs FksA geha yksx T;ksukj djrs vkSj geha yksxksa dh T;ksukj cSBrh FkhA tc iaxr cSB
tkrh Fkh rc ckcw th Hkh /hjs&ls vkdj] ik¡r osQ var esa] theus
14
 osQ fy, cSB tkrs
FksA mudks cSBrs ns[krs gh ge yksx g¡ldj vkSj ?kjkSank fcxkM+dj Hkkx pyrs FksA og Hkh
g¡lrs&g¡lrs yksV&iksV gks tkrs vkSj dgus yxrsµfiQj dc Hkkst gksxk HkksykukFk\
Page 5


1- ,d rjg dk ok| ;a=k  2- izHkkr] losjk  3- yykV  4- ,d izdkj dk fryd ftlesa yykV
ij rhu vkM+h ;k vèkZpanzkdkj js[kk,¡ cukbZ tkrh gSa
tgk¡ yM+dksa dk lax] rgk¡ ckts e`nax
1
tgk¡ cqbksa dk lax] rgk¡ [kjps dk rax
gekjs firk rM+osQ
2
 mBdj] fucV&ugkdj iwtk
djus cSB tkrs FksA ge cpiu ls gh muosQ vax
yx x, FksA ekrk ls osQoy nw/ ihus rd dk
ukrk FkkA blfy, firk osQ lkFk gh ge Hkh ckgj
dh cSBd esa gh lks;k djrsA og vius lkFk gh
gesa Hkh mBkrs vkSj lkFk gh ugyk&/qykdj iwtk
ij fcBk ysrsA ge HkHkwr dk fryd yxk nsus osQ
fy, mudks fnd djus yxrs FksA oqQN g¡ldj] oqQN >q¡>ykdj vkSj oqQN Mk¡Vdj og
gekjs pkSM+s fyykj
3
 esa f=kiqaM
4
 dj nsrs FksA gekjs fyykj esa HkHkwr [kwc [kqyrh FkhA flj
esa yach&yach tVk,¡ FkhaA HkHkwr jekus ls ge [kkls ^ce&Hkksyk* cu tkrs FksA
firk th geas cM+s I;kj ls ^HkksykukFk* dgdj iqdkjk djrsA ij vly esa gekjk uke
Fkk ^rkjosQ'ojukFk*A ge Hkh mudks ^ckcw th* dgdj iqdkjk djrs vkSj ekrk dks
^eb;k¡*A
tc ckcw th jkek;.k dk ikB djrs rc ge mudh cxy esa cSBs&cSBs vkbus esa
viuk eq¡g fugkjk djrs FksA tc og gekjh vksj ns[krs rc ge oqQN ytkdj vkSj
eqLkdjkdj vkbuk uhps j[k nsrs FksA og Hkh eqLkdjk iM+rs FksA
iwtk&ikB dj pqdus osQ ckn og jke&jke fy[kus yxrsA viuh ,d ^jkeukek cgh*
ij g”kkj jke&uke fy[kdj og mls ikB djus dh iksFkh osQ lkFk ck¡/dj j[k nsrsA fiQj
f'koiwtu lgk;
1
ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py ekrk dk v¡py
o`Qfrdk
2
ekrk dk v¡py
3
5- ihB osQ cy ysVuk  6- feykuk] yisVuk] xw¡/uk  7- Hkj isV ls vf/d [kk ysuk
8- LFkku] volj  9- ekrk
ik¡p lkS ckj dkx”k osQ NksVs&NksVs VqdM+ksa ij jke&uke fy[kdj vkVs dh xksfy;ksa
esa yisVrs vkSj mu xksfy;ksa dks ysdj xaxk th dh vksj py iM+rs FksA
ml le; Hkh ge muosQ oaQ/s ij fojkteku jgrs FksA tc og xaxk esa ,d&,d vkVs
dh xksfy;k¡ isaQddj eNfy;ksa dks f[kykus yxrs rc Hkh ge muosQ oaQ/s ij gh cSBs&cSBs
g¡lk djrs FksA tc og eNfy;ksa dks pkjk nsdj ?kj dh vksj ykSVus yxrs rc chp jkLrs
esa >qosQ gq, isM+ksa dh Mkyksa ij gesa fcBkdj >wyk >qykrs FksA
dHkh&dHkh ckcw th gels oqQ'rh Hkh yM+rsA og f'kfFky gksdj gekjs cy dks c<+kok
nsrs vkSj ge mudks iNkM+ nssrs FksA ;g mrku
5
 iM+ tkrs vkSj ge mudh Nkrh ij p<+
tkrs FksA tc ge mudh yach&yach ew¡Nsa m[kkM+us yxrs rc og g¡lrs&g¡lrs gekjs gkFkksa
dks ew¡Nksa ls NqM+kdj mUgsa pwe ysrs FksA fiQj tc gels [k^k vkSj ehBk pqEek ek¡xrs rc
ge ckjh&ckjh dj viuk ck;k¡ vkSj nkfguk xky muosQ eq¡g dh vksj isQj nsrs FksA ck,¡
dk [k^k pqEek ysdj tc og nkfgus dk ehBk pqEek ysus yxrs rc viuh nk<+h ;k ew¡N
gekjs dksey xkyksa ij xM+k nsrs FksA ge >q¡>ykdj fiQj mudh ew¡Nsa ukspus yx tkrs FksA
bl ij og cukoVh jksuk jksus yxrs vkSj ge vyx [kM+s&[kM+s f[ky&f[kykdj g¡lus yx
tkrs FksA
muosQ lkFk g¡lrs&g¡lrs tc ge ?kj vkrs rc muosQ lkFk gh ge Hkh pkSosQ ij [kkus
cSBrs FksA og gesa vius gh gkFk ls] iwQy osQ ,d dVksjs esa xksjl vkSj Hkkr lkudj
6
f[kykrs FksA tc ge [kkdj viQj
7
 tkrs rc eb;k¡ FkksM+k vkSj f[kykus osQ fy, gB djrh
FkhA og ckcw th ls dgus yxrhµvki rks pkj&pkj nkus osQ dkSj cPps osQ eq¡g esa nsrs
tkrs gSa_ blls og FkksM+k [kkus ij Hkh le> ysrk gS fd ge cgqr [kk x,_ vki f[kykus
dk <ax ugha tkursµcPps dks Hkj&eq¡g dkSj f[kykuk pkfg,A
tc [kk,xk cM+s&cM+s dkSj] rc ik,xk nqfu;k esa BkSj
8
A
µnsf[k,] eSa f[kykrh gw¡aA ejnq, D;k tkus fd cPpksa dks oSQls f[kykuk pkfg,] vkSj
egrkjh
9
 osQ gkFk ls [kkus ij cPpksa dk isV Hkh Hkjrk gSA
;g dg og Fkkyh esa ngh&Hkkr lkurh vkSj vyx&vyx rksrk] eSuk] dcwrj] gal]
eksj vkfn osQ cukoVh uke ls dkSj cukdj ;g dgrs gq, f[kykrh tkrh fd tYnh [kk
yks] ugha rks mM+ tk,¡xs_ ij ge mUgsa bruh tYnh mM+k tkrs Fks fd mM+us dk ekSdk gh
ugha feyrk FkkA
o`Qfrdk
4
10- ljlksa dk rsy  11- ljkcksj dj nsuk  12- NksVk 'kkfe;kuk  13- Hkkst] nkor
14- Hkkstu djuk
tc ge lc cukoVh fpfM+;ksa dks pV dj tkrs Fks rc ckcw th dgus yxrsµvPNk]
vc rqe ^jktk* gks] tkvks [ksyksA
cl] ge mBdj mNyus&owQnus yxrs FksA fiQj jLlh esa c¡/k gqvk dkB dk ?kksM+k
ysdj uax&èkM+ax ckgj xyh esa fudy tkrs FksA
tc dHkh eb;k¡ gesa vpkud idM+ ikrh rc gekjs yk[k NViVkus ij Hkh ,d
pqYyw dM+ok rsy
10 
gekjs flj ij Mky gh nsrh FkhA ge jksus yxrs vkSj ckcw th ml
ij fcxM+ [kM+s gksrs_ ij og gekjs flj esa rsy cksFkdj
11
 gesa mcVdj gh NksM+rh FkhA
fiQj gekjh ukHkh vkSj fyykj esa dkty dh ¯cnh yxkdj pksVh xw¡Fkrh vkSj mlesa
iwQynkj y^
w
 ck¡/dj jaxhu oqQjrk&Vksih iguk nsrh FkhA ge [kkls ^dUgS;k* cudj ckcw th
dh xksn esa flldrs&flldrs ckgj vkrs FksA
ckgj vkrs gh gekjh ckV tksgusokyk ckydksa dk ,d >qaM fey tkrk FkkA ge mu
[ksy osQ lkfFk;ksa dks ns[krs gh] fllduk Hkwydj] ckcw th dh xksn ls mrj iM+rs vkSj
vius getksfy;ksa osQ ny esa feydj rek'ks djus yx tkrs FksA
rek'ks Hkh ,sls&oSls ugha] rjg&rjg osQ ukVd! pcwrjs dk ,d dksuk gh ukVd&?kj
curk FkkA ckcw th ftl NksVh pkSdh ij cSBdj ugkrs Fks] ogh jaxeap curhA mlh ij
ljoaQMs osQ [kaHkksa ij dkx”k dk p¡nksvk
12
 rkudj] feBkb;ksa dh nqdku yxkbZ tkrhA mlesa
fpye osQ [kksaps ij diM+s osQ Fkkyksa esa <sys osQ ya
w
] iÙkksa dh iwjh&dpkSfj;k¡] xhyh fe^h
dh tysfc;k¡] iwQVs ?kM+s osQ VqdM+ksa osQ crk'ks vkfn feBkb;k¡ ltkbZ tkrhaA Bhdjksa osQ
cV[kjs vkSj tLrs osQ NksVs&NksVs VqdM+ksa osQ iSls cursA geha yksx [kjhnkj vkSj geha yksx
nqdkunkjA ckcw th Hkh nks&pkj xksj[kiqfj, iSls [kjhn ysrs FksA
FkksM+h nsj esa feBkbZ dh nqdku c<+kdj ge yksx ?kjkSank cukrs FksA /wy dh esM+ nhokj
curh vkSj frudksa dk NIijA nkrwu osQ [kaHks] fn;klykbZ dh isfV;ksa osQ fdokM+] ?kM+s osQ
eq¡gM+s dh pwYgk&pDdh] nh, dh dM+kgh vkSj ckcw th dh iwtk okyh vkpeuh dyNh
curh FkhA ikuh osQ ?kh] /wy osQ filku vkSj ckyw dh phuh ls ge yksx T;ksukj
13
 rS;kj
djrs FksA geha yksx T;ksukj djrs vkSj geha yksxksa dh T;ksukj cSBrh FkhA tc iaxr cSB
tkrh Fkh rc ckcw th Hkh /hjs&ls vkdj] ik¡r osQ var esa] theus
14
 osQ fy, cSB tkrs
FksA mudks cSBrs ns[krs gh ge yksx g¡ldj vkSj ?kjkSank fcxkM+dj Hkkx pyrs FksA og Hkh
g¡lrs&g¡lrs yksV&iksV gks tkrs vkSj dgus yxrsµfiQj dc Hkkst gksxk HkksykukFk\
ekrk dk v¡py
5
15- vke dk mxrk gqvk ikSèkk  16- ijns osQ fy, Mkyk gqvk diM+k
17- fe^h dk cuk fNNyk dVksjk
dHkh&dHkh ge yksx cjkr dk Hkh tqywl fudkyrs FksA duLrj dk racwjk ctrk]
veksys
15
 dks f?kldj 'kgukbZ ctk;h tkrh] VwVh pwgsnkuh dh ikydh curh] ge leèkh
cudj cdjs ij p<+ ysrs vkSj pcwrjs osQ ,d dksus ls pydj cjkr nwljs dksus esa tkdj
njok”ks yxrh FkhA ogk¡ dkB dh iVfj;ksa ls f?kjs] xkscj ls fyis] vke vkSj osQys dh
Vgfu;ksa ls ltk, gq, NksVs vk¡xu esa oqQfYg, dk dylk j[kk jgrk FkkA ogha igq¡pdj
cjkr fiQj ykSV vkrh FkhA ykSVus osQ le;] [kVksyh ij yky vksgkj
16
 Mkydj] mlesa
nqyfgu dks p<+k fy;k tkrk FkkA ykSV vkus ij ckcw th T;ksa gh vksgkj m?kkjdj nqyfgu
dk eq[k fuj[kus yxrs] R;ksa gh ge yksx g¡ldj Hkkx tkrsA
FkksM+h nsj ckn fiQj yM+dkas dh eaMyh tqV tkrh FkhA bd_k gksrs gh jk; terh fd
[ksrh dh tk,A cl] pcwrjs osQ Nksj ij f?kjuh xM+ tkrh vkSj mlosQ uhps dh xyh oqQvk¡
cu tkrh FkhA ew¡t dh cVh gqbZ iryh jLlh esa ,d pqDdM+ ck¡/ xjkM+h ij p<+kdj
yVdk fn;k tkrk vkSj nks yM+osQ cSy cudj ^eksV* [khapus yx tkrsA pcwrjk [ksr
curk] oaQdM+ cht vkSj Bsaxk gy&tqvkBkA cM+h esgur ls [ksr tksrs&cks, vkSj iVk,
tkrsA iQly rS;kj gksrs nsj u yxrh vkSj ge gkFkksagkFk iQly dkV ysrs FksA dkVrs le;
xkrs Fksµ
m¡Qp uhps esa cbZ fd;kjh] tks mith lks HkbZ gekjhA
iQly dks ,d txg j[kdj mls iSjksa ls jkSan Mkyrs FksA dlksjs
17
 dk lwi cukdj
vkslkrs vkSj fe^h dh nh, osQ rjktw ij rkSydj jkf'k rS;kj dj nsrs FksA blh chp
ckcw th vkdj iwN cSBrs Fksµbl lky dh [ksrh oSQlh jgh HkksykukFk\
cl] fiQj D;k] ge yksx T;ksa&dk&R;ksa [ksr&[kfygku NksM+dj g¡lrs gq, Hkkx tkrs
FksA oSQlh ekSt dh [ksrh FkhA
,sls&,sls ukVd ge yksx cjkcj [ksyk djrs FksA cVksgh Hkh oqQN nsj fBBddj ge
yksxksa osQ rek'ks ns[k ysrs FksA
tc dHkh ge yksx nnjh osQ esys esa tkus okys vknfe;ksa dk >qaM ns[k ikrs rc
owQn&owQndj fpYykus yxrs Fksµ
pyks Hkb;ks nnjh] lkrw filku dh eksVjhA
vxj fdlh nwYgs osQ vkxs&vkxs tkrh gqbZ vksgkjnkj ikydh ns[k ikrs] rc [kwc ”kksj
ls fpYykus yxrs Fksµ
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