NCERT Textbook - यात्रियों के नज़रिए Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - यात्रियों के नज़रिए Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


efgykvksa vkSj iq#"kksa us dk;Z dh ryk'k esa] izko`Qfrd vkinkvksa ls cpko
osQ fy, O;kikfj;ksa] lSfudksa] iqjksfgrksa vkSj rhFkZ;kf=k;ksa osQ :i esa ;k fiQj
lkgl dh Hkkouk ls izsfjr gksdj ;k=kk,¡ dh gSaA os] tks fdlh u,
LFkku ij vkrs gSa vFkok cl tkrs gSa] fuf'pr :i ls ,d
,slh nqfu;k dks le{k ikrs gSa tks Hkwn`'; ;k HkkSfrd ifjos'k
osQ lanHkZ esa vkSj lkFk gh yksxksa dh izFkkvksa] Hkk"kkvksa] vkLFkk
rFkk O;ogkj esa fHkUu gksrh gSA buesa ls oqQN bu fHkUurkvksa
osQ vuq:i <y tkrs gSa vkSj vU; tks oqQN gn rd fof'k"V
gksrs gSa] bUgsa è;kuiwoZd vius o`Ùkkarksa esa fy[k ysrs gSa] ftuesa
vlkekU; rFkk mYys[kuh; ckrksa dks vf/d egÙo fn;k tkrk gSA
nqHkkZX; ls gekjs ikl efgykvksa }kjk NksM+s x, o`Ùkkar yxHkx u osQ cjkcj
gSa] gkyk¡fd ge ;g tkurs gSa fd os Hkh ;k=kk,¡ djrh FkhaA lqjf{kr feys
o`Ùkkar viuh fo"k;oLrq osQ lanHkZ esa vyx&vyx izdkj osQ gksrs gSaA oqQN
njckj dh xfrfof/;ksa ls lacaf/r gksrs gSa] tcfd vU; /kfeZd fo"k;ksa] ;k
LFkkiR; osQ rRoksa vkSj Lekjdksa ij osaQfnzr gksrs gSaA mnkgj.k osQ fy,] ianzgoha
'krkCnh esa fot;uxj 'kgj (vè;k; 7) osQ lcls egÙoiw.kZ fooj.kksa esa ls
,d] gsjkr ls vk, ,d jktuf;d vCnqj j””kkd lejoaQnh ls izkIr gksrk gSA
dbZ ckj ;k=kh lqnwj {ks=kkas esa ugha tkrs gSaA mnkgj.k osQ fy,] eqX+ky
lkezkT; (vè;k; 8 vkSj 9) esa iz'kklfud vf/dkjh dHkh&dHkh lkezkT;
osQ Hkhrj gh Hkze.k djrs Fks vkSj viuh fVIif.k;k¡ ntZ djrs FksA
buesa ls oqQN vius gh ns'k dh yksdfiz; izFkkvksa rFkk
tu&okrkZvksa vkSj ijaijkvksa dks le>uk pkgrs FksA
bl vè;k; esa ge ;g ns[ksaxs fd miegk}hi esa vk,
;kf=k;ksa }kjk fn, x, lkekftd thou osQ fooj.kksa osQ
vè;;u ls fdl izdkj ge vius vrhr osQ fo"k; esa
Kku c<+k ldrs gSaA blosQ fy, ge rhu O;fDr;ksa osQ
o`Ùkkarksa ij è;ku nsaxs% vy&fc:uh] tks X;kjgoha 'krkCnh esa m”csfdLrku
vk;k Fkk] bCu crwrk (pkSngoha 'krkCnh)] eksjDdks ls rFkk izQkalhlh
;k=kh izQkaLok cfuZ;j (l=kgoha 'kRkkCnh)A
fp=k 5-1 ([k)
ukfj;y
dbZ ;kf=k;ksa us ukfj;y rFkk iku tSlh
ph”kksa dks vlkekU; ekukA
fp=k 5-1 (d)
iku osQ iÙks
;kf=k;ksa osQ u”kfj,
lekt osQ ckjs esa mudh le>
(yxHkx nloha ls l=kgoha lnh rd)
fo"k;
ik¡p
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