NCERT Textbook - मुद्रण संस्कृति और आधुनिक दुनिया Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - मुद्रण संस्कृति और आधुनिक दुनिया Notes | EduRev

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153
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
eqfær ;k Nih gqbZ lkexzh osQ cX+kSj nqfu;k dh dYiuk gekjs fy, fdruh
eqf'dy gS! ge vius pkjksa rjI+kQ tgk¡ uT+kj nkSM+k,¡] gesa dksbZ u dksbZ Nih
gqbZ phT+k fn[kkbZ nsxh% fdrkcsa] i=k&if=kdk,¡] v[+kckj] e'kgwj rlohjksa dh
uo+Qysa] esT+k ij iM+s ukVd osQ çksxzke] ljdkjh lwpuk,¡] oSQysaMj] Mk;jh]
lM+d osQ fdukjs foKkiu vkSj flusek osQ iksLVj] vkfn&vkfnA ge Nik
gqvk lkfgR; i<+rs gSa] isa¯Vx ns[krs gSa] v[+kckj i<+rs gSa] vkSj lkoZtfud
nqfu;k esa py jgs fooknksa dk tk;T+kk ysrs gSaA ge eqfær nqfu;k osQ vfLrRo
dks ekudj pyrs gSa] ;g lkspus dh Hkh T+k:jr ugha iM+rh fd NikbZ osQ
igys Hkh ,d nqfu;k FkhA ge 'kk;n gh eglwl djrs gSa fd NikbZ dk
viuk ,d bfrgkl gS] vkSj bl bfrgkl us gekjs ledkyhu T+kekus dks
vkdkj fn;k gSA ;g bfrgkl D;k gS\ lekt esa eqfær lkexzh dc ls pyuh
'kq: gqbZ\ vk/qfud nqfu;k dks cukus esa bldh D;k Hkwfedk Fkh\
bl vè;k; esa ge eqæ.k osQ blh bfrgkl dks ns[ksaxs&oSQls ;g iwohZ
,f'k;k ls 'kq: gksdj ;wjksi vkSj Hkkjr esa iSQykA ge eqæ.k rduhd osQ
çlkj vkSj çHkko dks lkekftd thou esa vk, cnyko ls tksM+dj le>us
dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
vè;k; 7
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
fp=k 1 µ ¯çV osQ vkus ls igys iqLrd&fuekZ.k]
v[+kykd&,&ulhjh] 1595] lsA
Hkkjr dk ,d 'kkgh ooZQ'kkWi&Hkkjr esa NikbZ vkus ls dki+Qh
igysA ;gk¡ ij ikB dks igys cksydj fy[kk;k tk jgk gS]
fiQj rLohj cukbZ tk jgh gSA iqLrd&fuekZ.k esa lqys[ku vkSj
fp=kdkjh dk cgqr egÙo FkkA Nkis[+kkus osQ vkus osQ ckn bu
dykvksa dk D;k gqvk] ;g lkspus yk;d gSA
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153
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
eqfær ;k Nih gqbZ lkexzh osQ cX+kSj nqfu;k dh dYiuk gekjs fy, fdruh
eqf'dy gS! ge vius pkjksa rjI+kQ tgk¡ uT+kj nkSM+k,¡] gesa dksbZ u dksbZ Nih
gqbZ phT+k fn[kkbZ nsxh% fdrkcsa] i=k&if=kdk,¡] v[+kckj] e'kgwj rlohjksa dh
uo+Qysa] esT+k ij iM+s ukVd osQ çksxzke] ljdkjh lwpuk,¡] oSQysaMj] Mk;jh]
lM+d osQ fdukjs foKkiu vkSj flusek osQ iksLVj] vkfn&vkfnA ge Nik
gqvk lkfgR; i<+rs gSa] isa¯Vx ns[krs gSa] v[+kckj i<+rs gSa] vkSj lkoZtfud
nqfu;k esa py jgs fooknksa dk tk;T+kk ysrs gSaA ge eqfær nqfu;k osQ vfLrRo
dks ekudj pyrs gSa] ;g lkspus dh Hkh T+k:jr ugha iM+rh fd NikbZ osQ
igys Hkh ,d nqfu;k FkhA ge 'kk;n gh eglwl djrs gSa fd NikbZ dk
viuk ,d bfrgkl gS] vkSj bl bfrgkl us gekjs ledkyhu T+kekus dks
vkdkj fn;k gSA ;g bfrgkl D;k gS\ lekt esa eqfær lkexzh dc ls pyuh
'kq: gqbZ\ vk/qfud nqfu;k dks cukus esa bldh D;k Hkwfedk Fkh\
bl vè;k; esa ge eqæ.k osQ blh bfrgkl dks ns[ksaxs&oSQls ;g iwohZ
,f'k;k ls 'kq: gksdj ;wjksi vkSj Hkkjr esa iSQykA ge eqæ.k rduhd osQ
çlkj vkSj çHkko dks lkekftd thou esa vk, cnyko ls tksM+dj le>us
dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
vè;k; 7
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
fp=k 1 µ ¯çV osQ vkus ls igys iqLrd&fuekZ.k]
v[+kykd&,&ulhjh] 1595] lsA
Hkkjr dk ,d 'kkgh ooZQ'kkWi&Hkkjr esa NikbZ vkus ls dki+Qh
igysA ;gk¡ ij ikB dks igys cksydj fy[kk;k tk jgk gS]
fiQj rLohj cukbZ tk jgh gSA iqLrd&fuekZ.k esa lqys[ku vkSj
fp=kdkjh dk cgqr egÙo FkkA Nkis[+kkus osQ vkus osQ ckn bu
dykvksa dk D;k gqvk] ;g lkspus yk;d gSA
154
Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o
1 'kq#vkrh Nih fdrkcsa
fp=k 2 µ ^Mk;eaM lw=k* dk ,d iUukA
eqæ.k dh lcls igyh rduhd phu] tkiku vkSj dksfj;k esa fodflr gqbZA
;g NikbZ gkFk ls gksrh FkhA rO+kQjhcu 594 bZ- ls phu esa L;kgh yxs dkB
osQ CykWd ;k r[+rh ij dkX+kT+k dks jxM+dj fdrkcsa Nkih tkus yxh FkhaA
pw¡fd irys] fNfnzr dkX+kT+k osQ nksuksa rjI+kQ NikbZ laHko ugha Fkh] blfy,
ikjaifjd phuh fdrkc ^,dkW£M;u* 'kSyh esa] fdukjksa dks eksM+us osQ ckn
fly dj cukbZ tkrh FkhA fdrkcksa dk lqys[ku ;k [+kq'kuohlh djusokys
yksx n{k lqys[kd ;k [+kq'k[+kr gksrs Fks] tks gkFk ls cM+s lqanj&lqMkSy v{kjksa
esa lgh&lgh dykRed fy[kkbZ djrs FksA
,d yacs vjls rd eqfær lkexzh dk lcls cM+k mRiknd phuh jktra=k FkkA
flfoy lsok ijh{kk ls fu;qDr phu dh ukSdj'kkgh Hkh fo'kkydk; Fkh rks
phuh jktra=k bu ijh{kkvksa osQ fy, cM+h rknkn esa fdrkcsa Niokrk FkkA
lksygoha lnh esa ijh{kk nsus okyksa dh rknkn c<+h] fygkT+kk] Nih fdrkcksa
dh ek=kk Hkh mlh vuqikr esa c<+ xbZA
l=kgoha lnh rd vkrs&vkrs phu esa 'kgjh laLD`Qfr osQ iQyus&iwQyus ls
NikbZ osQ bLrseky esa Hkh fofo/rk vkbZA vc eqfær lkexzh osQ miHkksDrk
flI+kZQ fo}ku vkSj vf/dkjh ugha jgsA O;kikjh vius jks”kejkZ osQ dkjksckj dh
tkudkjh ysus osQ fy, eqfær lkexzh dk bLrseky djus yxsA i<+uk ,d
'kX+ky Hkh cu x;kA u, ikBd oxZ dks dkYifud fO+kQLls] dfork,¡]
vkRedFkk,¡] 'kkL=kh; lkfgfR;d o`Qfr;ksa osQ ladyu vkSj :ekuh ukVd
ilan FksA vehj efgykvksa us Hkh i<+uk 'kq: fd;k vkSj dqN us Lojfpr
dkO; vkSj ukVd Hkh NkisA
i<+us dh ;g u;h laLo`Qfr ,d u;h rduhd osQ lkFk vkbZA mUuhloha lnh
osQ var esa if'peh eqæ.k 'kfDr;ksa }kjk viuh pkSfd;k¡ LFkkfir djus osQ
lkFk gh if'peh eqæ.k rduhd vkSj e'khuh çsl dk vk;kr fd;k x;kA
if'peh 'kSyh osQ Ldwyksa dh T+k:jrksa dks iwjk djus okyk 'ka?kkbZ ¯çV&laLo`Qfr
dk u;k osaQæ cu x;kA gkFk dh NikbZ dh txg vc /hjs&/hjs e'khuh ;k
;kaf=kd NikbZ us ys yhA
1-1 tkiku esa eqæ.k
phuh ckS¼ çpkjd 768&770 bZ- osQ vklikl NikbZ dh rduhd ysdj
tkiku vk,A tkiku dh lcls iqjkuh] 868 bZ- esa Nih] iqLrd ^Mk;eaM
lw=k* gS] ftlesa ikB osQ lkFk&lkFk dkB ij [kqns fp=k gSaA rlohjsa vdlj
diM+ksa] rk'k osQ iÙkksa vkSj dkX+kT+k osQ uksVksa ij cukbZ tkrh FkhaA eè;dkyhu
tkiku esa dfo Hkh Nirs Fks vkSj x|dkj Hkh] vkSj fdrkcsa lLrh vkSj
lqyHk FkhaA
u, 'kCn
[+kq'kuohlh % lqys[ku (Calligraphy)
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153
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
eqfær ;k Nih gqbZ lkexzh osQ cX+kSj nqfu;k dh dYiuk gekjs fy, fdruh
eqf'dy gS! ge vius pkjksa rjI+kQ tgk¡ uT+kj nkSM+k,¡] gesa dksbZ u dksbZ Nih
gqbZ phT+k fn[kkbZ nsxh% fdrkcsa] i=k&if=kdk,¡] v[+kckj] e'kgwj rlohjksa dh
uo+Qysa] esT+k ij iM+s ukVd osQ çksxzke] ljdkjh lwpuk,¡] oSQysaMj] Mk;jh]
lM+d osQ fdukjs foKkiu vkSj flusek osQ iksLVj] vkfn&vkfnA ge Nik
gqvk lkfgR; i<+rs gSa] isa¯Vx ns[krs gSa] v[+kckj i<+rs gSa] vkSj lkoZtfud
nqfu;k esa py jgs fooknksa dk tk;T+kk ysrs gSaA ge eqfær nqfu;k osQ vfLrRo
dks ekudj pyrs gSa] ;g lkspus dh Hkh T+k:jr ugha iM+rh fd NikbZ osQ
igys Hkh ,d nqfu;k FkhA ge 'kk;n gh eglwl djrs gSa fd NikbZ dk
viuk ,d bfrgkl gS] vkSj bl bfrgkl us gekjs ledkyhu T+kekus dks
vkdkj fn;k gSA ;g bfrgkl D;k gS\ lekt esa eqfær lkexzh dc ls pyuh
'kq: gqbZ\ vk/qfud nqfu;k dks cukus esa bldh D;k Hkwfedk Fkh\
bl vè;k; esa ge eqæ.k osQ blh bfrgkl dks ns[ksaxs&oSQls ;g iwohZ
,f'k;k ls 'kq: gksdj ;wjksi vkSj Hkkjr esa iSQykA ge eqæ.k rduhd osQ
çlkj vkSj çHkko dks lkekftd thou esa vk, cnyko ls tksM+dj le>us
dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
vè;k; 7
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
fp=k 1 µ ¯çV osQ vkus ls igys iqLrd&fuekZ.k]
v[+kykd&,&ulhjh] 1595] lsA
Hkkjr dk ,d 'kkgh ooZQ'kkWi&Hkkjr esa NikbZ vkus ls dki+Qh
igysA ;gk¡ ij ikB dks igys cksydj fy[kk;k tk jgk gS]
fiQj rLohj cukbZ tk jgh gSA iqLrd&fuekZ.k esa lqys[ku vkSj
fp=kdkjh dk cgqr egÙo FkkA Nkis[+kkus osQ vkus osQ ckn bu
dykvksa dk D;k gqvk] ;g lkspus yk;d gSA
154
Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o
1 'kq#vkrh Nih fdrkcsa
fp=k 2 µ ^Mk;eaM lw=k* dk ,d iUukA
eqæ.k dh lcls igyh rduhd phu] tkiku vkSj dksfj;k esa fodflr gqbZA
;g NikbZ gkFk ls gksrh FkhA rO+kQjhcu 594 bZ- ls phu esa L;kgh yxs dkB
osQ CykWd ;k r[+rh ij dkX+kT+k dks jxM+dj fdrkcsa Nkih tkus yxh FkhaA
pw¡fd irys] fNfnzr dkX+kT+k osQ nksuksa rjI+kQ NikbZ laHko ugha Fkh] blfy,
ikjaifjd phuh fdrkc ^,dkW£M;u* 'kSyh esa] fdukjksa dks eksM+us osQ ckn
fly dj cukbZ tkrh FkhA fdrkcksa dk lqys[ku ;k [+kq'kuohlh djusokys
yksx n{k lqys[kd ;k [+kq'k[+kr gksrs Fks] tks gkFk ls cM+s lqanj&lqMkSy v{kjksa
esa lgh&lgh dykRed fy[kkbZ djrs FksA
,d yacs vjls rd eqfær lkexzh dk lcls cM+k mRiknd phuh jktra=k FkkA
flfoy lsok ijh{kk ls fu;qDr phu dh ukSdj'kkgh Hkh fo'kkydk; Fkh rks
phuh jktra=k bu ijh{kkvksa osQ fy, cM+h rknkn esa fdrkcsa Niokrk FkkA
lksygoha lnh esa ijh{kk nsus okyksa dh rknkn c<+h] fygkT+kk] Nih fdrkcksa
dh ek=kk Hkh mlh vuqikr esa c<+ xbZA
l=kgoha lnh rd vkrs&vkrs phu esa 'kgjh laLD`Qfr osQ iQyus&iwQyus ls
NikbZ osQ bLrseky esa Hkh fofo/rk vkbZA vc eqfær lkexzh osQ miHkksDrk
flI+kZQ fo}ku vkSj vf/dkjh ugha jgsA O;kikjh vius jks”kejkZ osQ dkjksckj dh
tkudkjh ysus osQ fy, eqfær lkexzh dk bLrseky djus yxsA i<+uk ,d
'kX+ky Hkh cu x;kA u, ikBd oxZ dks dkYifud fO+kQLls] dfork,¡]
vkRedFkk,¡] 'kkL=kh; lkfgfR;d o`Qfr;ksa osQ ladyu vkSj :ekuh ukVd
ilan FksA vehj efgykvksa us Hkh i<+uk 'kq: fd;k vkSj dqN us Lojfpr
dkO; vkSj ukVd Hkh NkisA
i<+us dh ;g u;h laLo`Qfr ,d u;h rduhd osQ lkFk vkbZA mUuhloha lnh
osQ var esa if'peh eqæ.k 'kfDr;ksa }kjk viuh pkSfd;k¡ LFkkfir djus osQ
lkFk gh if'peh eqæ.k rduhd vkSj e'khuh çsl dk vk;kr fd;k x;kA
if'peh 'kSyh osQ Ldwyksa dh T+k:jrksa dks iwjk djus okyk 'ka?kkbZ ¯çV&laLo`Qfr
dk u;k osaQæ cu x;kA gkFk dh NikbZ dh txg vc /hjs&/hjs e'khuh ;k
;kaf=kd NikbZ us ys yhA
1-1 tkiku esa eqæ.k
phuh ckS¼ çpkjd 768&770 bZ- osQ vklikl NikbZ dh rduhd ysdj
tkiku vk,A tkiku dh lcls iqjkuh] 868 bZ- esa Nih] iqLrd ^Mk;eaM
lw=k* gS] ftlesa ikB osQ lkFk&lkFk dkB ij [kqns fp=k gSaA rlohjsa vdlj
diM+ksa] rk'k osQ iÙkksa vkSj dkX+kT+k osQ uksVksa ij cukbZ tkrh FkhaA eè;dkyhu
tkiku esa dfo Hkh Nirs Fks vkSj x|dkj Hkh] vkSj fdrkcsa lLrh vkSj
lqyHk FkhaA
u, 'kCn
[+kq'kuohlh % lqys[ku (Calligraphy)
155
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
vBkjgoha lnh osQ var esa] ,nks (ckn esa ftls rksD;ks osQ uke ls tkuk x;k)
osQ 'kgjh bykO+ksQ dh fp=kdkjh esa 'kkyhu 'kgjh laLo`Qfr dk irk feyrk gS
ftlesa ge pk;?kj osQ eteksa] dykdkjksa] vkSj rok;I+kQksa dks ns[k ldrs gSaA
gkFk ls eqfær rjg&rjg dh lkexzh&efgykvksa] laxhr osQ lkT+kksa] fglkc&fdrkc]
pk; vuq"Bku] iwQylkT+kh] f'k"Vkpkj vkSj jlksbZ ij fy[kh fdrkcksa&ls
iqLrdky; ,oa nqdkusa vVh iM+h FkhaA
ckWDl 1
fdrkxkok mrkekjks] 1753 bZ- esa ,nks esa iSnk gq, mrkekjks us mfd;ks (rSjrh nqfu;k
osQ fp=k) uke dh ,d u;h fp=kdyk 'kSyh esa vge ;ksxnku fd,] ftuesa vke 'kgjh
thou dk fp=k.k fd;k x;kA budh Nih izfr;k¡ ;wjksi vkSj vesfjdk igq¡ph vkSj ekus]
eksus vkSj oku xkWx tSls fp=kdkjksa dks izHkkfor fd;kA Rlqrk;k tq”kkcwjks tSls
izdk'kdksa us fo"k; pqudj dykdkjksa ls mu ij fp=k cukus dk O+kQjkj fd;k tkrk
fiQj fp=kdkj fo"k; dh :ijs[kk cukrs FksA blosQ ckn gqujean oqMCykWd f'kYih
fp=kdkj }kjk cukbZ xbZ :ijs[kk dks r[+rh ij fpidkdj mldh vkÑfr dks mosQj
ysrs FksA bl izfØ;k esa ewy vkjs[k rks X+kk;c gks tkrk Fkk] ij mldh Nih uO+kQy cp
tkrh FkhA
fp=k 3 µ fdrkxkok
mrkekjks dh ,d mfd;ks
jpukA
fp=k 4 µ lqcg dk u”kkjkA
jpf;rk % 'kqUeu oqQcks] vBkjgoha
lnh osQ var esaA
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153
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
eqfær ;k Nih gqbZ lkexzh osQ cX+kSj nqfu;k dh dYiuk gekjs fy, fdruh
eqf'dy gS! ge vius pkjksa rjI+kQ tgk¡ uT+kj nkSM+k,¡] gesa dksbZ u dksbZ Nih
gqbZ phT+k fn[kkbZ nsxh% fdrkcsa] i=k&if=kdk,¡] v[+kckj] e'kgwj rlohjksa dh
uo+Qysa] esT+k ij iM+s ukVd osQ çksxzke] ljdkjh lwpuk,¡] oSQysaMj] Mk;jh]
lM+d osQ fdukjs foKkiu vkSj flusek osQ iksLVj] vkfn&vkfnA ge Nik
gqvk lkfgR; i<+rs gSa] isa¯Vx ns[krs gSa] v[+kckj i<+rs gSa] vkSj lkoZtfud
nqfu;k esa py jgs fooknksa dk tk;T+kk ysrs gSaA ge eqfær nqfu;k osQ vfLrRo
dks ekudj pyrs gSa] ;g lkspus dh Hkh T+k:jr ugha iM+rh fd NikbZ osQ
igys Hkh ,d nqfu;k FkhA ge 'kk;n gh eglwl djrs gSa fd NikbZ dk
viuk ,d bfrgkl gS] vkSj bl bfrgkl us gekjs ledkyhu T+kekus dks
vkdkj fn;k gSA ;g bfrgkl D;k gS\ lekt esa eqfær lkexzh dc ls pyuh
'kq: gqbZ\ vk/qfud nqfu;k dks cukus esa bldh D;k Hkwfedk Fkh\
bl vè;k; esa ge eqæ.k osQ blh bfrgkl dks ns[ksaxs&oSQls ;g iwohZ
,f'k;k ls 'kq: gksdj ;wjksi vkSj Hkkjr esa iSQykA ge eqæ.k rduhd osQ
çlkj vkSj çHkko dks lkekftd thou esa vk, cnyko ls tksM+dj le>us
dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
vè;k; 7
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
fp=k 1 µ ¯çV osQ vkus ls igys iqLrd&fuekZ.k]
v[+kykd&,&ulhjh] 1595] lsA
Hkkjr dk ,d 'kkgh ooZQ'kkWi&Hkkjr esa NikbZ vkus ls dki+Qh
igysA ;gk¡ ij ikB dks igys cksydj fy[kk;k tk jgk gS]
fiQj rLohj cukbZ tk jgh gSA iqLrd&fuekZ.k esa lqys[ku vkSj
fp=kdkjh dk cgqr egÙo FkkA Nkis[+kkus osQ vkus osQ ckn bu
dykvksa dk D;k gqvk] ;g lkspus yk;d gSA
154
Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o
1 'kq#vkrh Nih fdrkcsa
fp=k 2 µ ^Mk;eaM lw=k* dk ,d iUukA
eqæ.k dh lcls igyh rduhd phu] tkiku vkSj dksfj;k esa fodflr gqbZA
;g NikbZ gkFk ls gksrh FkhA rO+kQjhcu 594 bZ- ls phu esa L;kgh yxs dkB
osQ CykWd ;k r[+rh ij dkX+kT+k dks jxM+dj fdrkcsa Nkih tkus yxh FkhaA
pw¡fd irys] fNfnzr dkX+kT+k osQ nksuksa rjI+kQ NikbZ laHko ugha Fkh] blfy,
ikjaifjd phuh fdrkc ^,dkW£M;u* 'kSyh esa] fdukjksa dks eksM+us osQ ckn
fly dj cukbZ tkrh FkhA fdrkcksa dk lqys[ku ;k [+kq'kuohlh djusokys
yksx n{k lqys[kd ;k [+kq'k[+kr gksrs Fks] tks gkFk ls cM+s lqanj&lqMkSy v{kjksa
esa lgh&lgh dykRed fy[kkbZ djrs FksA
,d yacs vjls rd eqfær lkexzh dk lcls cM+k mRiknd phuh jktra=k FkkA
flfoy lsok ijh{kk ls fu;qDr phu dh ukSdj'kkgh Hkh fo'kkydk; Fkh rks
phuh jktra=k bu ijh{kkvksa osQ fy, cM+h rknkn esa fdrkcsa Niokrk FkkA
lksygoha lnh esa ijh{kk nsus okyksa dh rknkn c<+h] fygkT+kk] Nih fdrkcksa
dh ek=kk Hkh mlh vuqikr esa c<+ xbZA
l=kgoha lnh rd vkrs&vkrs phu esa 'kgjh laLD`Qfr osQ iQyus&iwQyus ls
NikbZ osQ bLrseky esa Hkh fofo/rk vkbZA vc eqfær lkexzh osQ miHkksDrk
flI+kZQ fo}ku vkSj vf/dkjh ugha jgsA O;kikjh vius jks”kejkZ osQ dkjksckj dh
tkudkjh ysus osQ fy, eqfær lkexzh dk bLrseky djus yxsA i<+uk ,d
'kX+ky Hkh cu x;kA u, ikBd oxZ dks dkYifud fO+kQLls] dfork,¡]
vkRedFkk,¡] 'kkL=kh; lkfgfR;d o`Qfr;ksa osQ ladyu vkSj :ekuh ukVd
ilan FksA vehj efgykvksa us Hkh i<+uk 'kq: fd;k vkSj dqN us Lojfpr
dkO; vkSj ukVd Hkh NkisA
i<+us dh ;g u;h laLo`Qfr ,d u;h rduhd osQ lkFk vkbZA mUuhloha lnh
osQ var esa if'peh eqæ.k 'kfDr;ksa }kjk viuh pkSfd;k¡ LFkkfir djus osQ
lkFk gh if'peh eqæ.k rduhd vkSj e'khuh çsl dk vk;kr fd;k x;kA
if'peh 'kSyh osQ Ldwyksa dh T+k:jrksa dks iwjk djus okyk 'ka?kkbZ ¯çV&laLo`Qfr
dk u;k osaQæ cu x;kA gkFk dh NikbZ dh txg vc /hjs&/hjs e'khuh ;k
;kaf=kd NikbZ us ys yhA
1-1 tkiku esa eqæ.k
phuh ckS¼ çpkjd 768&770 bZ- osQ vklikl NikbZ dh rduhd ysdj
tkiku vk,A tkiku dh lcls iqjkuh] 868 bZ- esa Nih] iqLrd ^Mk;eaM
lw=k* gS] ftlesa ikB osQ lkFk&lkFk dkB ij [kqns fp=k gSaA rlohjsa vdlj
diM+ksa] rk'k osQ iÙkksa vkSj dkX+kT+k osQ uksVksa ij cukbZ tkrh FkhaA eè;dkyhu
tkiku esa dfo Hkh Nirs Fks vkSj x|dkj Hkh] vkSj fdrkcsa lLrh vkSj
lqyHk FkhaA
u, 'kCn
[+kq'kuohlh % lqys[ku (Calligraphy)
155
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
vBkjgoha lnh osQ var esa] ,nks (ckn esa ftls rksD;ks osQ uke ls tkuk x;k)
osQ 'kgjh bykO+ksQ dh fp=kdkjh esa 'kkyhu 'kgjh laLo`Qfr dk irk feyrk gS
ftlesa ge pk;?kj osQ eteksa] dykdkjksa] vkSj rok;I+kQksa dks ns[k ldrs gSaA
gkFk ls eqfær rjg&rjg dh lkexzh&efgykvksa] laxhr osQ lkT+kksa] fglkc&fdrkc]
pk; vuq"Bku] iwQylkT+kh] f'k"Vkpkj vkSj jlksbZ ij fy[kh fdrkcksa&ls
iqLrdky; ,oa nqdkusa vVh iM+h FkhaA
ckWDl 1
fdrkxkok mrkekjks] 1753 bZ- esa ,nks esa iSnk gq, mrkekjks us mfd;ks (rSjrh nqfu;k
osQ fp=k) uke dh ,d u;h fp=kdyk 'kSyh esa vge ;ksxnku fd,] ftuesa vke 'kgjh
thou dk fp=k.k fd;k x;kA budh Nih izfr;k¡ ;wjksi vkSj vesfjdk igq¡ph vkSj ekus]
eksus vkSj oku xkWx tSls fp=kdkjksa dks izHkkfor fd;kA Rlqrk;k tq”kkcwjks tSls
izdk'kdksa us fo"k; pqudj dykdkjksa ls mu ij fp=k cukus dk O+kQjkj fd;k tkrk
fiQj fp=kdkj fo"k; dh :ijs[kk cukrs FksA blosQ ckn gqujean oqMCykWd f'kYih
fp=kdkj }kjk cukbZ xbZ :ijs[kk dks r[+rh ij fpidkdj mldh vkÑfr dks mosQj
ysrs FksA bl izfØ;k esa ewy vkjs[k rks X+kk;c gks tkrk Fkk] ij mldh Nih uO+kQy cp
tkrh FkhA
fp=k 3 µ fdrkxkok
mrkekjks dh ,d mfd;ks
jpukA
fp=k 4 µ lqcg dk u”kkjkA
jpf;rk % 'kqUeu oqQcks] vBkjgoha
lnh osQ var esaA
156
Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o
2 ;wjksi esa eqæ.k dk vkuk
lfn;ksa rd phu ls js'ke vkSj elkys ekxZ ls ;wjksi vkrs jgs FksA X;kjgoha
lnh esa phuh dkX+kT+k Hkh mlh jkLrs ogk¡ ig¡qpkA dkX+kT+k us dkfrcksa ;k eqaf'k;ksa
}kjk lko/kuhiwoZd fy[kh xbZ ikaMqfyfi;ksa osQ mRiknu dks eqefdu cuk;kA
fiQj 1295 bZ- esa ekdksZ iksyks uked egku [kksth ;k=kh phu esa dkI+kQh lky
rd [kkst djus osQ ckn bVyh okil ykSVkA tSlk fd vkius Åij i<+k] phu
osQ ikl oqMCykWd (dkB dh r[+rh) okyh NikbZ dh rduhd igys ls
ekStwn FkhA ekdksZ iksyks ;g Kku vius lkFk ysdj ykSVkA fiQj D;k Fkk]
brkyoh Hkh r[+rh dh NikbZ ls fdrkcsa fudkyus yxs vkSj tYn gh ;g
rduhd ckdh ;wjksi esa iSQy xbZA eqfnzr fdrkcksa dks lLrh v'yhy
ekuusokys oqQyhu oxks± vkSj fHk{kq&la?kksa osQ fy, Nis fdrkcksa osQ foyklh
laLdj.k vHkh Hkh cs'kO+kQherh osye (vellum) ;k peZ&i=k ij gh Nirs
FksA O;kikjh vkSj fo'ofo|ky; osQ fo|kFkhZ lLrh eqfær fdrkcsa [+kjhnrs FksA
fdrkcksa dh ek¡x c<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk ;wjksi&Hkj osQ iqLrd&foØsrk fofHkUu
ns'kksa esa fu;kZr djus yxsA vyx&vyx txgksa ij iqLrd esys yxus yxsA
c<+rh ek¡x dh vkiwfrZ osQ fy, gLrfyf[kr ikaMqfyfi;ksa osQ mRiknu osQ Hkh
u, rjhos+Q lksps x,A vc flI+kZQ vehj yksxksa osQ ;gk¡ lqys[kd ;k dkfrc
ugha ik, tkrs Fks] cfYd iqLrd&fooszQrk Hkh vc mUgsa jks”kxkj nsus yxsA
vkerkSj ij ,d foØsrk osQ ;gk¡ 50 dkfrc dke djrs FksA
ysfdu fdrkcksa dh vck/ c<+rh ek¡x gLrfyf[kr ikaMqfyfi;ksa ls iwjh ugha
gksus okyh FkhA uO+kQy mrkjuk csgn [+kphZyk] le;lkè; vkSj Jelkè; dke
FkkA ikaMqfyfi;k¡ vdlj uk”kqd gksrh Fkha] muosQ ykus&ys tkus] j[k&j[kko
esa reke eqf'dysa FkhaA blfy, mudk loqZQys'ku (çpkyu@x'r) lhfer
jgk rks fdrkcksa dh c<+rh ek¡x osQ pyrs oqMCykWd ¯ç¯Vx (r[+rh dh
NikbZ) mÙkjksÙkj yksdfç; gksrk x;kA iaægoha lnh dh 'kq#vkr rd ;wjksi
esa cM+s iSekus ij r[+rh dh NikbZ dk bLrseky djosQ diM+s] rk'k osQ iÙks]
vkSj NksVh&NksVh fVIif.k;ksa osQ lkFk /k£ed fp=k Nkis tk jgs FksA
t+kfgj gS fd fdrkcsa Nkius osQ fy, blls Hkh rsT+k vkSj lLrh eqæ.k
rduhd dh ”k:jr FkhA ,slk NikbZ dh ,d u;h rduhd osQ vkfo"dkj
ls gh laHko gksrk tks 1430 osQ n'kd esa LVSªlcxZ osQ ;ksgku xqVsUcxZ us
varr% dj fn[kk;kA
2-1 xqVsUcxZ vkSj ¯ç¯Vx çsl
xqVsUcxZ osQ firk O;kikjh Fks] vkSj og [ksrh dh ,d cM+h fj;klr esa
iy&c<+dj cM+k gqvkA og cpiu ls gh rsy vkSj tSrwu isjus dh e'khusa
(press) ns[krk vk;k FkkA ckn esa mlus iRFkj ij ikWfy'k djus dh dyk
lh[kh] fiQj lqukjh vkSj var esa mlus 'kh'ks dks bfPNr vko`Qfr;ksa esa x<+us
u, 'kCn
osye (Vellum) % peZ&i=k ;k tkuojksa osQ peM+s ls cuh
ys[ku dh lrgA
dYiuk dhft, vki ekdks± iksyks gSaA phu esa vkius ¯izV dk
oSQlk lalkj ns[kk] ;g crkrs gq, ,d fpV~Bh fy[ksaA
xfrfof/
Page 5


153
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
eqfær ;k Nih gqbZ lkexzh osQ cX+kSj nqfu;k dh dYiuk gekjs fy, fdruh
eqf'dy gS! ge vius pkjksa rjI+kQ tgk¡ uT+kj nkSM+k,¡] gesa dksbZ u dksbZ Nih
gqbZ phT+k fn[kkbZ nsxh% fdrkcsa] i=k&if=kdk,¡] v[+kckj] e'kgwj rlohjksa dh
uo+Qysa] esT+k ij iM+s ukVd osQ çksxzke] ljdkjh lwpuk,¡] oSQysaMj] Mk;jh]
lM+d osQ fdukjs foKkiu vkSj flusek osQ iksLVj] vkfn&vkfnA ge Nik
gqvk lkfgR; i<+rs gSa] isa¯Vx ns[krs gSa] v[+kckj i<+rs gSa] vkSj lkoZtfud
nqfu;k esa py jgs fooknksa dk tk;T+kk ysrs gSaA ge eqfær nqfu;k osQ vfLrRo
dks ekudj pyrs gSa] ;g lkspus dh Hkh T+k:jr ugha iM+rh fd NikbZ osQ
igys Hkh ,d nqfu;k FkhA ge 'kk;n gh eglwl djrs gSa fd NikbZ dk
viuk ,d bfrgkl gS] vkSj bl bfrgkl us gekjs ledkyhu T+kekus dks
vkdkj fn;k gSA ;g bfrgkl D;k gS\ lekt esa eqfær lkexzh dc ls pyuh
'kq: gqbZ\ vk/qfud nqfu;k dks cukus esa bldh D;k Hkwfedk Fkh\
bl vè;k; esa ge eqæ.k osQ blh bfrgkl dks ns[ksaxs&oSQls ;g iwohZ
,f'k;k ls 'kq: gksdj ;wjksi vkSj Hkkjr esa iSQykA ge eqæ.k rduhd osQ
çlkj vkSj çHkko dks lkekftd thou esa vk, cnyko ls tksM+dj le>us
dh dksf'k'k djsaxsA
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
vè;k; 7
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
fp=k 1 µ ¯çV osQ vkus ls igys iqLrd&fuekZ.k]
v[+kykd&,&ulhjh] 1595] lsA
Hkkjr dk ,d 'kkgh ooZQ'kkWi&Hkkjr esa NikbZ vkus ls dki+Qh
igysA ;gk¡ ij ikB dks igys cksydj fy[kk;k tk jgk gS]
fiQj rLohj cukbZ tk jgh gSA iqLrd&fuekZ.k esa lqys[ku vkSj
fp=kdkjh dk cgqr egÙo FkkA Nkis[+kkus osQ vkus osQ ckn bu
dykvksa dk D;k gqvk] ;g lkspus yk;d gSA
154
Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o
1 'kq#vkrh Nih fdrkcsa
fp=k 2 µ ^Mk;eaM lw=k* dk ,d iUukA
eqæ.k dh lcls igyh rduhd phu] tkiku vkSj dksfj;k esa fodflr gqbZA
;g NikbZ gkFk ls gksrh FkhA rO+kQjhcu 594 bZ- ls phu esa L;kgh yxs dkB
osQ CykWd ;k r[+rh ij dkX+kT+k dks jxM+dj fdrkcsa Nkih tkus yxh FkhaA
pw¡fd irys] fNfnzr dkX+kT+k osQ nksuksa rjI+kQ NikbZ laHko ugha Fkh] blfy,
ikjaifjd phuh fdrkc ^,dkW£M;u* 'kSyh esa] fdukjksa dks eksM+us osQ ckn
fly dj cukbZ tkrh FkhA fdrkcksa dk lqys[ku ;k [+kq'kuohlh djusokys
yksx n{k lqys[kd ;k [+kq'k[+kr gksrs Fks] tks gkFk ls cM+s lqanj&lqMkSy v{kjksa
esa lgh&lgh dykRed fy[kkbZ djrs FksA
,d yacs vjls rd eqfær lkexzh dk lcls cM+k mRiknd phuh jktra=k FkkA
flfoy lsok ijh{kk ls fu;qDr phu dh ukSdj'kkgh Hkh fo'kkydk; Fkh rks
phuh jktra=k bu ijh{kkvksa osQ fy, cM+h rknkn esa fdrkcsa Niokrk FkkA
lksygoha lnh esa ijh{kk nsus okyksa dh rknkn c<+h] fygkT+kk] Nih fdrkcksa
dh ek=kk Hkh mlh vuqikr esa c<+ xbZA
l=kgoha lnh rd vkrs&vkrs phu esa 'kgjh laLD`Qfr osQ iQyus&iwQyus ls
NikbZ osQ bLrseky esa Hkh fofo/rk vkbZA vc eqfær lkexzh osQ miHkksDrk
flI+kZQ fo}ku vkSj vf/dkjh ugha jgsA O;kikjh vius jks”kejkZ osQ dkjksckj dh
tkudkjh ysus osQ fy, eqfær lkexzh dk bLrseky djus yxsA i<+uk ,d
'kX+ky Hkh cu x;kA u, ikBd oxZ dks dkYifud fO+kQLls] dfork,¡]
vkRedFkk,¡] 'kkL=kh; lkfgfR;d o`Qfr;ksa osQ ladyu vkSj :ekuh ukVd
ilan FksA vehj efgykvksa us Hkh i<+uk 'kq: fd;k vkSj dqN us Lojfpr
dkO; vkSj ukVd Hkh NkisA
i<+us dh ;g u;h laLo`Qfr ,d u;h rduhd osQ lkFk vkbZA mUuhloha lnh
osQ var esa if'peh eqæ.k 'kfDr;ksa }kjk viuh pkSfd;k¡ LFkkfir djus osQ
lkFk gh if'peh eqæ.k rduhd vkSj e'khuh çsl dk vk;kr fd;k x;kA
if'peh 'kSyh osQ Ldwyksa dh T+k:jrksa dks iwjk djus okyk 'ka?kkbZ ¯çV&laLo`Qfr
dk u;k osaQæ cu x;kA gkFk dh NikbZ dh txg vc /hjs&/hjs e'khuh ;k
;kaf=kd NikbZ us ys yhA
1-1 tkiku esa eqæ.k
phuh ckS¼ çpkjd 768&770 bZ- osQ vklikl NikbZ dh rduhd ysdj
tkiku vk,A tkiku dh lcls iqjkuh] 868 bZ- esa Nih] iqLrd ^Mk;eaM
lw=k* gS] ftlesa ikB osQ lkFk&lkFk dkB ij [kqns fp=k gSaA rlohjsa vdlj
diM+ksa] rk'k osQ iÙkksa vkSj dkX+kT+k osQ uksVksa ij cukbZ tkrh FkhaA eè;dkyhu
tkiku esa dfo Hkh Nirs Fks vkSj x|dkj Hkh] vkSj fdrkcsa lLrh vkSj
lqyHk FkhaA
u, 'kCn
[+kq'kuohlh % lqys[ku (Calligraphy)
155
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
vBkjgoha lnh osQ var esa] ,nks (ckn esa ftls rksD;ks osQ uke ls tkuk x;k)
osQ 'kgjh bykO+ksQ dh fp=kdkjh esa 'kkyhu 'kgjh laLo`Qfr dk irk feyrk gS
ftlesa ge pk;?kj osQ eteksa] dykdkjksa] vkSj rok;I+kQksa dks ns[k ldrs gSaA
gkFk ls eqfær rjg&rjg dh lkexzh&efgykvksa] laxhr osQ lkT+kksa] fglkc&fdrkc]
pk; vuq"Bku] iwQylkT+kh] f'k"Vkpkj vkSj jlksbZ ij fy[kh fdrkcksa&ls
iqLrdky; ,oa nqdkusa vVh iM+h FkhaA
ckWDl 1
fdrkxkok mrkekjks] 1753 bZ- esa ,nks esa iSnk gq, mrkekjks us mfd;ks (rSjrh nqfu;k
osQ fp=k) uke dh ,d u;h fp=kdyk 'kSyh esa vge ;ksxnku fd,] ftuesa vke 'kgjh
thou dk fp=k.k fd;k x;kA budh Nih izfr;k¡ ;wjksi vkSj vesfjdk igq¡ph vkSj ekus]
eksus vkSj oku xkWx tSls fp=kdkjksa dks izHkkfor fd;kA Rlqrk;k tq”kkcwjks tSls
izdk'kdksa us fo"k; pqudj dykdkjksa ls mu ij fp=k cukus dk O+kQjkj fd;k tkrk
fiQj fp=kdkj fo"k; dh :ijs[kk cukrs FksA blosQ ckn gqujean oqMCykWd f'kYih
fp=kdkj }kjk cukbZ xbZ :ijs[kk dks r[+rh ij fpidkdj mldh vkÑfr dks mosQj
ysrs FksA bl izfØ;k esa ewy vkjs[k rks X+kk;c gks tkrk Fkk] ij mldh Nih uO+kQy cp
tkrh FkhA
fp=k 3 µ fdrkxkok
mrkekjks dh ,d mfd;ks
jpukA
fp=k 4 µ lqcg dk u”kkjkA
jpf;rk % 'kqUeu oqQcks] vBkjgoha
lnh osQ var esaA
156
Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o
2 ;wjksi esa eqæ.k dk vkuk
lfn;ksa rd phu ls js'ke vkSj elkys ekxZ ls ;wjksi vkrs jgs FksA X;kjgoha
lnh esa phuh dkX+kT+k Hkh mlh jkLrs ogk¡ ig¡qpkA dkX+kT+k us dkfrcksa ;k eqaf'k;ksa
}kjk lko/kuhiwoZd fy[kh xbZ ikaMqfyfi;ksa osQ mRiknu dks eqefdu cuk;kA
fiQj 1295 bZ- esa ekdksZ iksyks uked egku [kksth ;k=kh phu esa dkI+kQh lky
rd [kkst djus osQ ckn bVyh okil ykSVkA tSlk fd vkius Åij i<+k] phu
osQ ikl oqMCykWd (dkB dh r[+rh) okyh NikbZ dh rduhd igys ls
ekStwn FkhA ekdksZ iksyks ;g Kku vius lkFk ysdj ykSVkA fiQj D;k Fkk]
brkyoh Hkh r[+rh dh NikbZ ls fdrkcsa fudkyus yxs vkSj tYn gh ;g
rduhd ckdh ;wjksi esa iSQy xbZA eqfnzr fdrkcksa dks lLrh v'yhy
ekuusokys oqQyhu oxks± vkSj fHk{kq&la?kksa osQ fy, Nis fdrkcksa osQ foyklh
laLdj.k vHkh Hkh cs'kO+kQherh osye (vellum) ;k peZ&i=k ij gh Nirs
FksA O;kikjh vkSj fo'ofo|ky; osQ fo|kFkhZ lLrh eqfær fdrkcsa [+kjhnrs FksA
fdrkcksa dh ek¡x c<+us osQ lkFk&lkFk ;wjksi&Hkj osQ iqLrd&foØsrk fofHkUu
ns'kksa esa fu;kZr djus yxsA vyx&vyx txgksa ij iqLrd esys yxus yxsA
c<+rh ek¡x dh vkiwfrZ osQ fy, gLrfyf[kr ikaMqfyfi;ksa osQ mRiknu osQ Hkh
u, rjhos+Q lksps x,A vc flI+kZQ vehj yksxksa osQ ;gk¡ lqys[kd ;k dkfrc
ugha ik, tkrs Fks] cfYd iqLrd&fooszQrk Hkh vc mUgsa jks”kxkj nsus yxsA
vkerkSj ij ,d foØsrk osQ ;gk¡ 50 dkfrc dke djrs FksA
ysfdu fdrkcksa dh vck/ c<+rh ek¡x gLrfyf[kr ikaMqfyfi;ksa ls iwjh ugha
gksus okyh FkhA uO+kQy mrkjuk csgn [+kphZyk] le;lkè; vkSj Jelkè; dke
FkkA ikaMqfyfi;k¡ vdlj uk”kqd gksrh Fkha] muosQ ykus&ys tkus] j[k&j[kko
esa reke eqf'dysa FkhaA blfy, mudk loqZQys'ku (çpkyu@x'r) lhfer
jgk rks fdrkcksa dh c<+rh ek¡x osQ pyrs oqMCykWd ¯ç¯Vx (r[+rh dh
NikbZ) mÙkjksÙkj yksdfç; gksrk x;kA iaægoha lnh dh 'kq#vkr rd ;wjksi
esa cM+s iSekus ij r[+rh dh NikbZ dk bLrseky djosQ diM+s] rk'k osQ iÙks]
vkSj NksVh&NksVh fVIif.k;ksa osQ lkFk /k£ed fp=k Nkis tk jgs FksA
t+kfgj gS fd fdrkcsa Nkius osQ fy, blls Hkh rsT+k vkSj lLrh eqæ.k
rduhd dh ”k:jr FkhA ,slk NikbZ dh ,d u;h rduhd osQ vkfo"dkj
ls gh laHko gksrk tks 1430 osQ n'kd esa LVSªlcxZ osQ ;ksgku xqVsUcxZ us
varr% dj fn[kk;kA
2-1 xqVsUcxZ vkSj ¯ç¯Vx çsl
xqVsUcxZ osQ firk O;kikjh Fks] vkSj og [ksrh dh ,d cM+h fj;klr esa
iy&c<+dj cM+k gqvkA og cpiu ls gh rsy vkSj tSrwu isjus dh e'khusa
(press) ns[krk vk;k FkkA ckn esa mlus iRFkj ij ikWfy'k djus dh dyk
lh[kh] fiQj lqukjh vkSj var esa mlus 'kh'ks dks bfPNr vko`Qfr;ksa esa x<+us
u, 'kCn
osye (Vellum) % peZ&i=k ;k tkuojksa osQ peM+s ls cuh
ys[ku dh lrgA
dYiuk dhft, vki ekdks± iksyks gSaA phu esa vkius ¯izV dk
oSQlk lalkj ns[kk] ;g crkrs gq, ,d fpV~Bh fy[ksaA
xfrfof/
157
eqæ.k laLo`Qfr vkSj vk/qfud nqfu;k
u, 'kCn
IykVsu % ysVjizsl NikbZ esa IykVsu ,d cksMZ gksrk gS] ftls OkQkX+k”k osQ ihNs nckdj
Vkbi dh Nki yh tkrh FkhA igys ;g cksMZ dkB dk gksrk Fkk] ckn esa bLikr dk
cuus yxkA
esa egkjr gkfly dj yhA vius Kku vkSj vuqHko dk bLrseky mlus vius
u, vkfo"dkj esa fd;kA tSrwu çsl gh ¯ç¯Vx çsl dk ekWMy ;k vkn'kZ cuk]
vkSj lk¡ps dk mi;ksx v{kjksa dh /krqbZ vko`Qfr;ksa dks x<+us osQ fy, fd;k
x;kA xqVsUcxZ us 1448 rd viuk ;g ;a=k eqdEey dj fy;k FkkA mlus
tks igyh fdrkc Nkih] og Fkh ckbfcyA rO+kQjhcu 180 çfr;k¡ cukus esa
mls rhu lky yxsA tks ml le; osQ fglkc ls dkI+kQh rsT+k FkkA
ij ;g u;h rduhd gkFk ls fdrkcsa Nkius dh rduhd dh txg iwjh rjg
ls ugha ys ikbZA
'kq:&'kq: esa rks Nih fdrkcsa Hkh vius jax&:i vkSj lkt&lTtk esa
gLrfyf[kr ikaMqfyfi;ksa tSlh fn[krh FkhaA /krqbZ v{kj gkFk dh ltkoVh
'kSyh dk vuqdj.k djrs FksA gkf'k;s ij iwQy&ifÙk;ksa dh fMT+kkbu cukbZ
tkrh Fkh] vkSj fp=k vdlj isaV fd, tkrs FksA vehjksa osQ fy, cukbZ
fdrkcksa esa Nis iUus ij gkf'k;s dh txg csy&cwVksa osQ fy, [+kkyh NksM+
nh tkrh FkhA gj [+kjhnkj viuh #fp osQ fglkc ls fMT+kkbu vkSj isaVj [+kqn
r; djosQ mls l¡okj ldrk FkkA
O+kQjhc lkS lkyksa osQ njE;ku (1450&1550) ;wjksi osQ T+;knkrj ns'kksa esa
Nkis[+kkus yx x, FksA teZuh osQ ¯çVj ;k eqæd nwljs ns'k tkdj u,
Nkis[+kkus [kqyok;k djrs FksA NikbZ[+kkus dh la[;k esa o`f¼ osQ lkFk&lkFk
iqLrd mRiknu esa deky dh c<+ksrjh gqbZA iaægoha lnh osQ nwljs fgLls esa
;wjksi osQ ckT+kkj esa 2 djksM+ eqfær fdrkcsa vkb±A ;g la[;k lksygoha lnh
esa 20 djksM+ gks xbZA gkFk dh NikbZ dh txg ;kaf=kd eqnz.k osQ vkus ij
gh eqæ.k Økafr laHko gqbZA
fp=k 6 µ xqVsUcxZ ¯iz¯Vx izslA
LozwQ ls yxk yack gSaMy ns[ksaA bldh enn ls LozwQ ?kqekdj
IykVsu dks xhys dkx”k ij nck fn;k tkrk FkkA xqVsUcxZ
us jkseu o.kZekyk osQ reke 26 v{kjksa osQ fy, Vkbi
cuk,] vkSj tqxr yxkbZ fd bUgsa b/j&m/j ^ewo* djkdj
;k ?kqekdj 'kCn cuk, tk ldasA fygk”kk] bls ^ewoscy
Vkbi ¯iz¯Vx e'khu* osQ uke ls tkuk x;k vkSj ;gh vxys
300 lkyksa rd NikbZ dh cqfu;knh rduhd jghA gj
NikbZ osQ fy, r[+rh ij [+kkl vkdkj mosQjus dh iqjkuh
rduhd dh rqyuk esa vc fdrkcksa dk bl rjg Nkiuk
fugk;r rs”k gks x;kA xqVsUcxZ izsl ,d ?kaVs esa 250 iUus
(,d lkbM) Nki ldrk FkkA
fp=k 5 µ ;ksgku xqVsUcxZ
dk fp=k (1584)A
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