NCERT Textbook - विचारक, विश्वास और इमारतें Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - विचारक, विश्वास और इमारतें Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
82 82 82 82 82
bl vè;k; esa ge ,d g”kkj lky yach ;k=kk ij tk,¡xsA blesa ge nk'kZfudksa
osQ ckjs esa i<+saxs vkSj ;g tkuus dh dksf'k'k djsaxs fd mUgksaus lekt esa viuh
fLFkfr dks le>us osQ D;k iz;kl fd,A ge ;g Hkh ns[ksaxs fd muosQ fopkj
fdl rjg ls ekSf[kd vkSj fyf[kr ijaijkvksa esa laxzfgr gq, rFkk mUgsa LFkkiR;
vkSj ew£rdyk osQ ekè;e ls oSQlh vfHkO;fDr feyhA ;s lc turk ij bu
fopkjdksa osQ LFkk;h izHkko dks n'kkZrs gSaA gkyk¡fd ge ckS¼ /eZ dk fo'ks"k
vè;;u djsaxs] ;g è;ku nsus dh ckr gS fd ;g ijaijk vosQyh fodflr ugha
gqbZA nwljh dbZ ijaijk,¡ Fkha tks ,d&nwljs osQ lkFk yxkrkj okn&fookn vkSj
laokn pyk jgh FkhaA
bu jksekapd fopkjksa vkSj fo'oklksa dh nqfu;k osQ iqu£uekZ.k osQ fy,
bfrgkldkj ftu lzksrksa dk bLrseky djrs gSa muesa ckS¼] tSu vkSj ckã.k xzaFkksa
osQ vykok bekjrksa vkSj vfHkys[kksa tSls izHkwr ek=kk esa miyC/ HkkSfrd lk{;
Hkh 'kkfey gSaA ml ;qx dh cph gqbZ bekjrksa esa lcls lqjf{kr gS lk¡ph dk
LrwiA ;g Lrwi bl vè;k; osQ vè;;u dk ,d izeq[k osaQnz&¯cnq gSA
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. lk¡ph dh ,d >yd
lk¡ph mUuhloha lnh esa
Hkksiky jkT; osQ izkphu vo'ks"kksa esa lcls vn~Hkqr lk¡ph du[ksM+k dh
bekjrsa gSaA Hkksiky ls chl ehy mÙkj&iwoZ dh rjI
+
kQ ,d igkM+h dh
rygVh esa cls bl xk¡o dks ge dy ns[kus x, FksA geus iRFkj dh
oLrqvksa] cq¼ dh ew£r;ksa vkSj ,d izkphu rksj.k}kj dk fujh{k.k
fd;k--- ;s vo'ks"k ;wjksi osQ lTtuksa dks fo'ks"k #fpdj yxrs gSa ftuesa
estj vysD”kSaMj d¯u?ke ,d gaSA estj vysD”kSaMj d¯u?ke us--- bl
bykOksQ esa dbZ g
+
Ýrksa rd #d dj bu vo'ks"kksa dk fujh{k.k fd;kA
mUgksaus bl txg osQ fp=k cuk,] ogk¡ osQ vfHkys[kksa dks i<+k vkSj
xqacnuqek <k¡ps osQ chpksachp [kqnkbZ dhA mUgksaus bl [kkst osQ fu"d"kks± dks
,d vaxzs”kh iqLrd esa fy[kk gS---
Hkksiky dh uokc ('kkludky 1868-1901)] 'kkgtgk¡ csxe dh
vkRedFkk rkt&my&bOkQcky rkjh[k Hkksiky (Hkksiky dk bfrgkl) lsA
1876 esa ,p-Mh- ckj~LVks us bldk vuqokn fd;kA
THEME TWO
fopkjd] fo'okl vkSj bekjrsa
lkaLo`Qfrd fodkl
(bZlk iwoZ 600  600  600  600  600 ls bZlk laor~ 600 600 600 600 600 rd)
fo"k;
pkj
fp=k 4.1
lk¡ph dh ,d ew£r
fp=k 4.2
'kkgtgk¡ csxe
Page 2


Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
82 82 82 82 82
bl vè;k; esa ge ,d g”kkj lky yach ;k=kk ij tk,¡xsA blesa ge nk'kZfudksa
osQ ckjs esa i<+saxs vkSj ;g tkuus dh dksf'k'k djsaxs fd mUgksaus lekt esa viuh
fLFkfr dks le>us osQ D;k iz;kl fd,A ge ;g Hkh ns[ksaxs fd muosQ fopkj
fdl rjg ls ekSf[kd vkSj fyf[kr ijaijkvksa esa laxzfgr gq, rFkk mUgsa LFkkiR;
vkSj ew£rdyk osQ ekè;e ls oSQlh vfHkO;fDr feyhA ;s lc turk ij bu
fopkjdksa osQ LFkk;h izHkko dks n'kkZrs gSaA gkyk¡fd ge ckS¼ /eZ dk fo'ks"k
vè;;u djsaxs] ;g è;ku nsus dh ckr gS fd ;g ijaijk vosQyh fodflr ugha
gqbZA nwljh dbZ ijaijk,¡ Fkha tks ,d&nwljs osQ lkFk yxkrkj okn&fookn vkSj
laokn pyk jgh FkhaA
bu jksekapd fopkjksa vkSj fo'oklksa dh nqfu;k osQ iqu£uekZ.k osQ fy,
bfrgkldkj ftu lzksrksa dk bLrseky djrs gSa muesa ckS¼] tSu vkSj ckã.k xzaFkksa
osQ vykok bekjrksa vkSj vfHkys[kksa tSls izHkwr ek=kk esa miyC/ HkkSfrd lk{;
Hkh 'kkfey gSaA ml ;qx dh cph gqbZ bekjrksa esa lcls lqjf{kr gS lk¡ph dk
LrwiA ;g Lrwi bl vè;k; osQ vè;;u dk ,d izeq[k osaQnz&¯cnq gSA
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. lk¡ph dh ,d >yd
lk¡ph mUuhloha lnh esa
Hkksiky jkT; osQ izkphu vo'ks"kksa esa lcls vn~Hkqr lk¡ph du[ksM+k dh
bekjrsa gSaA Hkksiky ls chl ehy mÙkj&iwoZ dh rjI
+
kQ ,d igkM+h dh
rygVh esa cls bl xk¡o dks ge dy ns[kus x, FksA geus iRFkj dh
oLrqvksa] cq¼ dh ew£r;ksa vkSj ,d izkphu rksj.k}kj dk fujh{k.k
fd;k--- ;s vo'ks"k ;wjksi osQ lTtuksa dks fo'ks"k #fpdj yxrs gSa ftuesa
estj vysD”kSaMj d¯u?ke ,d gaSA estj vysD”kSaMj d¯u?ke us--- bl
bykOksQ esa dbZ g
+
Ýrksa rd #d dj bu vo'ks"kksa dk fujh{k.k fd;kA
mUgksaus bl txg osQ fp=k cuk,] ogk¡ osQ vfHkys[kksa dks i<+k vkSj
xqacnuqek <k¡ps osQ chpksachp [kqnkbZ dhA mUgksaus bl [kkst osQ fu"d"kks± dks
,d vaxzs”kh iqLrd esa fy[kk gS---
Hkksiky dh uokc ('kkludky 1868-1901)] 'kkgtgk¡ csxe dh
vkRedFkk rkt&my&bOkQcky rkjh[k Hkksiky (Hkksiky dk bfrgkl) lsA
1876 esa ,p-Mh- ckj~LVks us bldk vuqokn fd;kA
THEME TWO
fopkjd] fo'okl vkSj bekjrsa
lkaLo`Qfrd fodkl
(bZlk iwoZ 600  600  600  600  600 ls bZlk laor~ 600 600 600 600 600 rd)
fo"k;
pkj
fp=k 4.1
lk¡ph dh ,d ew£r
fp=k 4.2
'kkgtgk¡ csxe
83 83 83 83 83
mUuhloha lnh osQ ;wjksfi;ksa esa lk¡ph osQ Lrwi dks ysdj dkI
+
kQh
fnypLih FkhA izQkalhfl;ksa us lcls vPNh gkyr esa cps lk¡ph osQ iwohZ
rksj.k}kj dks izQkal osQ laxzgky; esa izn£'kr djus osQ fy, 'kkgtgk¡
csxe ls izQkal ys tkus dh btkT
+
kr ek¡xhA oqQN le; osQ fy, vaxzsT
+
kksa
us Hkh ,slh gh dksf'k'k dhA lkSHkkX;o'k izQkafllh vkSj vaxzsT
+
k nksuksa gh
cM+h lko/kuh ls cukbZ IykLVj izfro`Qfr;ksa ls larq"V gks x,A bl izdkj
ewy o`Qfr Hkksiky jkT; esa viuh txg ij gh jghA
Hkksiky osQ 'kkldksa] 'kkgtgk¡ csxe vkSj mudh mÙkjkf/dkjh
lqYrkutgk¡ csxe] us bl izkphu LFky osQ j[k&j[kko osQ fy, /u dk
vuqnku fn;kA vk'p;Z ugha fd tkWu ek'kZy us lk¡ph ij fy[ks vius
egRoiw.kZ xzaFkksa dks lqYrkutgk¡ dks le£ir fd;kA lqYrkutgk¡ csxe us
ogk¡ ij ,d laxzgky; vkSj vfrfFk'kkyk cukus osQ fy, vuqnku fn;kA
ogk¡ jgrs gq, gh tkWu ek'kZy us mi;qZDr iqLrosaQ fy[khaA bl iqLrd osQ
fofHkUu [kaMksa osQ izdk'ku esa Hkh lqYrkutgk¡ csxe us vuqnku fn;kA
blfy, ;fn ;g Lrwi lewg cuk jgk gS rks blosQ ihNs oqQN foosdiw.kZ
fu.kZ;ksa dh cM+h Hkwfedk gSA 'kk;n ge bl ekeys esa Hkh HkkX;'kkyh jgs
gSa fd bl Lrwi ij fdlh jsy BsosQnkj ;k fuekZrk dh uT
+
kj ugha iM+hA
;g mu yksxksa ls Hkh cpk jgk tks ,slh ph”kksa dks ;wjksi osQ laxzgky;ksa
esa ys tkuk pkgrs FksA ckS¼ /eZ osQ bl egRoiw.kZ osaQnz dh [kkst ls
vkjafHkd ckS¼ /eZ osQ ckjs esa gekjh le> esa egRoiw.kZ cnyko vk,A
vkt ;g txg Hkkjrh; iqjkrkfRod losZ{k.k osQ liQy ejEer vkSj
laj{k.k dk thrk tkxrk mnkgj.k gSA
fp=k 4.3
lk¡ph dk egku Lrwi
;fn vki fnYyh ls Hkksiky dh jsy;k=kk djsaxs
rks vki ,d igkM+h osQ Åij ,d eqoqQV tSls
bl [kwclwjr Lrwi dks ns[ksaxsA ;fn vki xkMZ
dks lwfpr djsaxs rks og lk¡ph osQ NksVs ls
LVs'ku ij nks feuV osQ fy, xkM+h dks jksd
nsaxs & cl bruk le; fd vki xkM+h ls
mrj tk,¡A igkM+h ij p<+rs gq, vki iwjs
Lrwi lewg dks ns[k ldrs gSa & ,d fo'kky
xksyk/Z <k¡pk vkSj dbZ nwljh bekjrsa ftuesa
ik¡poha lnh esa cuk ,d eafnj Hkh 'kkfey gSA
fopkjd] fo'okl vkSj bekjrsa
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