NCERT Textbook - वैश्वीकरण Notes | EduRev

भारतीय राजव्यवस्था (Indian Polity) for UPSC Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - वैश्वीकरण Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


ifjp;
iqLrd osQ bl vafre vè;k; esa ge
oS'ohdj.k ij ckr djsaxsA oS'ohdj.k dh
ppkZ bl iqLrd osQ dbZ vè;k;ksa esa vkSj
dbZ fo"k;ksa dh iqLrd esa dh xbZ gSA ge
'kq#vkr oS'ohdj.k dh vo/kj.kk osQ fo'ys"k.k
vkSj blosQ dkj.kksa dh tk¡p ls djsaxsA blosQ
ckn ge oS'ohdj.k osQ jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd
vkSj lkaLÑfrd ifj.kkeksa dh ckr djsaxsA
gekjh fnypLih ;g le>us esa Hkh gS fd
oS'ohdj.k dk Hkkjr ij D;k çHkko iM+k gS
vkSj Hkkjr oS'ohdj.k dks oSQls çHkkfor dj
jgk gSA vkf[kj esa ge oS'ohdj.k dks ysdj
gksus okys çfrjks/ ij u”kj Mkysaxs vkSj tkusaxs
fd oSQls Hkkjr osQ lkekftd vkanksyu bl
çfrjks/ dk fgLlk gSaA
vè;k; 9
oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k
oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k
dksfeUVuZ tSlk
laxBu cukuk [krjukd
gksxk tks lewps vkanksyu
dk çoDrk vkSj osaQæ
cuus dh dksf'k'k
djsA
,d vksj iqjkus
fdLe dh lrgh
okeiaFkh jktuhfr gS vkSj
nwljh vksj vyx&vyx jaxksa
okyh vjktdrkoknh rkdrsa
gSaA budk lk>s eqíksa ij
l?ku :i ls ,d gksuk
ukeqefdu gSA
uomnkjokn ubZ
cksry esa iqjkuh 'kjkc gSA
;g iw¡thokn dk [krjukd
:i gSA bls gj dher ij
[kRe dj nsuk pkfg,A D;k ;g
oqQN vPNk Hkh gks ldrk gS\
ge Hkh mrus gh Hkzfer gSa
ftrus dh vkiA
lPph
lektoknh O;oLFkk
osQoy la?k"kZ ls ykbZ
tk ldrh gS_ varghu
vkSj fujFkZd cglksa ls
ughaA
D;k iw¡thokn dks
[kRe djus dk bdykSrk
rjhdk loZlÙkkoknh
rkuk'kkgh gSA
fodYiksa dh [kkst
vkSj fuekZ.k dh yxkrkj
pyus okyh ;g çfØ;k
cgqyrk vkSj fofo/rk Hkjh
gksxhA bldk lanHkZ xSj
nyh; vkSj xSj ljdkjh
gksxkA
,u-th-vks-
lkezkT;okn osQ
nyky gSaA ;s
turk dks
Hkjekrs&cjxkyrs gSa
vkSj Hkz"V djrs gSaA
csgrj gS fd eqacbZ çfrjks/ 2004
rFkkdfFkr fo'o lkekftd eap dk
fojks/ dj jgk gSA eqacbZ çfrjks/ us
fo'o lkekftd eap osQ vyksdrkaf=kd
rkSj&rjhdksa rFkk lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa vkSj
cM+s O;kikj osQ /u ij bldh fuHkZjrk
dks mtkxj fd;k gSA
fo'o lkekftd eap lkezkT;oknh
oS'ohdj.k vkSj ;q¼ osQ f[kykiQ
iui jgs tq>k#iu dks iVjh ls mrkjuk
vkSj vius esa gte dj ysuk pkgrk
gSA lkekftd eap fo'o iw¡thoknh
O;oLFkk dks cuk, j[kus osQ fy,
la?k"kZ dks lq/kjokn dh rjiQ eksM+uk
pkgrk gSA blesa lkezkT;okfn;ksa osQ
jktuhfrd vkdk vkSj dBiqryh
ljdkjsa rks 'kkfey gSa ysfdu jk"Vªh;
eqfDr vkanksyu osQ uqekbans ughaA
fo'o lkekftd eap
,d eqDr vkdk'k
lzksr% xkscj VkbEl] Mkmu Vw vFkZ osQ iksLVj ij vk/kfjr
Page 2


ifjp;
iqLrd osQ bl vafre vè;k; esa ge
oS'ohdj.k ij ckr djsaxsA oS'ohdj.k dh
ppkZ bl iqLrd osQ dbZ vè;k;ksa esa vkSj
dbZ fo"k;ksa dh iqLrd esa dh xbZ gSA ge
'kq#vkr oS'ohdj.k dh vo/kj.kk osQ fo'ys"k.k
vkSj blosQ dkj.kksa dh tk¡p ls djsaxsA blosQ
ckn ge oS'ohdj.k osQ jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd
vkSj lkaLÑfrd ifj.kkeksa dh ckr djsaxsA
gekjh fnypLih ;g le>us esa Hkh gS fd
oS'ohdj.k dk Hkkjr ij D;k çHkko iM+k gS
vkSj Hkkjr oS'ohdj.k dks oSQls çHkkfor dj
jgk gSA vkf[kj esa ge oS'ohdj.k dks ysdj
gksus okys çfrjks/ ij u”kj Mkysaxs vkSj tkusaxs
fd oSQls Hkkjr osQ lkekftd vkanksyu bl
çfrjks/ dk fgLlk gSaA
vè;k; 9
oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k
oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k
dksfeUVuZ tSlk
laxBu cukuk [krjukd
gksxk tks lewps vkanksyu
dk çoDrk vkSj osaQæ
cuus dh dksf'k'k
djsA
,d vksj iqjkus
fdLe dh lrgh
okeiaFkh jktuhfr gS vkSj
nwljh vksj vyx&vyx jaxksa
okyh vjktdrkoknh rkdrsa
gSaA budk lk>s eqíksa ij
l?ku :i ls ,d gksuk
ukeqefdu gSA
uomnkjokn ubZ
cksry esa iqjkuh 'kjkc gSA
;g iw¡thokn dk [krjukd
:i gSA bls gj dher ij
[kRe dj nsuk pkfg,A D;k ;g
oqQN vPNk Hkh gks ldrk gS\
ge Hkh mrus gh Hkzfer gSa
ftrus dh vkiA
lPph
lektoknh O;oLFkk
osQoy la?k"kZ ls ykbZ
tk ldrh gS_ varghu
vkSj fujFkZd cglksa ls
ughaA
D;k iw¡thokn dks
[kRe djus dk bdykSrk
rjhdk loZlÙkkoknh
rkuk'kkgh gSA
fodYiksa dh [kkst
vkSj fuekZ.k dh yxkrkj
pyus okyh ;g çfØ;k
cgqyrk vkSj fofo/rk Hkjh
gksxhA bldk lanHkZ xSj
nyh; vkSj xSj ljdkjh
gksxkA
,u-th-vks-
lkezkT;okn osQ
nyky gSaA ;s
turk dks
Hkjekrs&cjxkyrs gSa
vkSj Hkz"V djrs gSaA
csgrj gS fd eqacbZ çfrjks/ 2004
rFkkdfFkr fo'o lkekftd eap dk
fojks/ dj jgk gSA eqacbZ çfrjks/ us
fo'o lkekftd eap osQ vyksdrkaf=kd
rkSj&rjhdksa rFkk lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa vkSj
cM+s O;kikj osQ /u ij bldh fuHkZjrk
dks mtkxj fd;k gSA
fo'o lkekftd eap lkezkT;oknh
oS'ohdj.k vkSj ;q¼ osQ f[kykiQ
iui jgs tq>k#iu dks iVjh ls mrkjuk
vkSj vius esa gte dj ysuk pkgrk
gSA lkekftd eap fo'o iw¡thoknh
O;oLFkk dks cuk, j[kus osQ fy,
la?k"kZ dks lq/kjokn dh rjiQ eksM+uk
pkgrk gSA blesa lkezkT;okfn;ksa osQ
jktuhfrd vkdk vkSj dBiqryh
ljdkjsa rks 'kkfey gSa ysfdu jk"Vªh;
eqfDr vkanksyu osQ uqekbans ughaA
fo'o lkekftd eap
,d eqDr vkdk'k
lzksr% xkscj VkbEl] Mkmu Vw vFkZ osQ iksLVj ij vk/kfjr
ledkyhu fo'o jktfufr 136
oS'ohdj.k dh vo/kj.kk
tuknZu ,d dkWy&lsaVj esa dke djrk
gSA og nsj nksigj esa dke osQ fy,
fudyrk gS_ nÝrj esa ?kqlus osQ lkFk gh
og tkWu cu tkrk gS_ u;k ygtk vf[+r;kj
dj ysrk gS vkSj gtkjksa fdyksehVj nwj
cls vius xzkgdksa ls ckr djus osQ fy,
,d u;h Hkk"kk cksyus yxrk gSA vius ?kj esa
og u rks ;g Hkk"kk vkSj u gh bl ygts  esa
cksyrk gSA og lkjh jkr dke djrk gS tks
njvly mlosQ fons'kh xzkgdksa osQ fy, fnu
dk le; gksrk gSA tuknZu ,d ,sls vkneh
dks viuh lsok çnku dj jgk gS ftlls cgqr
laHko gS] og dHkh vkeus&lkeus dh eqykdkr
u dj losQA ;gh mldh fnup;kZ gSA tuknZu
dh Nqf^;k¡ Hkh Hkkjrh; oSQysaMj ls ugha
cfYd vejhdk osQ oSQysaMj ls esy [kkrh gSa
tgk¡ mlosQ xzkgd jgrs gSaA
viuh ukS o"khZ;k csVh dks tUefnu dk
migkj nsus osQ fy, jke/kjh ck”kkj x;k gSA
mlus viuh csVh dks ,d NksVh&lh lkbfdy
migkj esa nsus dk ok;nk fd;k gSA jke/kjh us
ck”kkj esa tkdj ,slh lkbfdy <w¡<+us dk
I
+
kSQlyk fd;k tks mls dher osQ fygkt ls
t¡p tk, vkSj oqQN mEnk DokfyVh dh gksA
mlus vkf[kjdkj ,d lkbfdy [kjhnh tks
cuh rks phu essa Fkh ysfdu fcd Hkkjr esa jgh
gSA bl lkbfdy dh dher jke/kjh dh tsc
oQks ekfI
+
kQd iM+h vkSj ^DokfyVh* Hkh mls
t¡p xbZA jke/kjh us bls [kjhnus dk I
+
kSQlyk
fd;kA fiNys lky viuh csVh dh ftn ij
jke/kjh us mls ^ckchZ MkWy* [kjhndj fn;k
Fkk tks njvly la;qDr jkT; vejhdk esa cuh
Fkh vkSj Hkkjr esa fcd jgh FkhA
lkfjdk vius ifjokj esa igyh ih<+h
dh f'kf{kr gSA dfBu esgur osQ cwrs LowQy
vkSj dkWyst esa og vOoy lkfcr gqbZA vc
mls ukSdjh djus vkSj ,d Lora=k oWQfjvj
dh 'kq#vkr djus dk volj gkFk yxk gSA
,sls volj osQ ckjs esa mlosQ ifjokj dh
efgyk,¡ lksp Hkh ugha ldrh FkhaA lkfjdk
osQ fj'rsnkjksa esa ls oqQN bl ukSdjh dk fojks/
dj jgs gSa ysfdu lkfjdk us vkf[kjdkj ;g
ukSdjh djus dk I
+
kSQlyk fd;k D;ksafd mldh
ih<+h osQ ukStokuksa osQ lkeus u;s volj
ekStwn gSaA
;s rhuksa mnkgj.k oS'ohdj.k dk ,d u
,d igyw fn[kkrs gSaA igys mnkgj.k esa
tuknZu lsokvksa osQ oS'ohdj.k esa fgLlsnkjh
dj jgk gSA jke/kjh tUefnu osQ fy, tks
migkj [kjhn  jgk gS mlesa gesa fo'o osQ
,d Hkkx ls nwljs Hkkx esa oLrqvksa dh
vkoktkgh dk irk pyrk gSA lkfjdk osQ
lkeus thou&ewY;ksa osQ chp nqfo/k dh
fLFkfr gSA ;g nqfo/k va'kr% mu voljksa osQ
dkj.k iSnk gqbZ gS tks mlosQ ifjokj dh
efgykvksa dks igys miyC/ ugha Fks ysfdu
vkt os ,d lPpkbZ gSa vkSj ftUgsa O;kid
LohÑfr fey jgh gSA
;fn ge okLrfod thou esa ^oS'ohdj.k*
'kCn osQ bLrseky dks ij[ksa rks irk pysxk
fd bldk bLrseky dbZ rjg osQ lanHkksZa esa
gksrk gSA uhps oqQN mnkgj.k fn, tk jgs gSaA
bUgsa nsf[k,] ;s mnkgj.k Åij osQ mnkgj.kksa
ls oqQN vyx gSa µ
iQly osQ ekjs tkus ls oqQN fdlkuksa us
vkRegR;k dj yhA bu fdlkuksa us ,d
cgqjk"Vªh; oaQiuh ls cM+s egaxs cht
[kjhns FksA
;wjksi fLFkr ,d cM+h vkSj viuh
çfr;ksxh oaQiuh dks ,d Hkkjrh; oaQiuh
us [kjhn fy;k tcfd [kjhnh xbZ oaQiuh
cgqr&ls usikyh etnwj
dke djus osQ fy,
Hkkjr vkrs gSaA D;k ;g
oS'ohdj.k gS\
,d gÝ+rs osQ
v[+kckj ij u”kj
nkSM+kb, vkSj
oS'ohdj.k osQ
fo"k; esa tks oqQN
Nik gks mldh
drju ,df=kr
dhft,A
Page 3


ifjp;
iqLrd osQ bl vafre vè;k; esa ge
oS'ohdj.k ij ckr djsaxsA oS'ohdj.k dh
ppkZ bl iqLrd osQ dbZ vè;k;ksa esa vkSj
dbZ fo"k;ksa dh iqLrd esa dh xbZ gSA ge
'kq#vkr oS'ohdj.k dh vo/kj.kk osQ fo'ys"k.k
vkSj blosQ dkj.kksa dh tk¡p ls djsaxsA blosQ
ckn ge oS'ohdj.k osQ jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd
vkSj lkaLÑfrd ifj.kkeksa dh ckr djsaxsA
gekjh fnypLih ;g le>us esa Hkh gS fd
oS'ohdj.k dk Hkkjr ij D;k çHkko iM+k gS
vkSj Hkkjr oS'ohdj.k dks oSQls çHkkfor dj
jgk gSA vkf[kj esa ge oS'ohdj.k dks ysdj
gksus okys çfrjks/ ij u”kj Mkysaxs vkSj tkusaxs
fd oSQls Hkkjr osQ lkekftd vkanksyu bl
çfrjks/ dk fgLlk gSaA
vè;k; 9
oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k
oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k
dksfeUVuZ tSlk
laxBu cukuk [krjukd
gksxk tks lewps vkanksyu
dk çoDrk vkSj osaQæ
cuus dh dksf'k'k
djsA
,d vksj iqjkus
fdLe dh lrgh
okeiaFkh jktuhfr gS vkSj
nwljh vksj vyx&vyx jaxksa
okyh vjktdrkoknh rkdrsa
gSaA budk lk>s eqíksa ij
l?ku :i ls ,d gksuk
ukeqefdu gSA
uomnkjokn ubZ
cksry esa iqjkuh 'kjkc gSA
;g iw¡thokn dk [krjukd
:i gSA bls gj dher ij
[kRe dj nsuk pkfg,A D;k ;g
oqQN vPNk Hkh gks ldrk gS\
ge Hkh mrus gh Hkzfer gSa
ftrus dh vkiA
lPph
lektoknh O;oLFkk
osQoy la?k"kZ ls ykbZ
tk ldrh gS_ varghu
vkSj fujFkZd cglksa ls
ughaA
D;k iw¡thokn dks
[kRe djus dk bdykSrk
rjhdk loZlÙkkoknh
rkuk'kkgh gSA
fodYiksa dh [kkst
vkSj fuekZ.k dh yxkrkj
pyus okyh ;g çfØ;k
cgqyrk vkSj fofo/rk Hkjh
gksxhA bldk lanHkZ xSj
nyh; vkSj xSj ljdkjh
gksxkA
,u-th-vks-
lkezkT;okn osQ
nyky gSaA ;s
turk dks
Hkjekrs&cjxkyrs gSa
vkSj Hkz"V djrs gSaA
csgrj gS fd eqacbZ çfrjks/ 2004
rFkkdfFkr fo'o lkekftd eap dk
fojks/ dj jgk gSA eqacbZ çfrjks/ us
fo'o lkekftd eap osQ vyksdrkaf=kd
rkSj&rjhdksa rFkk lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa vkSj
cM+s O;kikj osQ /u ij bldh fuHkZjrk
dks mtkxj fd;k gSA
fo'o lkekftd eap lkezkT;oknh
oS'ohdj.k vkSj ;q¼ osQ f[kykiQ
iui jgs tq>k#iu dks iVjh ls mrkjuk
vkSj vius esa gte dj ysuk pkgrk
gSA lkekftd eap fo'o iw¡thoknh
O;oLFkk dks cuk, j[kus osQ fy,
la?k"kZ dks lq/kjokn dh rjiQ eksM+uk
pkgrk gSA blesa lkezkT;okfn;ksa osQ
jktuhfrd vkdk vkSj dBiqryh
ljdkjsa rks 'kkfey gSa ysfdu jk"Vªh;
eqfDr vkanksyu osQ uqekbans ughaA
fo'o lkekftd eap
,d eqDr vkdk'k
lzksr% xkscj VkbEl] Mkmu Vw vFkZ osQ iksLVj ij vk/kfjr
ledkyhu fo'o jktfufr 136
oS'ohdj.k dh vo/kj.kk
tuknZu ,d dkWy&lsaVj esa dke djrk
gSA og nsj nksigj esa dke osQ fy,
fudyrk gS_ nÝrj esa ?kqlus osQ lkFk gh
og tkWu cu tkrk gS_ u;k ygtk vf[+r;kj
dj ysrk gS vkSj gtkjksa fdyksehVj nwj
cls vius xzkgdksa ls ckr djus osQ fy,
,d u;h Hkk"kk cksyus yxrk gSA vius ?kj esa
og u rks ;g Hkk"kk vkSj u gh bl ygts  esa
cksyrk gSA og lkjh jkr dke djrk gS tks
njvly mlosQ fons'kh xzkgdksa osQ fy, fnu
dk le; gksrk gSA tuknZu ,d ,sls vkneh
dks viuh lsok çnku dj jgk gS ftlls cgqr
laHko gS] og dHkh vkeus&lkeus dh eqykdkr
u dj losQA ;gh mldh fnup;kZ gSA tuknZu
dh Nqf^;k¡ Hkh Hkkjrh; oSQysaMj ls ugha
cfYd vejhdk osQ oSQysaMj ls esy [kkrh gSa
tgk¡ mlosQ xzkgd jgrs gSaA
viuh ukS o"khZ;k csVh dks tUefnu dk
migkj nsus osQ fy, jke/kjh ck”kkj x;k gSA
mlus viuh csVh dks ,d NksVh&lh lkbfdy
migkj esa nsus dk ok;nk fd;k gSA jke/kjh us
ck”kkj esa tkdj ,slh lkbfdy <w¡<+us dk
I
+
kSQlyk fd;k tks mls dher osQ fygkt ls
t¡p tk, vkSj oqQN mEnk DokfyVh dh gksA
mlus vkf[kjdkj ,d lkbfdy [kjhnh tks
cuh rks phu essa Fkh ysfdu fcd Hkkjr esa jgh
gSA bl lkbfdy dh dher jke/kjh dh tsc
oQks ekfI
+
kQd iM+h vkSj ^DokfyVh* Hkh mls
t¡p xbZA jke/kjh us bls [kjhnus dk I
+
kSQlyk
fd;kA fiNys lky viuh csVh dh ftn ij
jke/kjh us mls ^ckchZ MkWy* [kjhndj fn;k
Fkk tks njvly la;qDr jkT; vejhdk esa cuh
Fkh vkSj Hkkjr esa fcd jgh FkhA
lkfjdk vius ifjokj esa igyh ih<+h
dh f'kf{kr gSA dfBu esgur osQ cwrs LowQy
vkSj dkWyst esa og vOoy lkfcr gqbZA vc
mls ukSdjh djus vkSj ,d Lora=k oWQfjvj
dh 'kq#vkr djus dk volj gkFk yxk gSA
,sls volj osQ ckjs esa mlosQ ifjokj dh
efgyk,¡ lksp Hkh ugha ldrh FkhaA lkfjdk
osQ fj'rsnkjksa esa ls oqQN bl ukSdjh dk fojks/
dj jgs gSa ysfdu lkfjdk us vkf[kjdkj ;g
ukSdjh djus dk I
+
kSQlyk fd;k D;ksafd mldh
ih<+h osQ ukStokuksa osQ lkeus u;s volj
ekStwn gSaA
;s rhuksa mnkgj.k oS'ohdj.k dk ,d u
,d igyw fn[kkrs gSaA igys mnkgj.k esa
tuknZu lsokvksa osQ oS'ohdj.k esa fgLlsnkjh
dj jgk gSA jke/kjh tUefnu osQ fy, tks
migkj [kjhn  jgk gS mlesa gesa fo'o osQ
,d Hkkx ls nwljs Hkkx esa oLrqvksa dh
vkoktkgh dk irk pyrk gSA lkfjdk osQ
lkeus thou&ewY;ksa osQ chp nqfo/k dh
fLFkfr gSA ;g nqfo/k va'kr% mu voljksa osQ
dkj.k iSnk gqbZ gS tks mlosQ ifjokj dh
efgykvksa dks igys miyC/ ugha Fks ysfdu
vkt os ,d lPpkbZ gSa vkSj ftUgsa O;kid
LohÑfr fey jgh gSA
;fn ge okLrfod thou esa ^oS'ohdj.k*
'kCn osQ bLrseky dks ij[ksa rks irk pysxk
fd bldk bLrseky dbZ rjg osQ lanHkksZa esa
gksrk gSA uhps oqQN mnkgj.k fn, tk jgs gSaA
bUgsa nsf[k,] ;s mnkgj.k Åij osQ mnkgj.kksa
ls oqQN vyx gSa µ
iQly osQ ekjs tkus ls oqQN fdlkuksa us
vkRegR;k dj yhA bu fdlkuksa us ,d
cgqjk"Vªh; oaQiuh ls cM+s egaxs cht
[kjhns FksA
;wjksi fLFkr ,d cM+h vkSj viuh
çfr;ksxh oaQiuh dks ,d Hkkjrh; oaQiuh
us [kjhn fy;k tcfd [kjhnh xbZ oaQiuh
cgqr&ls usikyh etnwj
dke djus osQ fy,
Hkkjr vkrs gSaA D;k ;g
oS'ohdj.k gS\
,d gÝ+rs osQ
v[+kckj ij u”kj
nkSM+kb, vkSj
oS'ohdj.k osQ
fo"k; esa tks oqQN
Nik gks mldh
drju ,df=kr
dhft,A
oS'ohdj.k 137
Hkkjr esa fcdus okyh
phu dh cuh cgqr&lh
phtsa rLdjh dh gksrh
gSaA D;k oS'ohdj.k osQ
pyrs rLdjh gksrh gS\
osQ ekfyd bl [kjhnnkjh dk fojks/
dj jgs FksA
vusd [kqnjk nqdkunkjksa dks Hk; gS fd
vxj oqQN cM+h varjkZ"Vªh; oaQifu;ksa us
ns'k esa [kqnjk nqdkuksa dh viuh Ja`[kyk
[kksy yh rks mudh jksth&jksVh tkrh
jgsxhA
eqEcbZ osQ ,d fiQYe&fuekZrk ij
vkjksi yxs fd mlus gkWyhoqM esa cuh
,d fiQYe dh dgkuh mBkdj viuh
fiQYe cuk yh gSA
if'peh ifj/ku iguus okyh dkWyst
dh Nk=kkvksa dks ,d mxzoknh laxBu us
vius ,d c;ku esa /edh nh gSA
;s mnkgj.k gesa crkrs gSa fd oS'ohdj.k
gj vFkZ esa ldkjkRed gh ugha gksrk_ yksxksa
ij blosQ nq"çHkko Hkh iM+ ldrs gSaA njvly
,sls yksxksa dh la[;k ”;knk gS tks ekurs gSa
fd oS'ohdj.k osQ ldkjkRed çHkko de
vkSj udkjkRed çHkko ”;knk gSaA bu mnkgj.kksa
ls ;g Hkh irk pyrk gS fd oS'ohdj.k
fliQZ vkfFkZd elyksa ls ugha tqM+k vkSj
”k:jh ugha fd çHkko dh fn'kk ges'kk /uh
eqYdksa ls X
+
kjhc eqYdksa dh vksj xfr'khy gksA
pw¡fd ^oS'ohdj.k* 'kCn dk ç;ksx
vf/dka'kr;k lVhd vFkksZa esa ugha gksrk
blhfy, ;g Li"V djuk ”k:jh gS fd
bldk lgh&lgh vFkZ D;k gSA ,d vo/kj.kk
osQ :i esa oS'ohdj.k dh cqfu;knh ckr
gS µ çokgA çokg dbZ rjg osQ gks ldrs
gSa µ fo'o osQ ,d fgLls osQ fopkjksa dk
nwljs fgLlksa esa igq¡puk_ iw¡th dk ,d ls
”;knk txgksa ij tkuk_ oLrqvksa dk dbZ&dbZ
ns'kksa esas igq¡puk vkSj mudk O;kikj rFkk
csgrj vkthfodk dh ryk'k esa nqfu;k osQ
bl vè;k; esa oS'ohdj.k
ls tqM+s fofHkUu igyqvksa
dks n'kkZrh ,d fp=kekyk
nh xbZ gSA ;s fp=k
fo'oHkj osQ vyx&vyx
fgLlksa ls fy, x, gSaA ;s
fp=k oS'ohdj.k osQ
fofHkUu jax&:i] dkj.k
vkSj vyx&vyx lektksa
ij iM+us okys çHkkoksa dh
,d >yd nsrs gSaA
1 vkSj 2
;s fp=k gekjs lkeus fojks/
kHkklh fLFkfr j[krs gSaA
buesa fHkUu laLÑfr;ksa osQ
yksxksa dk laioZQ fn[kk;k
x;k gSA baVjusV osQ ekè;e
ls vçR;{k laioZQ cgqr
”;knk dkjxj gqvk gSA
3
U;w;koZQ esa la;qDr jk"Vªla?k
eq[;ky; osQ lkeus
çn'kZu
4
gkaxdkax esa py jgh
fo'o O;kikj laxBu dh
cSBd osQ nkSjku fojks/
çn'kZuA bu yksxksa dk
ekuuk gS fd oS'ohdj.k
us oqQN ns'kksa osQ çfr
HksnHkko vkSj c<+k;k gSA
1
2
3
4
Page 4


ifjp;
iqLrd osQ bl vafre vè;k; esa ge
oS'ohdj.k ij ckr djsaxsA oS'ohdj.k dh
ppkZ bl iqLrd osQ dbZ vè;k;ksa esa vkSj
dbZ fo"k;ksa dh iqLrd esa dh xbZ gSA ge
'kq#vkr oS'ohdj.k dh vo/kj.kk osQ fo'ys"k.k
vkSj blosQ dkj.kksa dh tk¡p ls djsaxsA blosQ
ckn ge oS'ohdj.k osQ jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd
vkSj lkaLÑfrd ifj.kkeksa dh ckr djsaxsA
gekjh fnypLih ;g le>us esa Hkh gS fd
oS'ohdj.k dk Hkkjr ij D;k çHkko iM+k gS
vkSj Hkkjr oS'ohdj.k dks oSQls çHkkfor dj
jgk gSA vkf[kj esa ge oS'ohdj.k dks ysdj
gksus okys çfrjks/ ij u”kj Mkysaxs vkSj tkusaxs
fd oSQls Hkkjr osQ lkekftd vkanksyu bl
çfrjks/ dk fgLlk gSaA
vè;k; 9
oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k
oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k
dksfeUVuZ tSlk
laxBu cukuk [krjukd
gksxk tks lewps vkanksyu
dk çoDrk vkSj osaQæ
cuus dh dksf'k'k
djsA
,d vksj iqjkus
fdLe dh lrgh
okeiaFkh jktuhfr gS vkSj
nwljh vksj vyx&vyx jaxksa
okyh vjktdrkoknh rkdrsa
gSaA budk lk>s eqíksa ij
l?ku :i ls ,d gksuk
ukeqefdu gSA
uomnkjokn ubZ
cksry esa iqjkuh 'kjkc gSA
;g iw¡thokn dk [krjukd
:i gSA bls gj dher ij
[kRe dj nsuk pkfg,A D;k ;g
oqQN vPNk Hkh gks ldrk gS\
ge Hkh mrus gh Hkzfer gSa
ftrus dh vkiA
lPph
lektoknh O;oLFkk
osQoy la?k"kZ ls ykbZ
tk ldrh gS_ varghu
vkSj fujFkZd cglksa ls
ughaA
D;k iw¡thokn dks
[kRe djus dk bdykSrk
rjhdk loZlÙkkoknh
rkuk'kkgh gSA
fodYiksa dh [kkst
vkSj fuekZ.k dh yxkrkj
pyus okyh ;g çfØ;k
cgqyrk vkSj fofo/rk Hkjh
gksxhA bldk lanHkZ xSj
nyh; vkSj xSj ljdkjh
gksxkA
,u-th-vks-
lkezkT;okn osQ
nyky gSaA ;s
turk dks
Hkjekrs&cjxkyrs gSa
vkSj Hkz"V djrs gSaA
csgrj gS fd eqacbZ çfrjks/ 2004
rFkkdfFkr fo'o lkekftd eap dk
fojks/ dj jgk gSA eqacbZ çfrjks/ us
fo'o lkekftd eap osQ vyksdrkaf=kd
rkSj&rjhdksa rFkk lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa vkSj
cM+s O;kikj osQ /u ij bldh fuHkZjrk
dks mtkxj fd;k gSA
fo'o lkekftd eap lkezkT;oknh
oS'ohdj.k vkSj ;q¼ osQ f[kykiQ
iui jgs tq>k#iu dks iVjh ls mrkjuk
vkSj vius esa gte dj ysuk pkgrk
gSA lkekftd eap fo'o iw¡thoknh
O;oLFkk dks cuk, j[kus osQ fy,
la?k"kZ dks lq/kjokn dh rjiQ eksM+uk
pkgrk gSA blesa lkezkT;okfn;ksa osQ
jktuhfrd vkdk vkSj dBiqryh
ljdkjsa rks 'kkfey gSa ysfdu jk"Vªh;
eqfDr vkanksyu osQ uqekbans ughaA
fo'o lkekftd eap
,d eqDr vkdk'k
lzksr% xkscj VkbEl] Mkmu Vw vFkZ osQ iksLVj ij vk/kfjr
ledkyhu fo'o jktfufr 136
oS'ohdj.k dh vo/kj.kk
tuknZu ,d dkWy&lsaVj esa dke djrk
gSA og nsj nksigj esa dke osQ fy,
fudyrk gS_ nÝrj esa ?kqlus osQ lkFk gh
og tkWu cu tkrk gS_ u;k ygtk vf[+r;kj
dj ysrk gS vkSj gtkjksa fdyksehVj nwj
cls vius xzkgdksa ls ckr djus osQ fy,
,d u;h Hkk"kk cksyus yxrk gSA vius ?kj esa
og u rks ;g Hkk"kk vkSj u gh bl ygts  esa
cksyrk gSA og lkjh jkr dke djrk gS tks
njvly mlosQ fons'kh xzkgdksa osQ fy, fnu
dk le; gksrk gSA tuknZu ,d ,sls vkneh
dks viuh lsok çnku dj jgk gS ftlls cgqr
laHko gS] og dHkh vkeus&lkeus dh eqykdkr
u dj losQA ;gh mldh fnup;kZ gSA tuknZu
dh Nqf^;k¡ Hkh Hkkjrh; oSQysaMj ls ugha
cfYd vejhdk osQ oSQysaMj ls esy [kkrh gSa
tgk¡ mlosQ xzkgd jgrs gSaA
viuh ukS o"khZ;k csVh dks tUefnu dk
migkj nsus osQ fy, jke/kjh ck”kkj x;k gSA
mlus viuh csVh dks ,d NksVh&lh lkbfdy
migkj esa nsus dk ok;nk fd;k gSA jke/kjh us
ck”kkj esa tkdj ,slh lkbfdy <w¡<+us dk
I
+
kSQlyk fd;k tks mls dher osQ fygkt ls
t¡p tk, vkSj oqQN mEnk DokfyVh dh gksA
mlus vkf[kjdkj ,d lkbfdy [kjhnh tks
cuh rks phu essa Fkh ysfdu fcd Hkkjr esa jgh
gSA bl lkbfdy dh dher jke/kjh dh tsc
oQks ekfI
+
kQd iM+h vkSj ^DokfyVh* Hkh mls
t¡p xbZA jke/kjh us bls [kjhnus dk I
+
kSQlyk
fd;kA fiNys lky viuh csVh dh ftn ij
jke/kjh us mls ^ckchZ MkWy* [kjhndj fn;k
Fkk tks njvly la;qDr jkT; vejhdk esa cuh
Fkh vkSj Hkkjr esa fcd jgh FkhA
lkfjdk vius ifjokj esa igyh ih<+h
dh f'kf{kr gSA dfBu esgur osQ cwrs LowQy
vkSj dkWyst esa og vOoy lkfcr gqbZA vc
mls ukSdjh djus vkSj ,d Lora=k oWQfjvj
dh 'kq#vkr djus dk volj gkFk yxk gSA
,sls volj osQ ckjs esa mlosQ ifjokj dh
efgyk,¡ lksp Hkh ugha ldrh FkhaA lkfjdk
osQ fj'rsnkjksa esa ls oqQN bl ukSdjh dk fojks/
dj jgs gSa ysfdu lkfjdk us vkf[kjdkj ;g
ukSdjh djus dk I
+
kSQlyk fd;k D;ksafd mldh
ih<+h osQ ukStokuksa osQ lkeus u;s volj
ekStwn gSaA
;s rhuksa mnkgj.k oS'ohdj.k dk ,d u
,d igyw fn[kkrs gSaA igys mnkgj.k esa
tuknZu lsokvksa osQ oS'ohdj.k esa fgLlsnkjh
dj jgk gSA jke/kjh tUefnu osQ fy, tks
migkj [kjhn  jgk gS mlesa gesa fo'o osQ
,d Hkkx ls nwljs Hkkx esa oLrqvksa dh
vkoktkgh dk irk pyrk gSA lkfjdk osQ
lkeus thou&ewY;ksa osQ chp nqfo/k dh
fLFkfr gSA ;g nqfo/k va'kr% mu voljksa osQ
dkj.k iSnk gqbZ gS tks mlosQ ifjokj dh
efgykvksa dks igys miyC/ ugha Fks ysfdu
vkt os ,d lPpkbZ gSa vkSj ftUgsa O;kid
LohÑfr fey jgh gSA
;fn ge okLrfod thou esa ^oS'ohdj.k*
'kCn osQ bLrseky dks ij[ksa rks irk pysxk
fd bldk bLrseky dbZ rjg osQ lanHkksZa esa
gksrk gSA uhps oqQN mnkgj.k fn, tk jgs gSaA
bUgsa nsf[k,] ;s mnkgj.k Åij osQ mnkgj.kksa
ls oqQN vyx gSa µ
iQly osQ ekjs tkus ls oqQN fdlkuksa us
vkRegR;k dj yhA bu fdlkuksa us ,d
cgqjk"Vªh; oaQiuh ls cM+s egaxs cht
[kjhns FksA
;wjksi fLFkr ,d cM+h vkSj viuh
çfr;ksxh oaQiuh dks ,d Hkkjrh; oaQiuh
us [kjhn fy;k tcfd [kjhnh xbZ oaQiuh
cgqr&ls usikyh etnwj
dke djus osQ fy,
Hkkjr vkrs gSaA D;k ;g
oS'ohdj.k gS\
,d gÝ+rs osQ
v[+kckj ij u”kj
nkSM+kb, vkSj
oS'ohdj.k osQ
fo"k; esa tks oqQN
Nik gks mldh
drju ,df=kr
dhft,A
oS'ohdj.k 137
Hkkjr esa fcdus okyh
phu dh cuh cgqr&lh
phtsa rLdjh dh gksrh
gSaA D;k oS'ohdj.k osQ
pyrs rLdjh gksrh gS\
osQ ekfyd bl [kjhnnkjh dk fojks/
dj jgs FksA
vusd [kqnjk nqdkunkjksa dks Hk; gS fd
vxj oqQN cM+h varjkZ"Vªh; oaQifu;ksa us
ns'k esa [kqnjk nqdkuksa dh viuh Ja`[kyk
[kksy yh rks mudh jksth&jksVh tkrh
jgsxhA
eqEcbZ osQ ,d fiQYe&fuekZrk ij
vkjksi yxs fd mlus gkWyhoqM esa cuh
,d fiQYe dh dgkuh mBkdj viuh
fiQYe cuk yh gSA
if'peh ifj/ku iguus okyh dkWyst
dh Nk=kkvksa dks ,d mxzoknh laxBu us
vius ,d c;ku esa /edh nh gSA
;s mnkgj.k gesa crkrs gSa fd oS'ohdj.k
gj vFkZ esa ldkjkRed gh ugha gksrk_ yksxksa
ij blosQ nq"çHkko Hkh iM+ ldrs gSaA njvly
,sls yksxksa dh la[;k ”;knk gS tks ekurs gSa
fd oS'ohdj.k osQ ldkjkRed çHkko de
vkSj udkjkRed çHkko ”;knk gSaA bu mnkgj.kksa
ls ;g Hkh irk pyrk gS fd oS'ohdj.k
fliQZ vkfFkZd elyksa ls ugha tqM+k vkSj
”k:jh ugha fd çHkko dh fn'kk ges'kk /uh
eqYdksa ls X
+
kjhc eqYdksa dh vksj xfr'khy gksA
pw¡fd ^oS'ohdj.k* 'kCn dk ç;ksx
vf/dka'kr;k lVhd vFkksZa esa ugha gksrk
blhfy, ;g Li"V djuk ”k:jh gS fd
bldk lgh&lgh vFkZ D;k gSA ,d vo/kj.kk
osQ :i esa oS'ohdj.k dh cqfu;knh ckr
gS µ çokgA çokg dbZ rjg osQ gks ldrs
gSa µ fo'o osQ ,d fgLls osQ fopkjksa dk
nwljs fgLlksa esa igq¡puk_ iw¡th dk ,d ls
”;knk txgksa ij tkuk_ oLrqvksa dk dbZ&dbZ
ns'kksa esas igq¡puk vkSj mudk O;kikj rFkk
csgrj vkthfodk dh ryk'k esa nqfu;k osQ
bl vè;k; esa oS'ohdj.k
ls tqM+s fofHkUu igyqvksa
dks n'kkZrh ,d fp=kekyk
nh xbZ gSA ;s fp=k
fo'oHkj osQ vyx&vyx
fgLlksa ls fy, x, gSaA ;s
fp=k oS'ohdj.k osQ
fofHkUu jax&:i] dkj.k
vkSj vyx&vyx lektksa
ij iM+us okys çHkkoksa dh
,d >yd nsrs gSaA
1 vkSj 2
;s fp=k gekjs lkeus fojks/
kHkklh fLFkfr j[krs gSaA
buesa fHkUu laLÑfr;ksa osQ
yksxksa dk laioZQ fn[kk;k
x;k gSA baVjusV osQ ekè;e
ls vçR;{k laioZQ cgqr
”;knk dkjxj gqvk gSA
3
U;w;koZQ esa la;qDr jk"Vªla?k
eq[;ky; osQ lkeus
çn'kZu
4
gkaxdkax esa py jgh
fo'o O;kikj laxBu dh
cSBd osQ nkSjku fojks/
çn'kZuA bu yksxksa dk
ekuuk gS fd oS'ohdj.k
us oqQN ns'kksa osQ çfr
HksnHkko vkSj c<+k;k gSA
1
2
3
4
ledkyhu fo'o jktfufr 138
D;k lkezkT;okn dk gh
u;k uke oS'ohdj.k ugha
gS\ gesa u;s uke dh
”k:jr D;ksa gS\
fMthVy vFkZO;oLFkk dk egkpØ
fofHkUu fgLlksa esa yksxksa dh vkoktkghA ;gk¡
lcls ”k:jh ckr gS ^fo'oO;kih ikjLifjd
tqM+ko* tks ,sls çokgksa dh fujarjrk ls iSnk
gqvk gS vkSj dk;e Hkh gSA
oS'ohdj.k ,d cgqvk;keh vo/kj.kk
gSA blosQ jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd vkSj lkaLÑfrd
vorkj gSa vkSj buosQ chp Bhd&Bhd Hksn
fd;k tkuk pkfg,A ;g eku ysuk X+kyr gS
fd oS'ohdj.k osQoy vkfFkZd ifj?kVuk gSA
Bhd blh rjg ;g eku ysuk Hkh Hkwy gksxh
fd oS'ohdj.k ,dne lkaLÑfrd ifj?kVuk
gSA oS'ohdj.k dk çHkko cM+k fo"ke jgk
gSµ ;g oqQN lektksa dks ckfd;ksa dh vis{kk
vkSj lekt osQ ,d fgLls dks ckdh fgLlksa
dh vis{kk ”;knk çHkkfor dj jgk gSA ,sls esa
”k:jh gks tkrk gS fd fof'k"V lanHkksZa ij
i;kZIr è;ku fn, fcuk ge oS'ohdj.k osQ
çHkko osQ ckjs esa loZ&lkekU; fu"d"kZ fudkyus
ls ijgst djsaA
oS'ohdj.k osQ dkj.k
D;k gS oS'ohdj.k dh o”kg\ vxj
oS'ohdj.k fopkj] iw¡th] oLrq vkSj yksxksa
dh vkoktkgh ls tqM+h ifj?kVuk gS rks
'kk;n ;g iwNuk vlaxr u gksxk fd
bl ifj?kVuk esa D;k oqQN u;h ckr
gS\ vxj bu pkj rjg osQ çokgksa
dh gh ckr gS rks fiQj oS'ohdj.k
ekuo&bfrgkl osQ vf/dka'k le;
tkjh jgk gSA cgjgky] tks yksx roZQ
nsrs gSa fd ledkyhu oS'ohdj.k osQ
lkFk oqQN [+kkl ckr gS os è;ku
fnykrs gSa fd u;h ckr gS bu çokgksa
dh xfr vkSj buosQ çlkj dk /jkryA
;s nksuksa ckrsa ekStwnk oS'ohdj.k dks
vuwBk cukrh gSaA oS'ohdj.k dk
,d etcwr ,sfrgkfld vk/kj gS blfy,
”k:jh gS fd ge bu çokgksa dks bfrgkl osQ
lanHkZ esa ns[ksaA
gkyk¡fd oS'ohdj.k osQ fy, dksbZ ,d
dkjd ftEesokj ugha fiQj Hkh çkS|ksfxdh
vius vki esa ,d vifjgk;Z dkj.k lkfcr
gqbZ gSA blesa dksbZ 'kd ugha fd VsyhxzkiQ]
VsyhiQksu vkSj ekbØksfpi osQ uohure
vkfo"dkjkas us fo'o osQ fofHkUu Hkkxksa osQ chp
lapkj dh Økafr dj fn[kk;h gSA 'kq:&'kq: esa
tc NikbZ (eqæ.k) dh rduhd vk;h Fkh rks
mlus jk"Vªokn dh vk/kjf'kyk j[khA blh rjg
vkt ge ;g vis{kk dj ldrs gSa fd
çkS|ksfxdh dk çHkko gekjs lkspus osQ rjhosQ
ij iM+sxkA ge vius ckjs esa ftl <ax ls
lksprs gSa vkSj ge lkewfgd thou osQ ckjs esa
ftl r”kZ ij lksprs gSa µ çkS|ksfxdh dk ml
ij vlj iM+sxkA
fopkj] iw¡th] oLrq vkSj yksxksa dh fo'o
osQ fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa vkoktkgh dh vklkuh
çkS|ksfxdh esa gqbZ rjDdh osQ dkj.k laHko gqbZ
gSA bu çokgksa dh xfr esa varj gks ldrk gSA
mnkgj.k osQ fy, fo'o osQ fofHkUu Hkkxksa osQ
chp iw¡th vkSj oLrq dh xfr'khyrk yksxksa
dh vkoktkgh dh rqyuk esa ”;knk rst vkSj
O;kid gksxhA
cgjgky] lapkj&lk/uksa dh rjDdh
vkSj mudh miyC/rk ek=k ls oS'ohdj.k
vfLrRo esa vk;k gks µ ,slh ckr ughaA ;gk¡
”k:jh ckr ;g gS fd fo'o osQ fofHkUu
Hkkxksa osQ yksx vc le> jgs gSa fd os vkil
esa tqM+s gq, gSaA vkt ge bl ckr dks ysdj
ltx gSa fd fo'o osQ ,d fgLls esa ?kVus
okyh ?kVuk dk çHkko fo'o osQ nwljs fgLls
esa Hkh iM+sxkA cMZ Ýyww vFkok ^lqukeh* fdlh
,d jk"Vª dh gnksa esa fleVs ugha jgrsA ;s
,jsl] osQxYl dkVZwu
Page 5


ifjp;
iqLrd osQ bl vafre vè;k; esa ge
oS'ohdj.k ij ckr djsaxsA oS'ohdj.k dh
ppkZ bl iqLrd osQ dbZ vè;k;ksa esa vkSj
dbZ fo"k;ksa dh iqLrd esa dh xbZ gSA ge
'kq#vkr oS'ohdj.k dh vo/kj.kk osQ fo'ys"k.k
vkSj blosQ dkj.kksa dh tk¡p ls djsaxsA blosQ
ckn ge oS'ohdj.k osQ jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd
vkSj lkaLÑfrd ifj.kkeksa dh ckr djsaxsA
gekjh fnypLih ;g le>us esa Hkh gS fd
oS'ohdj.k dk Hkkjr ij D;k çHkko iM+k gS
vkSj Hkkjr oS'ohdj.k dks oSQls çHkkfor dj
jgk gSA vkf[kj esa ge oS'ohdj.k dks ysdj
gksus okys çfrjks/ ij u”kj Mkysaxs vkSj tkusaxs
fd oSQls Hkkjr osQ lkekftd vkanksyu bl
çfrjks/ dk fgLlk gSaA
vè;k; 9
oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k
oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k oS'ohdj.k
dksfeUVuZ tSlk
laxBu cukuk [krjukd
gksxk tks lewps vkanksyu
dk çoDrk vkSj osaQæ
cuus dh dksf'k'k
djsA
,d vksj iqjkus
fdLe dh lrgh
okeiaFkh jktuhfr gS vkSj
nwljh vksj vyx&vyx jaxksa
okyh vjktdrkoknh rkdrsa
gSaA budk lk>s eqíksa ij
l?ku :i ls ,d gksuk
ukeqefdu gSA
uomnkjokn ubZ
cksry esa iqjkuh 'kjkc gSA
;g iw¡thokn dk [krjukd
:i gSA bls gj dher ij
[kRe dj nsuk pkfg,A D;k ;g
oqQN vPNk Hkh gks ldrk gS\
ge Hkh mrus gh Hkzfer gSa
ftrus dh vkiA
lPph
lektoknh O;oLFkk
osQoy la?k"kZ ls ykbZ
tk ldrh gS_ varghu
vkSj fujFkZd cglksa ls
ughaA
D;k iw¡thokn dks
[kRe djus dk bdykSrk
rjhdk loZlÙkkoknh
rkuk'kkgh gSA
fodYiksa dh [kkst
vkSj fuekZ.k dh yxkrkj
pyus okyh ;g çfØ;k
cgqyrk vkSj fofo/rk Hkjh
gksxhA bldk lanHkZ xSj
nyh; vkSj xSj ljdkjh
gksxkA
,u-th-vks-
lkezkT;okn osQ
nyky gSaA ;s
turk dks
Hkjekrs&cjxkyrs gSa
vkSj Hkz"V djrs gSaA
csgrj gS fd eqacbZ çfrjks/ 2004
rFkkdfFkr fo'o lkekftd eap dk
fojks/ dj jgk gSA eqacbZ çfrjks/ us
fo'o lkekftd eap osQ vyksdrkaf=kd
rkSj&rjhdksa rFkk lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa vkSj
cM+s O;kikj osQ /u ij bldh fuHkZjrk
dks mtkxj fd;k gSA
fo'o lkekftd eap lkezkT;oknh
oS'ohdj.k vkSj ;q¼ osQ f[kykiQ
iui jgs tq>k#iu dks iVjh ls mrkjuk
vkSj vius esa gte dj ysuk pkgrk
gSA lkekftd eap fo'o iw¡thoknh
O;oLFkk dks cuk, j[kus osQ fy,
la?k"kZ dks lq/kjokn dh rjiQ eksM+uk
pkgrk gSA blesa lkezkT;okfn;ksa osQ
jktuhfrd vkdk vkSj dBiqryh
ljdkjsa rks 'kkfey gSa ysfdu jk"Vªh;
eqfDr vkanksyu osQ uqekbans ughaA
fo'o lkekftd eap
,d eqDr vkdk'k
lzksr% xkscj VkbEl] Mkmu Vw vFkZ osQ iksLVj ij vk/kfjr
ledkyhu fo'o jktfufr 136
oS'ohdj.k dh vo/kj.kk
tuknZu ,d dkWy&lsaVj esa dke djrk
gSA og nsj nksigj esa dke osQ fy,
fudyrk gS_ nÝrj esa ?kqlus osQ lkFk gh
og tkWu cu tkrk gS_ u;k ygtk vf[+r;kj
dj ysrk gS vkSj gtkjksa fdyksehVj nwj
cls vius xzkgdksa ls ckr djus osQ fy,
,d u;h Hkk"kk cksyus yxrk gSA vius ?kj esa
og u rks ;g Hkk"kk vkSj u gh bl ygts  esa
cksyrk gSA og lkjh jkr dke djrk gS tks
njvly mlosQ fons'kh xzkgdksa osQ fy, fnu
dk le; gksrk gSA tuknZu ,d ,sls vkneh
dks viuh lsok çnku dj jgk gS ftlls cgqr
laHko gS] og dHkh vkeus&lkeus dh eqykdkr
u dj losQA ;gh mldh fnup;kZ gSA tuknZu
dh Nqf^;k¡ Hkh Hkkjrh; oSQysaMj ls ugha
cfYd vejhdk osQ oSQysaMj ls esy [kkrh gSa
tgk¡ mlosQ xzkgd jgrs gSaA
viuh ukS o"khZ;k csVh dks tUefnu dk
migkj nsus osQ fy, jke/kjh ck”kkj x;k gSA
mlus viuh csVh dks ,d NksVh&lh lkbfdy
migkj esa nsus dk ok;nk fd;k gSA jke/kjh us
ck”kkj esa tkdj ,slh lkbfdy <w¡<+us dk
I
+
kSQlyk fd;k tks mls dher osQ fygkt ls
t¡p tk, vkSj oqQN mEnk DokfyVh dh gksA
mlus vkf[kjdkj ,d lkbfdy [kjhnh tks
cuh rks phu essa Fkh ysfdu fcd Hkkjr esa jgh
gSA bl lkbfdy dh dher jke/kjh dh tsc
oQks ekfI
+
kQd iM+h vkSj ^DokfyVh* Hkh mls
t¡p xbZA jke/kjh us bls [kjhnus dk I
+
kSQlyk
fd;kA fiNys lky viuh csVh dh ftn ij
jke/kjh us mls ^ckchZ MkWy* [kjhndj fn;k
Fkk tks njvly la;qDr jkT; vejhdk esa cuh
Fkh vkSj Hkkjr esa fcd jgh FkhA
lkfjdk vius ifjokj esa igyh ih<+h
dh f'kf{kr gSA dfBu esgur osQ cwrs LowQy
vkSj dkWyst esa og vOoy lkfcr gqbZA vc
mls ukSdjh djus vkSj ,d Lora=k oWQfjvj
dh 'kq#vkr djus dk volj gkFk yxk gSA
,sls volj osQ ckjs esa mlosQ ifjokj dh
efgyk,¡ lksp Hkh ugha ldrh FkhaA lkfjdk
osQ fj'rsnkjksa esa ls oqQN bl ukSdjh dk fojks/
dj jgs gSa ysfdu lkfjdk us vkf[kjdkj ;g
ukSdjh djus dk I
+
kSQlyk fd;k D;ksafd mldh
ih<+h osQ ukStokuksa osQ lkeus u;s volj
ekStwn gSaA
;s rhuksa mnkgj.k oS'ohdj.k dk ,d u
,d igyw fn[kkrs gSaA igys mnkgj.k esa
tuknZu lsokvksa osQ oS'ohdj.k esa fgLlsnkjh
dj jgk gSA jke/kjh tUefnu osQ fy, tks
migkj [kjhn  jgk gS mlesa gesa fo'o osQ
,d Hkkx ls nwljs Hkkx esa oLrqvksa dh
vkoktkgh dk irk pyrk gSA lkfjdk osQ
lkeus thou&ewY;ksa osQ chp nqfo/k dh
fLFkfr gSA ;g nqfo/k va'kr% mu voljksa osQ
dkj.k iSnk gqbZ gS tks mlosQ ifjokj dh
efgykvksa dks igys miyC/ ugha Fks ysfdu
vkt os ,d lPpkbZ gSa vkSj ftUgsa O;kid
LohÑfr fey jgh gSA
;fn ge okLrfod thou esa ^oS'ohdj.k*
'kCn osQ bLrseky dks ij[ksa rks irk pysxk
fd bldk bLrseky dbZ rjg osQ lanHkksZa esa
gksrk gSA uhps oqQN mnkgj.k fn, tk jgs gSaA
bUgsa nsf[k,] ;s mnkgj.k Åij osQ mnkgj.kksa
ls oqQN vyx gSa µ
iQly osQ ekjs tkus ls oqQN fdlkuksa us
vkRegR;k dj yhA bu fdlkuksa us ,d
cgqjk"Vªh; oaQiuh ls cM+s egaxs cht
[kjhns FksA
;wjksi fLFkr ,d cM+h vkSj viuh
çfr;ksxh oaQiuh dks ,d Hkkjrh; oaQiuh
us [kjhn fy;k tcfd [kjhnh xbZ oaQiuh
cgqr&ls usikyh etnwj
dke djus osQ fy,
Hkkjr vkrs gSaA D;k ;g
oS'ohdj.k gS\
,d gÝ+rs osQ
v[+kckj ij u”kj
nkSM+kb, vkSj
oS'ohdj.k osQ
fo"k; esa tks oqQN
Nik gks mldh
drju ,df=kr
dhft,A
oS'ohdj.k 137
Hkkjr esa fcdus okyh
phu dh cuh cgqr&lh
phtsa rLdjh dh gksrh
gSaA D;k oS'ohdj.k osQ
pyrs rLdjh gksrh gS\
osQ ekfyd bl [kjhnnkjh dk fojks/
dj jgs FksA
vusd [kqnjk nqdkunkjksa dks Hk; gS fd
vxj oqQN cM+h varjkZ"Vªh; oaQifu;ksa us
ns'k esa [kqnjk nqdkuksa dh viuh Ja`[kyk
[kksy yh rks mudh jksth&jksVh tkrh
jgsxhA
eqEcbZ osQ ,d fiQYe&fuekZrk ij
vkjksi yxs fd mlus gkWyhoqM esa cuh
,d fiQYe dh dgkuh mBkdj viuh
fiQYe cuk yh gSA
if'peh ifj/ku iguus okyh dkWyst
dh Nk=kkvksa dks ,d mxzoknh laxBu us
vius ,d c;ku esa /edh nh gSA
;s mnkgj.k gesa crkrs gSa fd oS'ohdj.k
gj vFkZ esa ldkjkRed gh ugha gksrk_ yksxksa
ij blosQ nq"çHkko Hkh iM+ ldrs gSaA njvly
,sls yksxksa dh la[;k ”;knk gS tks ekurs gSa
fd oS'ohdj.k osQ ldkjkRed çHkko de
vkSj udkjkRed çHkko ”;knk gSaA bu mnkgj.kksa
ls ;g Hkh irk pyrk gS fd oS'ohdj.k
fliQZ vkfFkZd elyksa ls ugha tqM+k vkSj
”k:jh ugha fd çHkko dh fn'kk ges'kk /uh
eqYdksa ls X
+
kjhc eqYdksa dh vksj xfr'khy gksA
pw¡fd ^oS'ohdj.k* 'kCn dk ç;ksx
vf/dka'kr;k lVhd vFkksZa esa ugha gksrk
blhfy, ;g Li"V djuk ”k:jh gS fd
bldk lgh&lgh vFkZ D;k gSA ,d vo/kj.kk
osQ :i esa oS'ohdj.k dh cqfu;knh ckr
gS µ çokgA çokg dbZ rjg osQ gks ldrs
gSa µ fo'o osQ ,d fgLls osQ fopkjksa dk
nwljs fgLlksa esa igq¡puk_ iw¡th dk ,d ls
”;knk txgksa ij tkuk_ oLrqvksa dk dbZ&dbZ
ns'kksa esas igq¡puk vkSj mudk O;kikj rFkk
csgrj vkthfodk dh ryk'k esa nqfu;k osQ
bl vè;k; esa oS'ohdj.k
ls tqM+s fofHkUu igyqvksa
dks n'kkZrh ,d fp=kekyk
nh xbZ gSA ;s fp=k
fo'oHkj osQ vyx&vyx
fgLlksa ls fy, x, gSaA ;s
fp=k oS'ohdj.k osQ
fofHkUu jax&:i] dkj.k
vkSj vyx&vyx lektksa
ij iM+us okys çHkkoksa dh
,d >yd nsrs gSaA
1 vkSj 2
;s fp=k gekjs lkeus fojks/
kHkklh fLFkfr j[krs gSaA
buesa fHkUu laLÑfr;ksa osQ
yksxksa dk laioZQ fn[kk;k
x;k gSA baVjusV osQ ekè;e
ls vçR;{k laioZQ cgqr
”;knk dkjxj gqvk gSA
3
U;w;koZQ esa la;qDr jk"Vªla?k
eq[;ky; osQ lkeus
çn'kZu
4
gkaxdkax esa py jgh
fo'o O;kikj laxBu dh
cSBd osQ nkSjku fojks/
çn'kZuA bu yksxksa dk
ekuuk gS fd oS'ohdj.k
us oqQN ns'kksa osQ çfr
HksnHkko vkSj c<+k;k gSA
1
2
3
4
ledkyhu fo'o jktfufr 138
D;k lkezkT;okn dk gh
u;k uke oS'ohdj.k ugha
gS\ gesa u;s uke dh
”k:jr D;ksa gS\
fMthVy vFkZO;oLFkk dk egkpØ
fofHkUu fgLlksa esa yksxksa dh vkoktkghA ;gk¡
lcls ”k:jh ckr gS ^fo'oO;kih ikjLifjd
tqM+ko* tks ,sls çokgksa dh fujarjrk ls iSnk
gqvk gS vkSj dk;e Hkh gSA
oS'ohdj.k ,d cgqvk;keh vo/kj.kk
gSA blosQ jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd vkSj lkaLÑfrd
vorkj gSa vkSj buosQ chp Bhd&Bhd Hksn
fd;k tkuk pkfg,A ;g eku ysuk X+kyr gS
fd oS'ohdj.k osQoy vkfFkZd ifj?kVuk gSA
Bhd blh rjg ;g eku ysuk Hkh Hkwy gksxh
fd oS'ohdj.k ,dne lkaLÑfrd ifj?kVuk
gSA oS'ohdj.k dk çHkko cM+k fo"ke jgk
gSµ ;g oqQN lektksa dks ckfd;ksa dh vis{kk
vkSj lekt osQ ,d fgLls dks ckdh fgLlksa
dh vis{kk ”;knk çHkkfor dj jgk gSA ,sls esa
”k:jh gks tkrk gS fd fof'k"V lanHkksZa ij
i;kZIr è;ku fn, fcuk ge oS'ohdj.k osQ
çHkko osQ ckjs esa loZ&lkekU; fu"d"kZ fudkyus
ls ijgst djsaA
oS'ohdj.k osQ dkj.k
D;k gS oS'ohdj.k dh o”kg\ vxj
oS'ohdj.k fopkj] iw¡th] oLrq vkSj yksxksa
dh vkoktkgh ls tqM+h ifj?kVuk gS rks
'kk;n ;g iwNuk vlaxr u gksxk fd
bl ifj?kVuk esa D;k oqQN u;h ckr
gS\ vxj bu pkj rjg osQ çokgksa
dh gh ckr gS rks fiQj oS'ohdj.k
ekuo&bfrgkl osQ vf/dka'k le;
tkjh jgk gSA cgjgky] tks yksx roZQ
nsrs gSa fd ledkyhu oS'ohdj.k osQ
lkFk oqQN [+kkl ckr gS os è;ku
fnykrs gSa fd u;h ckr gS bu çokgksa
dh xfr vkSj buosQ çlkj dk /jkryA
;s nksuksa ckrsa ekStwnk oS'ohdj.k dks
vuwBk cukrh gSaA oS'ohdj.k dk
,d etcwr ,sfrgkfld vk/kj gS blfy,
”k:jh gS fd ge bu çokgksa dks bfrgkl osQ
lanHkZ esa ns[ksaA
gkyk¡fd oS'ohdj.k osQ fy, dksbZ ,d
dkjd ftEesokj ugha fiQj Hkh çkS|ksfxdh
vius vki esa ,d vifjgk;Z dkj.k lkfcr
gqbZ gSA blesa dksbZ 'kd ugha fd VsyhxzkiQ]
VsyhiQksu vkSj ekbØksfpi osQ uohure
vkfo"dkjkas us fo'o osQ fofHkUu Hkkxksa osQ chp
lapkj dh Økafr dj fn[kk;h gSA 'kq:&'kq: esa
tc NikbZ (eqæ.k) dh rduhd vk;h Fkh rks
mlus jk"Vªokn dh vk/kjf'kyk j[khA blh rjg
vkt ge ;g vis{kk dj ldrs gSa fd
çkS|ksfxdh dk çHkko gekjs lkspus osQ rjhosQ
ij iM+sxkA ge vius ckjs esa ftl <ax ls
lksprs gSa vkSj ge lkewfgd thou osQ ckjs esa
ftl r”kZ ij lksprs gSa µ çkS|ksfxdh dk ml
ij vlj iM+sxkA
fopkj] iw¡th] oLrq vkSj yksxksa dh fo'o
osQ fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa vkoktkgh dh vklkuh
çkS|ksfxdh esa gqbZ rjDdh osQ dkj.k laHko gqbZ
gSA bu çokgksa dh xfr esa varj gks ldrk gSA
mnkgj.k osQ fy, fo'o osQ fofHkUu Hkkxksa osQ
chp iw¡th vkSj oLrq dh xfr'khyrk yksxksa
dh vkoktkgh dh rqyuk esa ”;knk rst vkSj
O;kid gksxhA
cgjgky] lapkj&lk/uksa dh rjDdh
vkSj mudh miyC/rk ek=k ls oS'ohdj.k
vfLrRo esa vk;k gks µ ,slh ckr ughaA ;gk¡
”k:jh ckr ;g gS fd fo'o osQ fofHkUu
Hkkxksa osQ yksx vc le> jgs gSa fd os vkil
esa tqM+s gq, gSaA vkt ge bl ckr dks ysdj
ltx gSa fd fo'o osQ ,d fgLls esa ?kVus
okyh ?kVuk dk çHkko fo'o osQ nwljs fgLls
esa Hkh iM+sxkA cMZ Ýyww vFkok ^lqukeh* fdlh
,d jk"Vª dh gnksa esa fleVs ugha jgrsA ;s
,jsl] osQxYl dkVZwu
oS'ohdj.k 139
?kVuk,¡ jk"Vªh;&lhekvksa dk tksj ugha ekurhaA
Bhd blh rjg tc cM+h vkfFkZd ?kVuk,¡
gksrh gSa rks mudk çHkko muosQ ekStwnk LFkku
vFkok {ks=kh; ifjos'k rd gh lhfer ugha
jgrk] cfYd fo'o Hkj esa eglwl fd;k
tkrk gSA
jktuhfrd çHkko
oS'ohdj.k dh ledkyhu çfØ;kvksa osQ
çHkko osQ ckjs esa tkjh cglksa esa ,d ;g
gS fd bldk jktuhfrd vlj D;k gks
jgk gS\ jkT; dh laçHkqrk dh ijaijkxr
/kj.kk ij oS'ohdj.k dk vlj oSQls gksrk
gS\ bl loky dk ”kokc nsrs le; gesa de
ls de rhu igyqvksa dk è;ku j[kuk gksxkA
lcls lh/k&ljy fopkj ;g gS fd
oS'ohdj.k osQ dkj.k jkT; dh {kerk ;kuh
ljdkjksa dks tks djuk gS mls djus dh rkdr
esa deh vkrh gSA iwjh nqfu;k esa dY;k.kdkjh
jkT; dh /kj.kk vc iqjkuh iM+ xbZ gS vkSj
bldh txg U;wure gLr{ksidkjh jkT; us ys
yh gSA jkT; vc oqQNsd eq[; dkeksa rd gh
vius dks lhfer j[krk gS] tSls  dkuwu vkSj
O;oLFkk dks cuk;s j[kuk rFkk vius ukxfjdksa
dh lqj{kk djukA bl rjg osQ jkT; us vius
dks igys osQ dbZ ,sls yksd&dY;k.kdkjh
dkeksa ls [khap fy;k gS ftudk y{; vkfFkZd
vkSj lkekftd&dY;k.k gksrk FkkA yksd
dY;k.kdkjh jkT; dh txg vc ck”kkj
vkfFkZd vkSj lkekftd çkFkfedrkvksa dk
çeq[k fu/kZjd gSA iwjs fo'o esa cgqjk"Vªh;
fuxe vius iSj ilkj pqosQ gSa vkSj mudh
Hkwfedk c<+h gSA blls ljdkjksa osQ vius ne
ij I
+
kSQlyk djus dh {kerk esa deh vkrh gSA
blh osQ lkFk ,d ckr vkSj Hkh gSA
oS'ohdj.k ls ges'kk jkT; dh rkdr esa deh
5
oS'ohdj.k dh çrhd
cu pqdh oqQN oLrq,¡A
6
igyh nqfu;k osQ ns'kksa esa
vkçoklh yksxksa osQ dke
djus dh fLFkfr dh
>yd nsrk ,d fp=kA
7
oS'ohdj.k osQ nkSj esa
csxkusiu dh fLFkfr dh
vksj b'kkjk djrk ,d
fp=kA tks O;fDr viuh
tSosQV ls ^'kgj lkiQ
j[kks* dk lans'k ns jgk
gS mls 'kk;n gh
dYiuk gks fd bl
tSosQV dks cukus okys
fdl gkyr esa jgrs gSaA
8
teZuh esa laLÑfr
dykdkjksa dks ikjaifjd
os'kHkw"kk esa ^çLrqr*
fd;k tk jgk gSA
5
6
7
8
Read More
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