NCERT Textbook - विभाजन को समझना Notes | EduRev

इतिहास (History) for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - विभाजन को समझना Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


376 Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
gesa irk gS fd 1947 esa gekjh vk”kknh ls tqM+h [+kq'kh foHkktu dh fgalk vkSj ccZjrk ls cnjax
iM+ xbZ FkhA fczfV'k&Hkkjr osQ nks laizHkq jkT;ksa] Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku (ftlosQ if'peh vkSj
iwohZ Hkkx Fks)] esa c¡Vokjs ls dbZ vkdfLed ifjorZu vk,A yk[kksa tkusa xb±] db;ksa dh
ftanfx;k¡ iyd >idrs cny xb±] 'kgj cnys] Hkkjr cnyk] ,d u, ns'k dk mn; gqvk vkSj
,slk tulagkj] fgalk ,oa foLFkkiu gqvk ftldk bfrgkl esa igys dksbZ mnkgj.k u FkkA
bl vè;k; esa ge 1947 osQ c¡Vokjs dk vè;;u djsaxs % ;g D;ksa vkSj oSQls gqvk vkSj
blosQ pyrs 1946 ls *50 dh dky&vofèk esa (vkSj 1950 osQ ckn Hkh) vke yksxksa osQ D;k
nnZukd vuqHko jgsA vè;k; esa bl ckr dh Hkh ppkZ dh tk,xh fd yksxksa ls ckrphr vkSj
lk{kkRdkjksa osQ ”kfj,] ;kuh fd ekSf[kd bfrgkl dk iz;ksx djrs gq,] ge bu vuqHkoksa osQ
bfrgkl dks oSQls jp ldrs gSaA bl vè;k; esa ekSf[kd bfrgkl osQ I
+
kQk;nksa vkSj mldh lhekvksa
foHkktu dks le>uk
jktuhfr] Le`fr] vuqHko
fp=k 14-1
foHkktu dh otg ls yk[kksa yksx mtM+ x,] ^'kj.kkFkhZ* cudj jg x,A mudks viuh js'kk&js'kk ftanxh
u, fljs ls cquuh iM+hA
vè;k;
pkSng
Page 2


376 Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
gesa irk gS fd 1947 esa gekjh vk”kknh ls tqM+h [+kq'kh foHkktu dh fgalk vkSj ccZjrk ls cnjax
iM+ xbZ FkhA fczfV'k&Hkkjr osQ nks laizHkq jkT;ksa] Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku (ftlosQ if'peh vkSj
iwohZ Hkkx Fks)] esa c¡Vokjs ls dbZ vkdfLed ifjorZu vk,A yk[kksa tkusa xb±] db;ksa dh
ftanfx;k¡ iyd >idrs cny xb±] 'kgj cnys] Hkkjr cnyk] ,d u, ns'k dk mn; gqvk vkSj
,slk tulagkj] fgalk ,oa foLFkkiu gqvk ftldk bfrgkl esa igys dksbZ mnkgj.k u FkkA
bl vè;k; esa ge 1947 osQ c¡Vokjs dk vè;;u djsaxs % ;g D;ksa vkSj oSQls gqvk vkSj
blosQ pyrs 1946 ls *50 dh dky&vofèk esa (vkSj 1950 osQ ckn Hkh) vke yksxksa osQ D;k
nnZukd vuqHko jgsA vè;k; esa bl ckr dh Hkh ppkZ dh tk,xh fd yksxksa ls ckrphr vkSj
lk{kkRdkjksa osQ ”kfj,] ;kuh fd ekSf[kd bfrgkl dk iz;ksx djrs gq,] ge bu vuqHkoksa osQ
bfrgkl dks oSQls jp ldrs gSaA bl vè;k; esa ekSf[kd bfrgkl osQ I
+
kQk;nksa vkSj mldh lhekvksa
foHkktu dks le>uk
jktuhfr] Le`fr] vuqHko
fp=k 14-1
foHkktu dh otg ls yk[kksa yksx mtM+ x,] ^'kj.kkFkhZ* cudj jg x,A mudks viuh js'kk&js'kk ftanxh
u, fljs ls cquuh iM+hA
vè;k;
pkSng
377
foHkktu dks le>uk
dks fn[kk;k x;k gSA lk{kkRdkjksa ls ge fdlh lekt osQ vrhr osQ ,sls
vk;keksa osQ ckjs esa dkI
+
kQh tkudkjh gkfly dj ldrs gSa ftuosQ ckjs
esa nwljh rjg osQ Ïksrksa ls gesa cgqr de tkudkjh fey ikrh gS ;k dksbZ
tkudkjh ugha fey ikrh gSA ijarq dbZ ekeyksa osQ ckjs esa gesa lk{kkRdkj
dh i¼fr ls ”;knk irk ugha pyrkA ,sls igyqvksa osQ bfrgkl dks jpus
osQ fy, gesa fdlh vkSj fO
+
kQLe dh lkexzh dh enn ysuh iM+rh gSA
vè;k; osQ var esa ge bl eqís ij nqckjk ykSVsaxsA
¶eSa rks flI+kZQ vius vCck ij p<+k gqvk O+kQ”kZ pqdk jgk gw¡¸
'kksèkdrkZ dh fjiksVZ bl izdkj gS%
eSa 1992 dh lfnZ;ksa esa iatkc ;wfuoflZVh] ykgkSj osQ bfrgkl foHkkx osQ iqLrdky; esa
tk;k djrk FkkA ogk¡ vCnqy yrhI
+
kQ uked ,d èkeZfu"B vèksM+ lTtu esjh cgqr enn
fd;k djrs FksA ftruk muosQ fy, djuk ”k:jh Fkk] mlls Hkh vkxs tkdj os eq>s
vko';d lkexzh eqgÕ;k djk nsrs Fks vkSj esjh vuqjksèk dh gqbZ I
+
kQksVksdkWfi;k¡ vxyh lqcg
esjs igq¡pus osQ igys gh cM+s O
+
kQk;ns ls rS;kj j[krs FksA esjs dke osQ izfr mudk ;g joS;k
eq>s bruk vuks[kk yxrk Fkk fd ,d fnu eSa vius dks jksd ugha ik;k vkSj iwN gh cSBk]
^yrhI
+
kQ lkgc] vki ”k:jr ls ”;knk vkxs c<+&c<+dj esjh bruh enn D;ksa djrs gSa\*
viuh ?kM+h ij u”kj Mkydj mUgksaus yiddj viuh uek”kh Vksih mBkbZ vkSj dgk]
^vHkh rks eq>s rqjar uek”k osQ fy, tkuk gS ij ykSVdj eSa vkiosQ loky dk tokc
”k:j nw¡xkA* vkèks ?kaVs ckn vius nÝ+rj esa ykSVrs gh mUgksaus ckr vkxs c<+kbZ%
^gk¡] vkidk lokyA eSa---- esjk eryc gS esjs okfyn tEew ls Fks] tEew f”kys osQ
,d NksVs&ls xk¡o osQ ckf'kansA bl xk¡o esa fganqvksa dk ncnck Fkk vkSj vxLr 1947
esa bykOksQ osQ fganw xqaMksa us xk¡o dh reke eqlyeku vkcknh dks ekj MkykA ,d jks”k
rhljs igj tc fganqvksa dh HkhM+ dk ikxyiu viuh gnsa ikj dj jgk Fkk rks esjs vCck
dks irk pyk fd xk¡o esa 'kk;n os gh ,dek=k eqfLye ukStoku gSa tks ftank cps gSaA
vius iwjs [+kkunku dks os igys gh bl O
+
kQRysvke esa [kks pqosQ Fks vkSj vc Hkkxus osQ
jkLrs <w¡<+ jgs FksA mUgsa ,d n;kyq cqtqxZ fganw iM+kslu dk [+k;ky vk;kA mUgksaus muls
fp=k 14-2
oSQejs dh rlohjksa ls gesa ml le; dh fgalk
dk ,glkl gksrk gSA
Ïksr 1
1- c¡Vokjs osQ oqQN vuqHko
;gk¡ rhu ?kVuk,¡ nh tk jgh gSa ftudk c;ku mu nq[kn fnuksa ls
xq”kjs yksxksa us 1993 esa ,d 'kksèkdrkZ osQ vkxs fd;k FkkA c;ku
djus okys ikfdLrkuh Fks vkSj 'kksèkdrkZ Hkkjrh;A 'kksèkdrkZ dk
mís'; ;g le>uk Fkk fd tks yksx ihf<+;ksa ls dekscs'k esy&feyki
ls jgrs vk, Fks mUgksaus 1947 esa ,d&nwljs ij bruk ”kcjnLr
dgj oSQls <k;kA
Page 3


376 Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
gesa irk gS fd 1947 esa gekjh vk”kknh ls tqM+h [+kq'kh foHkktu dh fgalk vkSj ccZjrk ls cnjax
iM+ xbZ FkhA fczfV'k&Hkkjr osQ nks laizHkq jkT;ksa] Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku (ftlosQ if'peh vkSj
iwohZ Hkkx Fks)] esa c¡Vokjs ls dbZ vkdfLed ifjorZu vk,A yk[kksa tkusa xb±] db;ksa dh
ftanfx;k¡ iyd >idrs cny xb±] 'kgj cnys] Hkkjr cnyk] ,d u, ns'k dk mn; gqvk vkSj
,slk tulagkj] fgalk ,oa foLFkkiu gqvk ftldk bfrgkl esa igys dksbZ mnkgj.k u FkkA
bl vè;k; esa ge 1947 osQ c¡Vokjs dk vè;;u djsaxs % ;g D;ksa vkSj oSQls gqvk vkSj
blosQ pyrs 1946 ls *50 dh dky&vofèk esa (vkSj 1950 osQ ckn Hkh) vke yksxksa osQ D;k
nnZukd vuqHko jgsA vè;k; esa bl ckr dh Hkh ppkZ dh tk,xh fd yksxksa ls ckrphr vkSj
lk{kkRdkjksa osQ ”kfj,] ;kuh fd ekSf[kd bfrgkl dk iz;ksx djrs gq,] ge bu vuqHkoksa osQ
bfrgkl dks oSQls jp ldrs gSaA bl vè;k; esa ekSf[kd bfrgkl osQ I
+
kQk;nksa vkSj mldh lhekvksa
foHkktu dks le>uk
jktuhfr] Le`fr] vuqHko
fp=k 14-1
foHkktu dh otg ls yk[kksa yksx mtM+ x,] ^'kj.kkFkhZ* cudj jg x,A mudks viuh js'kk&js'kk ftanxh
u, fljs ls cquuh iM+hA
vè;k;
pkSng
377
foHkktu dks le>uk
dks fn[kk;k x;k gSA lk{kkRdkjksa ls ge fdlh lekt osQ vrhr osQ ,sls
vk;keksa osQ ckjs esa dkI
+
kQh tkudkjh gkfly dj ldrs gSa ftuosQ ckjs
esa nwljh rjg osQ Ïksrksa ls gesa cgqr de tkudkjh fey ikrh gS ;k dksbZ
tkudkjh ugha fey ikrh gSA ijarq dbZ ekeyksa osQ ckjs esa gesa lk{kkRdkj
dh i¼fr ls ”;knk irk ugha pyrkA ,sls igyqvksa osQ bfrgkl dks jpus
osQ fy, gesa fdlh vkSj fO
+
kQLe dh lkexzh dh enn ysuh iM+rh gSA
vè;k; osQ var esa ge bl eqís ij nqckjk ykSVsaxsA
¶eSa rks flI+kZQ vius vCck ij p<+k gqvk O+kQ”kZ pqdk jgk gw¡¸
'kksèkdrkZ dh fjiksVZ bl izdkj gS%
eSa 1992 dh lfnZ;ksa esa iatkc ;wfuoflZVh] ykgkSj osQ bfrgkl foHkkx osQ iqLrdky; esa
tk;k djrk FkkA ogk¡ vCnqy yrhI
+
kQ uked ,d èkeZfu"B vèksM+ lTtu esjh cgqr enn
fd;k djrs FksA ftruk muosQ fy, djuk ”k:jh Fkk] mlls Hkh vkxs tkdj os eq>s
vko';d lkexzh eqgÕ;k djk nsrs Fks vkSj esjh vuqjksèk dh gqbZ I
+
kQksVksdkWfi;k¡ vxyh lqcg
esjs igq¡pus osQ igys gh cM+s O
+
kQk;ns ls rS;kj j[krs FksA esjs dke osQ izfr mudk ;g joS;k
eq>s bruk vuks[kk yxrk Fkk fd ,d fnu eSa vius dks jksd ugha ik;k vkSj iwN gh cSBk]
^yrhI
+
kQ lkgc] vki ”k:jr ls ”;knk vkxs c<+&c<+dj esjh bruh enn D;ksa djrs gSa\*
viuh ?kM+h ij u”kj Mkydj mUgksaus yiddj viuh uek”kh Vksih mBkbZ vkSj dgk]
^vHkh rks eq>s rqjar uek”k osQ fy, tkuk gS ij ykSVdj eSa vkiosQ loky dk tokc
”k:j nw¡xkA* vkèks ?kaVs ckn vius nÝ+rj esa ykSVrs gh mUgksaus ckr vkxs c<+kbZ%
^gk¡] vkidk lokyA eSa---- esjk eryc gS esjs okfyn tEew ls Fks] tEew f”kys osQ
,d NksVs&ls xk¡o osQ ckf'kansA bl xk¡o esa fganqvksa dk ncnck Fkk vkSj vxLr 1947
esa bykOksQ osQ fganw xqaMksa us xk¡o dh reke eqlyeku vkcknh dks ekj MkykA ,d jks”k
rhljs igj tc fganqvksa dh HkhM+ dk ikxyiu viuh gnsa ikj dj jgk Fkk rks esjs vCck
dks irk pyk fd xk¡o esa 'kk;n os gh ,dek=k eqfLye ukStoku gSa tks ftank cps gSaA
vius iwjs [+kkunku dks os igys gh bl O
+
kQRysvke esa [kks pqosQ Fks vkSj vc Hkkxus osQ
jkLrs <w¡<+ jgs FksA mUgsa ,d n;kyq cqtqxZ fganw iM+kslu dk [+k;ky vk;kA mUgksaus muls
fp=k 14-2
oSQejs dh rlohjksa ls gesa ml le; dh fgalk
dk ,glkl gksrk gSA
Ïksr 1
1- c¡Vokjs osQ oqQN vuqHko
;gk¡ rhu ?kVuk,¡ nh tk jgh gSa ftudk c;ku mu nq[kn fnuksa ls
xq”kjs yksxksa us 1993 esa ,d 'kksèkdrkZ osQ vkxs fd;k FkkA c;ku
djus okys ikfdLrkuh Fks vkSj 'kksèkdrkZ Hkkjrh;A 'kksèkdrkZ dk
mís'; ;g le>uk Fkk fd tks yksx ihf<+;ksa ls dekscs'k esy&feyki
ls jgrs vk, Fks mUgksaus 1947 esa ,d&nwljs ij bruk ”kcjnLr
dgj oSQls <k;kA
378 Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
vius ?kj esa iukg nsus dh izkFkZuk dhA os vCck dh enn dks jk”kh rks gqb±] exj cksyha] ^csVk]
vxj rqe ;gk¡ fNirs gks rks os yksx ge nksuksa dks gh èkj ysaxsA blls dksbZ I
+
kQk;nk ugha gksxkA
rqe esjs ihNs&ihNs ogk¡ pyks tgk¡ bu yksxksa us eqnks± osQ <sj yxk j[ks gSaA rqe ogk¡ eqnsZ tSls cudj
ysV tkuk vkSj eSa rqe ij oqQN yk'ksa Mky nw¡xhA csVk lkjh jkr eqnks± osQ chp ,sls gh ysVs jguk
vkSj lqcg ikS iQVrs gh th&tku ls fl;kydksV dh rjI
+
kQ nkSM+ tkukA
^esjs vCck ;g lq>ko eku x,A fiQj os nksuksa ogk¡ x, tgk¡ yk'ksa iM+h FkhaA vCck pqipki ”kehu
ij ysV x, vkSj cw<+h ekbZ us mu ij dbZ yk'ksa Mky nhaA dksbZ ?kaVs Hkj ckn gfFk;kjcan fganw naxkb;ksa
dk ,d tRFkk ogk¡ vk èkedkA muesa ls ,d fpYyk;k ^fdlh esa oqQN tku cph gS\* vkSj nwljs
yksx viuh vux<+ ykfB;ksa vkSj canwdksa ls ml <sj esa ftanxh osQ vklkj ryk'kus yxsA dksbZ fpYyk;k]
^vjs ml yk'k dh dykbZ ij ?kM+h gSA* mlus jkbI
+
kQy dk oqaQnk ”kksj ls vCck dh m¡xfy;ksa ij ns
ekjkA vCckth crk;k djrs Fks fd ?kM+h okyh dykbZ dh iSQyh gFksyh dks fcyoqQy fcuk fgyk,
j[kuk muosQ fy, fdruk eqf'dy FkkA fdlh rjg oqQN lsoaQM rd os ,slk djus esa dke;kc jgs]
rHkh naxkb;ksa esa ls dksbZ cksyk] ^vjs] ,d ?kM+h gh rks gSA pyks] pyks ;gk¡ ls] v¡èksjk gksus yxk gSA*
vCckth dh rO+kQnhj Fkh fd os yksx pys x, vkSj esjs vCck iwjh jkr ml ej?kV osQ ekgkSy esa ysVs
jgsA lqcg dh mtkl gksrs gh os lpeqp viuh tku ysdj gh HkkxsA fl;kydksV igq¡pus rd os #osQ
gh ughaA
^eSa vkidh enn blfy, djrk gw¡ fd ,d fganw ekbZ us esjs vCck dh enn dh FkhA eSa rks flI
+
kZQ
vius vCck ij p<+k gqvk d”kZ pqdk jgk gw¡A*
eSaus dgk] ^exj eSa rks fganw ugha] fl[k [+kkunku ls ;k gn ls gn ,d feys&tqys fganw&fl[k
[+kkunku ls gw¡A*
^eSa Bhd&Bkd ugha tkurk fd vkidk e”kgc D;k gS\ vki osQ'k Hkh ugha j[krs vkSj eqlyeku
Hkh ugha gSaA lks] esjs fy, rks vki fganw gh gSa vkSj eSa tks FkksM+k&cgqr vkiosQ fy, djrk gw¡ og
blfy, fd ,d fganw ekbZ us esjs vCck dks cpk;k FkkA*
¶cjlksa gks x,] eSa fdlh iatkch eqlyeku ls ugha feyk¸
'kksèkdrkZ dk nwljk fdLlk ykgkSj osQ ,d ;wFk gkWLVy osQ eSustj osQ ckjs esa gS %
eSa txg dh ryk'k esa gkWLVy x;k Fkk vkSj ogk¡ eSaus rqjar viuh ukxfjdrk dh ?kks"k.kk dj nh
FkhA eSustj  us dgk] ^vki fganqLrkuh gSa] blfy, vkidks eSa dejk rks ns ugha ldrk exj vkidks
pk; fiyk ldrk gw¡ vkSj ,d fO
+
kQLlk lquk ldrk gw¡A* brus yypkus okys izLrko ij eSa ugha oSQls
dg ldrk FkkA eSustj us 'kq: fd;kµ
^ipkl osQ n'kd osQ 'kq#vkrh fgLls esa esjh iksfLVax fnYyh esa gqbZ FkhA* eSa è;ku ls lqu
jgk FkkA eSa ogk¡ ikfdLrkuh nwrkokl esa DyoZQ FkkA esjs ,d ykgkSjh nksLr us eq>s ,d #Ddk
(NksVh fpV~Bh) fn;k Fkk tks dHkh mlosQ iM+kslh jgs ,d O;fDr dks nsuk FkkA og O;fDr vktdy
fnYyh osQ igkM+xat esa jg jgk FkkA ,d fnu eSa viuh lkbfdy ysdj igkM+xat dks py iM+kA tSls
gh eSaus lsaVªy lsoszQVsfj;V osQ ikl okys oQFkhMªy (cM+k fxjtk?kj) dks ikj fd;k] eq>s ,d fl[k
lkbfdy ij tkrk fn[kkbZ fn;kA mls jksddj eSaus iatkch esa iwNk] ¶ljnkj th] igkM+xat dk jkLrk
fdèkj ls gS\¸
mUgksaus iwNk] ¶rqe 'kj.kkFkhZ gks\¸
¶ugha] eSa ykgkSj ls vk;k gw¡A eSa bO
+
kQcky vgen gw¡A¸
¶bdcky vgen----- ykgkSj ls\! #dks] #dks!¸
Ïksr 2
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