NCERT Textbook - व्यापार से साम्राज्य तक : कंपनी की सत्ता स्थापित होती है Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - व्यापार से साम्राज्य तक : कंपनी की सत्ता स्थापित होती है Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


9 O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
2
eqX+ky ckn'kkgksa esa vkSjax”ksc vkf[kjh 'kfDr'kkyh ckn'kkg FksA mUgksaus orZeku
Hkkjr osQ ,d cgqr cM+s fgLls ij fu;a=k.k LFkkfir dj fy;k FkkA 1707 esa
mudh e`R;q osQ ckn cgqr lkjs eqX+ky lwcsnkj vkSj cM+s&cM+s ”kehankj viuh
rkdr fn[kkus yxs FksA mUgksaus viuh {ks=kh; fj;klrsa dk;e dj yh FkhaA
tSls&tSls fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa rkdroj {ks=kh; fj;klrsa lkeus vkus yxha] fnYyh
vfèkd fnuksa rd izHkkoh osQUnz osQ :i esa ugha jg ldhA
vBkjgoha lnh osQ mRrjkèkZ rd jktuhfrd f{kfrt ij vaxzs”kksa osQ :i
esa ,d u;h rkdr mHkjus yxh FkhA D;k vki tkurs gSa fd vaxzs”k
igys&igy ,d NksVh&lh O;kikfjd oaQiuh osQ :i esa Hkkjr vk, Fks vkSj
;gk¡ osQ bykdksa ij dC”ks essa mudh T+;knk fnypLih ugha Fkh\ rks fiQj ,slk
oSQls gqvk fd ,d fnu os bl fo'kky lkezkT; osQ Lokeh cu cSBs\ bl
vè;k; esa vki ns[ksaxs fd ;g oSQls gqvk\
fp=k 1 & oSQIVu gMlu }kjk cgknqj
'kkg ”ki+Qj vkSj muosQ csVksa dh fxjÝ+rkjhA
vkSjax”ksc osQ ckn dksbZ eqX+ky ckn'kkg
bruk rkdroj rks ugha gqvk ysfdu ,d
izrhd osQ :i esa eqX+ky ckn'kkgksa dk
egRo cuk gqvk FkkA tc 1857 esa fczfV'k
'kklu osQ fo#¼ Hkkjh fonzksg 'kq: gks x;k
rks fonzksfg;ksa us eqX+ky ckn'kkg cgknqj 'kkg
”ki+Qj dks gh viuk usrk eku fy;k FkkA
tc fonzksg oqQpy fn;k x;k rks oaQiuh us
cgknqj 'kkg ”kI
+
kQj dks ns'k NksM+us osQ fy,
etcwj dj fn;k vkSj muosQ csVksa dks
”ki+Qj osQ lkeus gh ekj MkykA
O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
daiuh dh lRrk LFkkfir gksrh gS
Page 2


9 O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
2
eqX+ky ckn'kkgksa esa vkSjax”ksc vkf[kjh 'kfDr'kkyh ckn'kkg FksA mUgksaus orZeku
Hkkjr osQ ,d cgqr cM+s fgLls ij fu;a=k.k LFkkfir dj fy;k FkkA 1707 esa
mudh e`R;q osQ ckn cgqr lkjs eqX+ky lwcsnkj vkSj cM+s&cM+s ”kehankj viuh
rkdr fn[kkus yxs FksA mUgksaus viuh {ks=kh; fj;klrsa dk;e dj yh FkhaA
tSls&tSls fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa rkdroj {ks=kh; fj;klrsa lkeus vkus yxha] fnYyh
vfèkd fnuksa rd izHkkoh osQUnz osQ :i esa ugha jg ldhA
vBkjgoha lnh osQ mRrjkèkZ rd jktuhfrd f{kfrt ij vaxzs”kksa osQ :i
esa ,d u;h rkdr mHkjus yxh FkhA D;k vki tkurs gSa fd vaxzs”k
igys&igy ,d NksVh&lh O;kikfjd oaQiuh osQ :i esa Hkkjr vk, Fks vkSj
;gk¡ osQ bykdksa ij dC”ks essa mudh T+;knk fnypLih ugha Fkh\ rks fiQj ,slk
oSQls gqvk fd ,d fnu os bl fo'kky lkezkT; osQ Lokeh cu cSBs\ bl
vè;k; esa vki ns[ksaxs fd ;g oSQls gqvk\
fp=k 1 & oSQIVu gMlu }kjk cgknqj
'kkg ”ki+Qj vkSj muosQ csVksa dh fxjÝ+rkjhA
vkSjax”ksc osQ ckn dksbZ eqX+ky ckn'kkg
bruk rkdroj rks ugha gqvk ysfdu ,d
izrhd osQ :i esa eqX+ky ckn'kkgksa dk
egRo cuk gqvk FkkA tc 1857 esa fczfV'k
'kklu osQ fo#¼ Hkkjh fonzksg 'kq: gks x;k
rks fonzksfg;ksa us eqX+ky ckn'kkg cgknqj 'kkg
”ki+Qj dks gh viuk usrk eku fy;k FkkA
tc fonzksg oqQpy fn;k x;k rks oaQiuh us
cgknqj 'kkg ”kI
+
kQj dks ns'k NksM+us osQ fy,
etcwj dj fn;k vkSj muosQ csVksa dks
”ki+Qj osQ lkeus gh ekj MkykA
O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
daiuh dh lRrk LFkkfir gksrh gS
gekjs vrhr – III 10
iwoZ esa bZLV bafM;k
oaQiuh dk vkuk
lu~ 1600 esa bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh us
baXySaM dh egkjkuh ,fy”kkcsFk izFke ls
pkVZj vFkkZr btktrukek gkfly dj
fy;k ftlls oaQiuh dks iwjc ls O;kikj
djus dk ,dkf/dkj fey x;kA bl
b”kk”krukes dk eryc ;g Fkk fd
baXySaM dh dksbZ vkSj O;kikfjd oaQiuh
bl bykosQ esa bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh ls
gksM+ ugha dj ldrh FkhA bl pkVZj osQ
lgkjs oaQiuh leqnz ikj tkdj u, bykdksa
dks [k¡xky ldrh Fkh] ogk¡ ls lLrh dher ij ph”ksa [+kjhn dj mUgsa ;wjksi
esa m¡Qph dher ij csp ldrh FkhA oaQiuh dks nwljh vaxzs”k O;kikfjd
oaQifu;ksa ls izfrLièkkZ dk dksbZ Hk; ugha FkkA ml ”kekus esa okf.kfT;d
oaQifu;k¡ eksVs rkSj ij izfrLièkkZ ls cpdj gh equkiQk dek ldrh FkhaA vxj
dksbZ izfrLièkhZ u gks rHkh os lLrh ph”ksa [+kjhndj mUgsa T+;knk dher ij
csp ldrh FkhaA
ysfdu ;g 'kkgh nLrkos”k nwljh ;wjksih; rkdrksa dks iwjc osQ ck”kkjksa esa
vkus ls ugha jksd ldrk FkkA tc rd baXySaM osQ tgk”k vizQhdk osQ if'pe
rV dks Nwrs gq, osQi vkWI
+
kQ xqM gksi dk pDdj yxkdj fgan egklkxj ikj
djrs rc rd iqrZxkfy;ksa us Hkkjr osQ if'peh rV ij viuh mifLFkfr ntZ
djk nh FkhA os xksok esa viuk fBdkuk cuk pqosQ FksA iqrZxky osQ [kksth ;k=kh
okLdks n xkek us gh 1498 esa igyh ckj Hkkjr rd igq¡pus osQ bl leqnzh
ekxZ dk irk yxk;k FkkA l=kgoha 'krkCnh dh 'kq#vkr rd Mp Hkh fgan
egklkxj esa O;kikj dh laHkkouk,¡ ryk'kus yxs FksA oqQN gh le; ckn
i
+
zQkalhlh O;kikjh Hkh lkeus vk x,A
leL;k ;g Fkh fd lkjh oaQifu;k¡ ,d tSlh ph”ksa gh [+kjhnuk pkgrh
FkhaA ;wjksi osQ ck”kkjksa esa Hkkjr osQ cus ckjhd lwrh diM+s vkSj js'ke dh
tcjnLr ek¡x FkhA buosQ vykok dkyh fepZ] ykSax] byk;ph vkSj nkyphuh
dh Hkh tcjnLr ek¡x jgrh FkhA ;wjksih; oaQifu;ksa osQ chp bl c<+rh
izfrLièkkZ ls Hkkjrh; ck”kkjksa esa bu ph”kksa dh dhersa c<+us yxha vkSj muls
feyus okyk equkiQk fxjus yxkA vc bu O;kikfjd oaQifu;ksa osQ
iQyus&iwQyus dk ;gh ,d jkLrk Fkk fd os viuh izfrLièkhZ daifu;ksa dks
[kRe dj nsA fygktk] ck”kkjksa ij dCts dh bl gksM+ us O;kikfjd oaQifu;ksa
osQ chp yM+kb;ksa dh 'kq#vkr dj nhA l=kgoha vkSj vBkjgoha lnh esa tc
Hkh ekSdk feyrk dksbZ&lh ,d daiuh fdlh nwljh daiuh osQ tgk”k Mwcks
nsrh] jkLrs esa #dkoVsa [kM+h dj nsrh vkSj eky ls yns tgk”kksa dks vkxs
fp=k 2 & vBkjgoha lnh esa Hkkjr rd
vkus okys jkLrsA
okf.kfT;d & ,d ,slk O;kolkf;d
m|e ftlesa ph”kksa dks lLrh dher
ij [+kjhn dj vkSj T+;knk dher
ij cspdj ;kuh eq[; :i ls
O;kikj osQ ”kfj, equkiQk dek;k
tkrk gSA
Page 3


9 O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
2
eqX+ky ckn'kkgksa esa vkSjax”ksc vkf[kjh 'kfDr'kkyh ckn'kkg FksA mUgksaus orZeku
Hkkjr osQ ,d cgqr cM+s fgLls ij fu;a=k.k LFkkfir dj fy;k FkkA 1707 esa
mudh e`R;q osQ ckn cgqr lkjs eqX+ky lwcsnkj vkSj cM+s&cM+s ”kehankj viuh
rkdr fn[kkus yxs FksA mUgksaus viuh {ks=kh; fj;klrsa dk;e dj yh FkhaA
tSls&tSls fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa rkdroj {ks=kh; fj;klrsa lkeus vkus yxha] fnYyh
vfèkd fnuksa rd izHkkoh osQUnz osQ :i esa ugha jg ldhA
vBkjgoha lnh osQ mRrjkèkZ rd jktuhfrd f{kfrt ij vaxzs”kksa osQ :i
esa ,d u;h rkdr mHkjus yxh FkhA D;k vki tkurs gSa fd vaxzs”k
igys&igy ,d NksVh&lh O;kikfjd oaQiuh osQ :i esa Hkkjr vk, Fks vkSj
;gk¡ osQ bykdksa ij dC”ks essa mudh T+;knk fnypLih ugha Fkh\ rks fiQj ,slk
oSQls gqvk fd ,d fnu os bl fo'kky lkezkT; osQ Lokeh cu cSBs\ bl
vè;k; esa vki ns[ksaxs fd ;g oSQls gqvk\
fp=k 1 & oSQIVu gMlu }kjk cgknqj
'kkg ”ki+Qj vkSj muosQ csVksa dh fxjÝ+rkjhA
vkSjax”ksc osQ ckn dksbZ eqX+ky ckn'kkg
bruk rkdroj rks ugha gqvk ysfdu ,d
izrhd osQ :i esa eqX+ky ckn'kkgksa dk
egRo cuk gqvk FkkA tc 1857 esa fczfV'k
'kklu osQ fo#¼ Hkkjh fonzksg 'kq: gks x;k
rks fonzksfg;ksa us eqX+ky ckn'kkg cgknqj 'kkg
”ki+Qj dks gh viuk usrk eku fy;k FkkA
tc fonzksg oqQpy fn;k x;k rks oaQiuh us
cgknqj 'kkg ”kI
+
kQj dks ns'k NksM+us osQ fy,
etcwj dj fn;k vkSj muosQ csVksa dks
”ki+Qj osQ lkeus gh ekj MkykA
O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
daiuh dh lRrk LFkkfir gksrh gS
gekjs vrhr – III 10
iwoZ esa bZLV bafM;k
oaQiuh dk vkuk
lu~ 1600 esa bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh us
baXySaM dh egkjkuh ,fy”kkcsFk izFke ls
pkVZj vFkkZr btktrukek gkfly dj
fy;k ftlls oaQiuh dks iwjc ls O;kikj
djus dk ,dkf/dkj fey x;kA bl
b”kk”krukes dk eryc ;g Fkk fd
baXySaM dh dksbZ vkSj O;kikfjd oaQiuh
bl bykosQ esa bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh ls
gksM+ ugha dj ldrh FkhA bl pkVZj osQ
lgkjs oaQiuh leqnz ikj tkdj u, bykdksa
dks [k¡xky ldrh Fkh] ogk¡ ls lLrh dher ij ph”ksa [+kjhn dj mUgsa ;wjksi
esa m¡Qph dher ij csp ldrh FkhA oaQiuh dks nwljh vaxzs”k O;kikfjd
oaQifu;ksa ls izfrLièkkZ dk dksbZ Hk; ugha FkkA ml ”kekus esa okf.kfT;d
oaQifu;k¡ eksVs rkSj ij izfrLièkkZ ls cpdj gh equkiQk dek ldrh FkhaA vxj
dksbZ izfrLièkhZ u gks rHkh os lLrh ph”ksa [+kjhndj mUgsa T+;knk dher ij
csp ldrh FkhaA
ysfdu ;g 'kkgh nLrkos”k nwljh ;wjksih; rkdrksa dks iwjc osQ ck”kkjksa esa
vkus ls ugha jksd ldrk FkkA tc rd baXySaM osQ tgk”k vizQhdk osQ if'pe
rV dks Nwrs gq, osQi vkWI
+
kQ xqM gksi dk pDdj yxkdj fgan egklkxj ikj
djrs rc rd iqrZxkfy;ksa us Hkkjr osQ if'peh rV ij viuh mifLFkfr ntZ
djk nh FkhA os xksok esa viuk fBdkuk cuk pqosQ FksA iqrZxky osQ [kksth ;k=kh
okLdks n xkek us gh 1498 esa igyh ckj Hkkjr rd igq¡pus osQ bl leqnzh
ekxZ dk irk yxk;k FkkA l=kgoha 'krkCnh dh 'kq#vkr rd Mp Hkh fgan
egklkxj esa O;kikj dh laHkkouk,¡ ryk'kus yxs FksA oqQN gh le; ckn
i
+
zQkalhlh O;kikjh Hkh lkeus vk x,A
leL;k ;g Fkh fd lkjh oaQifu;k¡ ,d tSlh ph”ksa gh [+kjhnuk pkgrh
FkhaA ;wjksi osQ ck”kkjksa esa Hkkjr osQ cus ckjhd lwrh diM+s vkSj js'ke dh
tcjnLr ek¡x FkhA buosQ vykok dkyh fepZ] ykSax] byk;ph vkSj nkyphuh
dh Hkh tcjnLr ek¡x jgrh FkhA ;wjksih; oaQifu;ksa osQ chp bl c<+rh
izfrLièkkZ ls Hkkjrh; ck”kkjksa esa bu ph”kksa dh dhersa c<+us yxha vkSj muls
feyus okyk equkiQk fxjus yxkA vc bu O;kikfjd oaQifu;ksa osQ
iQyus&iwQyus dk ;gh ,d jkLrk Fkk fd os viuh izfrLièkhZ daifu;ksa dks
[kRe dj nsA fygktk] ck”kkjksa ij dCts dh bl gksM+ us O;kikfjd oaQifu;ksa
osQ chp yM+kb;ksa dh 'kq#vkr dj nhA l=kgoha vkSj vBkjgoha lnh esa tc
Hkh ekSdk feyrk dksbZ&lh ,d daiuh fdlh nwljh daiuh osQ tgk”k Mwcks
nsrh] jkLrs esa #dkoVsa [kM+h dj nsrh vkSj eky ls yns tgk”kksa dks vkxs
fp=k 2 & vBkjgoha lnh esa Hkkjr rd
vkus okys jkLrsA
okf.kfT;d & ,d ,slk O;kolkf;d
m|e ftlesa ph”kksa dks lLrh dher
ij [+kjhn dj vkSj T+;knk dher
ij cspdj ;kuh eq[; :i ls
O;kikj osQ ”kfj, equkiQk dek;k
tkrk gSA
11 O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
c<+us ls jksd nsrhA ;g O;kikj gfFk;kjksa dh enn ls py jgk Fkk vkSj
O;kikfjd pkSfd;ksa dks fdyscanh osQ ”kfj, lqjf{kr j[kk tkrk FkkA
viuh cfLr;ksa dks fdyscan djus vkSj O;kikj esa equkIkQk dekus dh bu
dksf'k'kksa osQ dkj.k LFkkuh; 'kkldksa ls Hkh Vdjko gksus yxsA bl izdkj]
O;kikj vkSj jktuhfr dks ,d&nwljs ls vyx j[kuk oaQiuh osQ fy,
eqf'dy gksrk tk jgk FkkA vkb, ns[ksa fd ;g oSQls gqvkA
bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh caxky esa O;kikj 'kq: djrh gS
igyh bafXy'k IkSQDVjh 1651 esa gqxyh unh osQ fdukjs 'kq: gqbZA oaQiuh osQ
O;kikjh ;gha ls viuk dke pykrs FksA bu O;kikfj;ksa dks ml tekus esa
¶IkSQDVj¸ dgk tkrk FkkA bl iSQDVjh esa os;jgkml Fkk tgk¡ fu;kZr gksus
okyh ph”kksa dks tek fd;k tkrk FkkA ;gha ij mlosQ nÝ+rj Fks ftuesa oaQiuh
osQ vi+Qlj cSBrs FksA tSls&tSls O;kikj iSQyk oaQiuh us lkSnkxjksa vkSj
O;kikfj;ksa dks iSQDVjh osQ vkl&ikl vkdj clus osQ fy, izsfjr fd;kA
1696 rd oaQiuh us bl vkcknh osQ pkjksa rjiQ ,d fO
+
kQyk cukuk 'kq: dj
fn;k FkkA nks lky ckn mlus eqX+ky vI
+
kQljksa dks fj'or nsdj rhu xk¡oksa dh
”kehankjh Hkh [+kjhn yhA buesa ls ,d xk¡o dkyhdkrk Fkk tks ckn esa
dydRrk cukA vc bls dksydkrk dgk tkrk gSA oaQiuh us eqX+ky lezkV
vkSjax”ksc dks bl ckr osQ fy, Hkh rS;kj dj fy;k fd og oaQiuh dks fcuk
'kqYd pqdk, O;kikj djus dk I
+
kQjeku tkjh dj nsA
oaQiuh T+;knk ls T+;knk fj;k;rsa gkfly djus vkSj igys ls ekStwn
vfèkdkjksa dk T+;knk ls T+;knk iQk;nk mBkus esa yxh gqbZ FkhA mnkgj.k osQ
fy,] vkSjax”ksc osQ iQjeku ls osQoy oaQiuh dks gh 'kqYd eqDr O;kikj dk
vfèkdkj feyk FkkA oaQiuh osQ tks vi+Qlj futh rkSj ij O;kikj pykrs mUgsa
;g NwV ugha FkhA ysfdu mUgksaus Hkh 'kqYd pqdkus ls budkj dj fn;kA
blls caxky esa jktLo olwyh cgqr de gks xbZA ,sls esa Hkyk caxky osQ
uokc eqf'kZn oqQyh [kku fojksèk D;ksa u djrs\
fp=k 3 & enzkl osQ tgk”kksa ls lkeku
ykrh LFkkuh; ukSdk,¡] fofy;e flEilu
}kjk cuk;k x;k fp=k] 1867
I
+
kQjeku & ,d 'kkgh vkns'k
Page 4


9 O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
2
eqX+ky ckn'kkgksa esa vkSjax”ksc vkf[kjh 'kfDr'kkyh ckn'kkg FksA mUgksaus orZeku
Hkkjr osQ ,d cgqr cM+s fgLls ij fu;a=k.k LFkkfir dj fy;k FkkA 1707 esa
mudh e`R;q osQ ckn cgqr lkjs eqX+ky lwcsnkj vkSj cM+s&cM+s ”kehankj viuh
rkdr fn[kkus yxs FksA mUgksaus viuh {ks=kh; fj;klrsa dk;e dj yh FkhaA
tSls&tSls fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa rkdroj {ks=kh; fj;klrsa lkeus vkus yxha] fnYyh
vfèkd fnuksa rd izHkkoh osQUnz osQ :i esa ugha jg ldhA
vBkjgoha lnh osQ mRrjkèkZ rd jktuhfrd f{kfrt ij vaxzs”kksa osQ :i
esa ,d u;h rkdr mHkjus yxh FkhA D;k vki tkurs gSa fd vaxzs”k
igys&igy ,d NksVh&lh O;kikfjd oaQiuh osQ :i esa Hkkjr vk, Fks vkSj
;gk¡ osQ bykdksa ij dC”ks essa mudh T+;knk fnypLih ugha Fkh\ rks fiQj ,slk
oSQls gqvk fd ,d fnu os bl fo'kky lkezkT; osQ Lokeh cu cSBs\ bl
vè;k; esa vki ns[ksaxs fd ;g oSQls gqvk\
fp=k 1 & oSQIVu gMlu }kjk cgknqj
'kkg ”ki+Qj vkSj muosQ csVksa dh fxjÝ+rkjhA
vkSjax”ksc osQ ckn dksbZ eqX+ky ckn'kkg
bruk rkdroj rks ugha gqvk ysfdu ,d
izrhd osQ :i esa eqX+ky ckn'kkgksa dk
egRo cuk gqvk FkkA tc 1857 esa fczfV'k
'kklu osQ fo#¼ Hkkjh fonzksg 'kq: gks x;k
rks fonzksfg;ksa us eqX+ky ckn'kkg cgknqj 'kkg
”ki+Qj dks gh viuk usrk eku fy;k FkkA
tc fonzksg oqQpy fn;k x;k rks oaQiuh us
cgknqj 'kkg ”kI
+
kQj dks ns'k NksM+us osQ fy,
etcwj dj fn;k vkSj muosQ csVksa dks
”ki+Qj osQ lkeus gh ekj MkykA
O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
daiuh dh lRrk LFkkfir gksrh gS
gekjs vrhr – III 10
iwoZ esa bZLV bafM;k
oaQiuh dk vkuk
lu~ 1600 esa bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh us
baXySaM dh egkjkuh ,fy”kkcsFk izFke ls
pkVZj vFkkZr btktrukek gkfly dj
fy;k ftlls oaQiuh dks iwjc ls O;kikj
djus dk ,dkf/dkj fey x;kA bl
b”kk”krukes dk eryc ;g Fkk fd
baXySaM dh dksbZ vkSj O;kikfjd oaQiuh
bl bykosQ esa bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh ls
gksM+ ugha dj ldrh FkhA bl pkVZj osQ
lgkjs oaQiuh leqnz ikj tkdj u, bykdksa
dks [k¡xky ldrh Fkh] ogk¡ ls lLrh dher ij ph”ksa [+kjhn dj mUgsa ;wjksi
esa m¡Qph dher ij csp ldrh FkhA oaQiuh dks nwljh vaxzs”k O;kikfjd
oaQifu;ksa ls izfrLièkkZ dk dksbZ Hk; ugha FkkA ml ”kekus esa okf.kfT;d
oaQifu;k¡ eksVs rkSj ij izfrLièkkZ ls cpdj gh equkiQk dek ldrh FkhaA vxj
dksbZ izfrLièkhZ u gks rHkh os lLrh ph”ksa [+kjhndj mUgsa T+;knk dher ij
csp ldrh FkhaA
ysfdu ;g 'kkgh nLrkos”k nwljh ;wjksih; rkdrksa dks iwjc osQ ck”kkjksa esa
vkus ls ugha jksd ldrk FkkA tc rd baXySaM osQ tgk”k vizQhdk osQ if'pe
rV dks Nwrs gq, osQi vkWI
+
kQ xqM gksi dk pDdj yxkdj fgan egklkxj ikj
djrs rc rd iqrZxkfy;ksa us Hkkjr osQ if'peh rV ij viuh mifLFkfr ntZ
djk nh FkhA os xksok esa viuk fBdkuk cuk pqosQ FksA iqrZxky osQ [kksth ;k=kh
okLdks n xkek us gh 1498 esa igyh ckj Hkkjr rd igq¡pus osQ bl leqnzh
ekxZ dk irk yxk;k FkkA l=kgoha 'krkCnh dh 'kq#vkr rd Mp Hkh fgan
egklkxj esa O;kikj dh laHkkouk,¡ ryk'kus yxs FksA oqQN gh le; ckn
i
+
zQkalhlh O;kikjh Hkh lkeus vk x,A
leL;k ;g Fkh fd lkjh oaQifu;k¡ ,d tSlh ph”ksa gh [+kjhnuk pkgrh
FkhaA ;wjksi osQ ck”kkjksa esa Hkkjr osQ cus ckjhd lwrh diM+s vkSj js'ke dh
tcjnLr ek¡x FkhA buosQ vykok dkyh fepZ] ykSax] byk;ph vkSj nkyphuh
dh Hkh tcjnLr ek¡x jgrh FkhA ;wjksih; oaQifu;ksa osQ chp bl c<+rh
izfrLièkkZ ls Hkkjrh; ck”kkjksa esa bu ph”kksa dh dhersa c<+us yxha vkSj muls
feyus okyk equkiQk fxjus yxkA vc bu O;kikfjd oaQifu;ksa osQ
iQyus&iwQyus dk ;gh ,d jkLrk Fkk fd os viuh izfrLièkhZ daifu;ksa dks
[kRe dj nsA fygktk] ck”kkjksa ij dCts dh bl gksM+ us O;kikfjd oaQifu;ksa
osQ chp yM+kb;ksa dh 'kq#vkr dj nhA l=kgoha vkSj vBkjgoha lnh esa tc
Hkh ekSdk feyrk dksbZ&lh ,d daiuh fdlh nwljh daiuh osQ tgk”k Mwcks
nsrh] jkLrs esa #dkoVsa [kM+h dj nsrh vkSj eky ls yns tgk”kksa dks vkxs
fp=k 2 & vBkjgoha lnh esa Hkkjr rd
vkus okys jkLrsA
okf.kfT;d & ,d ,slk O;kolkf;d
m|e ftlesa ph”kksa dks lLrh dher
ij [+kjhn dj vkSj T+;knk dher
ij cspdj ;kuh eq[; :i ls
O;kikj osQ ”kfj, equkiQk dek;k
tkrk gSA
11 O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
c<+us ls jksd nsrhA ;g O;kikj gfFk;kjksa dh enn ls py jgk Fkk vkSj
O;kikfjd pkSfd;ksa dks fdyscanh osQ ”kfj, lqjf{kr j[kk tkrk FkkA
viuh cfLr;ksa dks fdyscan djus vkSj O;kikj esa equkIkQk dekus dh bu
dksf'k'kksa osQ dkj.k LFkkuh; 'kkldksa ls Hkh Vdjko gksus yxsA bl izdkj]
O;kikj vkSj jktuhfr dks ,d&nwljs ls vyx j[kuk oaQiuh osQ fy,
eqf'dy gksrk tk jgk FkkA vkb, ns[ksa fd ;g oSQls gqvkA
bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh caxky esa O;kikj 'kq: djrh gS
igyh bafXy'k IkSQDVjh 1651 esa gqxyh unh osQ fdukjs 'kq: gqbZA oaQiuh osQ
O;kikjh ;gha ls viuk dke pykrs FksA bu O;kikfj;ksa dks ml tekus esa
¶IkSQDVj¸ dgk tkrk FkkA bl iSQDVjh esa os;jgkml Fkk tgk¡ fu;kZr gksus
okyh ph”kksa dks tek fd;k tkrk FkkA ;gha ij mlosQ nÝ+rj Fks ftuesa oaQiuh
osQ vi+Qlj cSBrs FksA tSls&tSls O;kikj iSQyk oaQiuh us lkSnkxjksa vkSj
O;kikfj;ksa dks iSQDVjh osQ vkl&ikl vkdj clus osQ fy, izsfjr fd;kA
1696 rd oaQiuh us bl vkcknh osQ pkjksa rjiQ ,d fO
+
kQyk cukuk 'kq: dj
fn;k FkkA nks lky ckn mlus eqX+ky vI
+
kQljksa dks fj'or nsdj rhu xk¡oksa dh
”kehankjh Hkh [+kjhn yhA buesa ls ,d xk¡o dkyhdkrk Fkk tks ckn esa
dydRrk cukA vc bls dksydkrk dgk tkrk gSA oaQiuh us eqX+ky lezkV
vkSjax”ksc dks bl ckr osQ fy, Hkh rS;kj dj fy;k fd og oaQiuh dks fcuk
'kqYd pqdk, O;kikj djus dk I
+
kQjeku tkjh dj nsA
oaQiuh T+;knk ls T+;knk fj;k;rsa gkfly djus vkSj igys ls ekStwn
vfèkdkjksa dk T+;knk ls T+;knk iQk;nk mBkus esa yxh gqbZ FkhA mnkgj.k osQ
fy,] vkSjax”ksc osQ iQjeku ls osQoy oaQiuh dks gh 'kqYd eqDr O;kikj dk
vfèkdkj feyk FkkA oaQiuh osQ tks vi+Qlj futh rkSj ij O;kikj pykrs mUgsa
;g NwV ugha FkhA ysfdu mUgksaus Hkh 'kqYd pqdkus ls budkj dj fn;kA
blls caxky esa jktLo olwyh cgqr de gks xbZA ,sls esa Hkyk caxky osQ
uokc eqf'kZn oqQyh [kku fojksèk D;ksa u djrs\
fp=k 3 & enzkl osQ tgk”kksa ls lkeku
ykrh LFkkuh; ukSdk,¡] fofy;e flEilu
}kjk cuk;k x;k fp=k] 1867
I
+
kQjeku & ,d 'kkgh vkns'k
gekjs vrhr – III 12
O;kikj ls ;q¼ksa rd
vBkjgoha lnh dh 'kq#vkr esa oaQiuh vkSj caxky osQ uokcksa dk Vdjko
dkiQh c<+ x;k FkkA vkSjax”ksc dh e`R;q osQ ckn caxky osQ uokc viuh
rkdr fn[kkus yxs FksA ml le; nwljh {ks=kh; rkdrksa dh fLFkfr Hkh ,slh
gh FkhA eqf'kZn oqQyh [kku osQ ckn vyh onhZ [kku vkSj mlosQ ckn
fljktqíkSyk caxky osQ uokc cusA ;s lHkh 'kfDRk'kkyh 'kkld FksA mUgksaus
oaQiuh dks fj;k;rsa nsus ls euk dj fn;kA O;kikj dk vfèkdkj nsus osQ cnys
oaQiuh ls u”kjkus ek¡xs] mls flDds <kyus dk vfèkdkj ugha fn;k] vkSj
mldh fdyscanh dks c<+kus ls jksd fn;kA oaQiuh ij èkks[kkèkM+h dk vkjksi
yxkrs gq, mUgksaus nyhy nh fd mldh otg ls caxky ljdkj dh jktLo
olwyh de gksrh tk jgh gS vkSj uokcksa dh rkdr de”kksj iM+ jgh gSA
oaQiuh VSDl pqdkus dks rS;kj ugha Fkh] mlosQ vI+kQljksa us viekutud
fpfV~B;k¡ fy[kha vkSj uokcksa o muosQ vfèkdkfj;ksa dks viekfur djus dk
iz;kl fd;kA
oaQiuh dk dguk Fkk fd LFkkuh; vfèkdkfj;ksa dh csrqdh ek¡xksa ls oaQiuh
dk O;kikj rckg gks jgk gSA O;kikj rHkh iQy&iwQy ldrk gS tc ljdkj
'kqYd gVk ysA oaQiuh dks bl ckr dk Hkh ;dhu Fkk fd viuk O;kikj
iSQykus osQ fy, mls viuh vkcknh c<+kuh gksxhA xk¡o [+kjhnus gksaxs vkSj
fdyksa dk iqufuZekZ.k djuk gksxkA
;s Vdjko fnuksfnu xaHkhj gksrs x, vUrr% bu Vdjkoksa dh ifj.kfr
Iyklh osQ izfl¼ ;q¼ osQ :i esa gqbZA
Iyklh dk ;q¼
1756 esa vyh onhZ [kku dh e`R;q osQ ckn fljktqíkSyk caxky osQ uokc
cusA oaQiuh dks fljktqíkSyk dh rkdr ls dkiQh Hk; FkkA fljktqíkSyk dh
txg oaQiuh ,d ,slk dBiqryh uokc pkgrh Fkh tks mls O;kikfjd
fj;k;rsa vkSj vU; lqfoèkk,¡ vklkuh ls nsus esa vkukdkuh u djsA oaQiuh us
iz;kl fd;k fd fljktqíkSyk osQ izfr}af};ksa esa ls fdlh dks uokc cuk fn;k
tk,A oaQiuh dks dke;kch ugha feyhA tokc esa fljktqíkSyk us gqDe fn;k
fd oaQiuh muds jkT; osQ jktuhfrd ekeyksa esa Vk¡x vM+kuk can dj ns]
fdyscanh jksosQ vkSj ckdk;nk jktLo pqdk,A tc nksuksa i{k ihNs gVus dks
rS;kj ugha gq, rks vius 30]000 flikfg;ksa osQ lkFk uokc us dkfle ck”kkj
esa fLFkr bafXy'k iSQDVjh ij geyk cksy fn;kA uokc dh iQkStksa us oaQiuh
osQ vi+Qljksa dks fxjÝ+rkj dj fy;k] xksnke ij rkyk Mky fn;k] vaxzs”kksa osQ
gfFk;kj Nhu fy, vkSj vaxzs”k tgk”kksa dks ?ksjs esa ys fy;kA blosQ ckn uokc
us oaQiuh osQ dydRrk fLFkr fdys ij OkQC”ks osQ fy, mèkj dk #[k fd;kA
dydRrk osQ gkFk ls fudy tkus dh [+kcj lquus ij enzkl esa rSukr
oaQiuh osQ vi+Qljksa us Hkh jkWcVZ Dykbo osQ usr`Ro esa lsukvksa dks jokuk dj
fn;kA bl lsuk dks ukSlSfud csM+s dh enn Hkh fey jgh FkhA blosQ ckn
fp=k 4 & jkWcVZ DykboA
D;k vki tkurs Fks\
D;k vki tkurs Fks fd Iyklh
dk ;g uke fdl rjg iM+k\
njvly vlyh uke iyk'kh
Fkk ftls vaxzs”kksa us fcxkM+ dj
Iyklh dj fn;k FkkA bl txg
dks iyk'kh ;gk¡ ik, tkus okys
iyk'k osQ iwQyksa osQ dkj.k dgk
tkrk FkkA iyk'k osQ [kwclwjr
yky iwQyksa ls xqyky cuk;k
tkrk gS ftldk gksyh ij
bLrseky gksrk gSA
dBiqryh & ;g ,d f[kykSuk
gksrk gS ftls vki èkkxksa osQ lgkjs
vius fglkc ls upkrs gSaA tks
O;fDr fdlh vkSj osQ b'kkjksa ij
pyrk gS mls Hkh e”kkd mM+kus
osQ fy, vdlj dBiqryh dgk
tkrk gSA
Page 5


9 O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
2
eqX+ky ckn'kkgksa esa vkSjax”ksc vkf[kjh 'kfDr'kkyh ckn'kkg FksA mUgksaus orZeku
Hkkjr osQ ,d cgqr cM+s fgLls ij fu;a=k.k LFkkfir dj fy;k FkkA 1707 esa
mudh e`R;q osQ ckn cgqr lkjs eqX+ky lwcsnkj vkSj cM+s&cM+s ”kehankj viuh
rkdr fn[kkus yxs FksA mUgksaus viuh {ks=kh; fj;klrsa dk;e dj yh FkhaA
tSls&tSls fofHkUu Hkkxksa esa rkdroj {ks=kh; fj;klrsa lkeus vkus yxha] fnYyh
vfèkd fnuksa rd izHkkoh osQUnz osQ :i esa ugha jg ldhA
vBkjgoha lnh osQ mRrjkèkZ rd jktuhfrd f{kfrt ij vaxzs”kksa osQ :i
esa ,d u;h rkdr mHkjus yxh FkhA D;k vki tkurs gSa fd vaxzs”k
igys&igy ,d NksVh&lh O;kikfjd oaQiuh osQ :i esa Hkkjr vk, Fks vkSj
;gk¡ osQ bykdksa ij dC”ks essa mudh T+;knk fnypLih ugha Fkh\ rks fiQj ,slk
oSQls gqvk fd ,d fnu os bl fo'kky lkezkT; osQ Lokeh cu cSBs\ bl
vè;k; esa vki ns[ksaxs fd ;g oSQls gqvk\
fp=k 1 & oSQIVu gMlu }kjk cgknqj
'kkg ”ki+Qj vkSj muosQ csVksa dh fxjÝ+rkjhA
vkSjax”ksc osQ ckn dksbZ eqX+ky ckn'kkg
bruk rkdroj rks ugha gqvk ysfdu ,d
izrhd osQ :i esa eqX+ky ckn'kkgksa dk
egRo cuk gqvk FkkA tc 1857 esa fczfV'k
'kklu osQ fo#¼ Hkkjh fonzksg 'kq: gks x;k
rks fonzksfg;ksa us eqX+ky ckn'kkg cgknqj 'kkg
”ki+Qj dks gh viuk usrk eku fy;k FkkA
tc fonzksg oqQpy fn;k x;k rks oaQiuh us
cgknqj 'kkg ”kI
+
kQj dks ns'k NksM+us osQ fy,
etcwj dj fn;k vkSj muosQ csVksa dks
”ki+Qj osQ lkeus gh ekj MkykA
O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
daiuh dh lRrk LFkkfir gksrh gS
gekjs vrhr – III 10
iwoZ esa bZLV bafM;k
oaQiuh dk vkuk
lu~ 1600 esa bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh us
baXySaM dh egkjkuh ,fy”kkcsFk izFke ls
pkVZj vFkkZr btktrukek gkfly dj
fy;k ftlls oaQiuh dks iwjc ls O;kikj
djus dk ,dkf/dkj fey x;kA bl
b”kk”krukes dk eryc ;g Fkk fd
baXySaM dh dksbZ vkSj O;kikfjd oaQiuh
bl bykosQ esa bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh ls
gksM+ ugha dj ldrh FkhA bl pkVZj osQ
lgkjs oaQiuh leqnz ikj tkdj u, bykdksa
dks [k¡xky ldrh Fkh] ogk¡ ls lLrh dher ij ph”ksa [+kjhn dj mUgsa ;wjksi
esa m¡Qph dher ij csp ldrh FkhA oaQiuh dks nwljh vaxzs”k O;kikfjd
oaQifu;ksa ls izfrLièkkZ dk dksbZ Hk; ugha FkkA ml ”kekus esa okf.kfT;d
oaQifu;k¡ eksVs rkSj ij izfrLièkkZ ls cpdj gh equkiQk dek ldrh FkhaA vxj
dksbZ izfrLièkhZ u gks rHkh os lLrh ph”ksa [+kjhndj mUgsa T+;knk dher ij
csp ldrh FkhaA
ysfdu ;g 'kkgh nLrkos”k nwljh ;wjksih; rkdrksa dks iwjc osQ ck”kkjksa esa
vkus ls ugha jksd ldrk FkkA tc rd baXySaM osQ tgk”k vizQhdk osQ if'pe
rV dks Nwrs gq, osQi vkWI
+
kQ xqM gksi dk pDdj yxkdj fgan egklkxj ikj
djrs rc rd iqrZxkfy;ksa us Hkkjr osQ if'peh rV ij viuh mifLFkfr ntZ
djk nh FkhA os xksok esa viuk fBdkuk cuk pqosQ FksA iqrZxky osQ [kksth ;k=kh
okLdks n xkek us gh 1498 esa igyh ckj Hkkjr rd igq¡pus osQ bl leqnzh
ekxZ dk irk yxk;k FkkA l=kgoha 'krkCnh dh 'kq#vkr rd Mp Hkh fgan
egklkxj esa O;kikj dh laHkkouk,¡ ryk'kus yxs FksA oqQN gh le; ckn
i
+
zQkalhlh O;kikjh Hkh lkeus vk x,A
leL;k ;g Fkh fd lkjh oaQifu;k¡ ,d tSlh ph”ksa gh [+kjhnuk pkgrh
FkhaA ;wjksi osQ ck”kkjksa esa Hkkjr osQ cus ckjhd lwrh diM+s vkSj js'ke dh
tcjnLr ek¡x FkhA buosQ vykok dkyh fepZ] ykSax] byk;ph vkSj nkyphuh
dh Hkh tcjnLr ek¡x jgrh FkhA ;wjksih; oaQifu;ksa osQ chp bl c<+rh
izfrLièkkZ ls Hkkjrh; ck”kkjksa esa bu ph”kksa dh dhersa c<+us yxha vkSj muls
feyus okyk equkiQk fxjus yxkA vc bu O;kikfjd oaQifu;ksa osQ
iQyus&iwQyus dk ;gh ,d jkLrk Fkk fd os viuh izfrLièkhZ daifu;ksa dks
[kRe dj nsA fygktk] ck”kkjksa ij dCts dh bl gksM+ us O;kikfjd oaQifu;ksa
osQ chp yM+kb;ksa dh 'kq#vkr dj nhA l=kgoha vkSj vBkjgoha lnh esa tc
Hkh ekSdk feyrk dksbZ&lh ,d daiuh fdlh nwljh daiuh osQ tgk”k Mwcks
nsrh] jkLrs esa #dkoVsa [kM+h dj nsrh vkSj eky ls yns tgk”kksa dks vkxs
fp=k 2 & vBkjgoha lnh esa Hkkjr rd
vkus okys jkLrsA
okf.kfT;d & ,d ,slk O;kolkf;d
m|e ftlesa ph”kksa dks lLrh dher
ij [+kjhn dj vkSj T+;knk dher
ij cspdj ;kuh eq[; :i ls
O;kikj osQ ”kfj, equkiQk dek;k
tkrk gSA
11 O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
c<+us ls jksd nsrhA ;g O;kikj gfFk;kjksa dh enn ls py jgk Fkk vkSj
O;kikfjd pkSfd;ksa dks fdyscanh osQ ”kfj, lqjf{kr j[kk tkrk FkkA
viuh cfLr;ksa dks fdyscan djus vkSj O;kikj esa equkIkQk dekus dh bu
dksf'k'kksa osQ dkj.k LFkkuh; 'kkldksa ls Hkh Vdjko gksus yxsA bl izdkj]
O;kikj vkSj jktuhfr dks ,d&nwljs ls vyx j[kuk oaQiuh osQ fy,
eqf'dy gksrk tk jgk FkkA vkb, ns[ksa fd ;g oSQls gqvkA
bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh caxky esa O;kikj 'kq: djrh gS
igyh bafXy'k IkSQDVjh 1651 esa gqxyh unh osQ fdukjs 'kq: gqbZA oaQiuh osQ
O;kikjh ;gha ls viuk dke pykrs FksA bu O;kikfj;ksa dks ml tekus esa
¶IkSQDVj¸ dgk tkrk FkkA bl iSQDVjh esa os;jgkml Fkk tgk¡ fu;kZr gksus
okyh ph”kksa dks tek fd;k tkrk FkkA ;gha ij mlosQ nÝ+rj Fks ftuesa oaQiuh
osQ vi+Qlj cSBrs FksA tSls&tSls O;kikj iSQyk oaQiuh us lkSnkxjksa vkSj
O;kikfj;ksa dks iSQDVjh osQ vkl&ikl vkdj clus osQ fy, izsfjr fd;kA
1696 rd oaQiuh us bl vkcknh osQ pkjksa rjiQ ,d fO
+
kQyk cukuk 'kq: dj
fn;k FkkA nks lky ckn mlus eqX+ky vI
+
kQljksa dks fj'or nsdj rhu xk¡oksa dh
”kehankjh Hkh [+kjhn yhA buesa ls ,d xk¡o dkyhdkrk Fkk tks ckn esa
dydRrk cukA vc bls dksydkrk dgk tkrk gSA oaQiuh us eqX+ky lezkV
vkSjax”ksc dks bl ckr osQ fy, Hkh rS;kj dj fy;k fd og oaQiuh dks fcuk
'kqYd pqdk, O;kikj djus dk I
+
kQjeku tkjh dj nsA
oaQiuh T+;knk ls T+;knk fj;k;rsa gkfly djus vkSj igys ls ekStwn
vfèkdkjksa dk T+;knk ls T+;knk iQk;nk mBkus esa yxh gqbZ FkhA mnkgj.k osQ
fy,] vkSjax”ksc osQ iQjeku ls osQoy oaQiuh dks gh 'kqYd eqDr O;kikj dk
vfèkdkj feyk FkkA oaQiuh osQ tks vi+Qlj futh rkSj ij O;kikj pykrs mUgsa
;g NwV ugha FkhA ysfdu mUgksaus Hkh 'kqYd pqdkus ls budkj dj fn;kA
blls caxky esa jktLo olwyh cgqr de gks xbZA ,sls esa Hkyk caxky osQ
uokc eqf'kZn oqQyh [kku fojksèk D;ksa u djrs\
fp=k 3 & enzkl osQ tgk”kksa ls lkeku
ykrh LFkkuh; ukSdk,¡] fofy;e flEilu
}kjk cuk;k x;k fp=k] 1867
I
+
kQjeku & ,d 'kkgh vkns'k
gekjs vrhr – III 12
O;kikj ls ;q¼ksa rd
vBkjgoha lnh dh 'kq#vkr esa oaQiuh vkSj caxky osQ uokcksa dk Vdjko
dkiQh c<+ x;k FkkA vkSjax”ksc dh e`R;q osQ ckn caxky osQ uokc viuh
rkdr fn[kkus yxs FksA ml le; nwljh {ks=kh; rkdrksa dh fLFkfr Hkh ,slh
gh FkhA eqf'kZn oqQyh [kku osQ ckn vyh onhZ [kku vkSj mlosQ ckn
fljktqíkSyk caxky osQ uokc cusA ;s lHkh 'kfDRk'kkyh 'kkld FksA mUgksaus
oaQiuh dks fj;k;rsa nsus ls euk dj fn;kA O;kikj dk vfèkdkj nsus osQ cnys
oaQiuh ls u”kjkus ek¡xs] mls flDds <kyus dk vfèkdkj ugha fn;k] vkSj
mldh fdyscanh dks c<+kus ls jksd fn;kA oaQiuh ij èkks[kkèkM+h dk vkjksi
yxkrs gq, mUgksaus nyhy nh fd mldh otg ls caxky ljdkj dh jktLo
olwyh de gksrh tk jgh gS vkSj uokcksa dh rkdr de”kksj iM+ jgh gSA
oaQiuh VSDl pqdkus dks rS;kj ugha Fkh] mlosQ vI+kQljksa us viekutud
fpfV~B;k¡ fy[kha vkSj uokcksa o muosQ vfèkdkfj;ksa dks viekfur djus dk
iz;kl fd;kA
oaQiuh dk dguk Fkk fd LFkkuh; vfèkdkfj;ksa dh csrqdh ek¡xksa ls oaQiuh
dk O;kikj rckg gks jgk gSA O;kikj rHkh iQy&iwQy ldrk gS tc ljdkj
'kqYd gVk ysA oaQiuh dks bl ckr dk Hkh ;dhu Fkk fd viuk O;kikj
iSQykus osQ fy, mls viuh vkcknh c<+kuh gksxhA xk¡o [+kjhnus gksaxs vkSj
fdyksa dk iqufuZekZ.k djuk gksxkA
;s Vdjko fnuksfnu xaHkhj gksrs x, vUrr% bu Vdjkoksa dh ifj.kfr
Iyklh osQ izfl¼ ;q¼ osQ :i esa gqbZA
Iyklh dk ;q¼
1756 esa vyh onhZ [kku dh e`R;q osQ ckn fljktqíkSyk caxky osQ uokc
cusA oaQiuh dks fljktqíkSyk dh rkdr ls dkiQh Hk; FkkA fljktqíkSyk dh
txg oaQiuh ,d ,slk dBiqryh uokc pkgrh Fkh tks mls O;kikfjd
fj;k;rsa vkSj vU; lqfoèkk,¡ vklkuh ls nsus esa vkukdkuh u djsA oaQiuh us
iz;kl fd;k fd fljktqíkSyk osQ izfr}af};ksa esa ls fdlh dks uokc cuk fn;k
tk,A oaQiuh dks dke;kch ugha feyhA tokc esa fljktqíkSyk us gqDe fn;k
fd oaQiuh muds jkT; osQ jktuhfrd ekeyksa esa Vk¡x vM+kuk can dj ns]
fdyscanh jksosQ vkSj ckdk;nk jktLo pqdk,A tc nksuksa i{k ihNs gVus dks
rS;kj ugha gq, rks vius 30]000 flikfg;ksa osQ lkFk uokc us dkfle ck”kkj
esa fLFkr bafXy'k iSQDVjh ij geyk cksy fn;kA uokc dh iQkStksa us oaQiuh
osQ vi+Qljksa dks fxjÝ+rkj dj fy;k] xksnke ij rkyk Mky fn;k] vaxzs”kksa osQ
gfFk;kj Nhu fy, vkSj vaxzs”k tgk”kksa dks ?ksjs esa ys fy;kA blosQ ckn uokc
us oaQiuh osQ dydRrk fLFkr fdys ij OkQC”ks osQ fy, mèkj dk #[k fd;kA
dydRrk osQ gkFk ls fudy tkus dh [+kcj lquus ij enzkl esa rSukr
oaQiuh osQ vi+Qljksa us Hkh jkWcVZ Dykbo osQ usr`Ro esa lsukvksa dks jokuk dj
fn;kA bl lsuk dks ukSlSfud csM+s dh enn Hkh fey jgh FkhA blosQ ckn
fp=k 4 & jkWcVZ DykboA
D;k vki tkurs Fks\
D;k vki tkurs Fks fd Iyklh
dk ;g uke fdl rjg iM+k\
njvly vlyh uke iyk'kh
Fkk ftls vaxzs”kksa us fcxkM+ dj
Iyklh dj fn;k FkkA bl txg
dks iyk'kh ;gk¡ ik, tkus okys
iyk'k osQ iwQyksa osQ dkj.k dgk
tkrk FkkA iyk'k osQ [kwclwjr
yky iwQyksa ls xqyky cuk;k
tkrk gS ftldk gksyh ij
bLrseky gksrk gSA
dBiqryh & ;g ,d f[kykSuk
gksrk gS ftls vki èkkxksa osQ lgkjs
vius fglkc ls upkrs gSaA tks
O;fDr fdlh vkSj osQ b'kkjksa ij
pyrk gS mls Hkh e”kkd mM+kus
osQ fy, vdlj dBiqryh dgk
tkrk gSA
13 O;kikj ls lkezkT; rd
uokc osQ lkFk yacs le; rd lkSnsckth pyhA vkf[kjdkj 1757 esa jkWcVZ Dykbo us
Iyklh osQ eSnku esa fljktqíkSyk osQ f[+kyki+Q oaQiuh dh lsuk dk usr`Ro fd;kA uokc
fljktqíkSyk dh gkj dk ,d cM+k dkj.k mlosQ lsukifr;ksa esa ls ,d lsukifr ehj tkI
+
kQj
dh dkjxqtkfj;k¡ Hkh FkhaaA ehj tkI
+
kQj dh VqdfM+;ksa us bl ;q¼ esa fgLlk ugha fy;kA jkWcVZ
Dykbo us ;g dgdj mls vius lkFk feyk fy;k Fkk fd fljktqíkSyk dks gVk dj ehj
tkI
+
kQj dks uokc cuk fn;k tk,xkA
fp=k 5 & egkU;k;ky;
d{k] bZLV bafM;k gkml]
ysMugkWy LVªhVA
bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh osQ dksVZ
vkWiQ izkWijkbVlZ dh yanu
fLFkr ysMugkWy LVªhV ij
cus bZLV bafM;k gkml esa
cSBosaQ gksrh FkhaA ;g ,slh
gh ,d lHkk dk fp=k gSA
laiUurk dk vk'oklu
baXySaM osQ yksx bZLV bafM;k oaQiuh dh 'kkldh; egRokdka{kkvksa dks lansg
vkSj vfo'okl ls ns[krs FksA Iyklh dh yM+kbZ osQ ckn jkWcVZ Dykbo us
vaxzs”k lezkV osQ ,d eq[; fons'k ea=kh fofy;e fiV dks 7 tuojh
1759 dks dydRrs ls ;g fpV~Bh Hksth Fkh %
ysfdu bruh fo'kky lRrk ,d okf.kfT;d oaQiuh osQ fy,
cgqr cM+h ckr gksxh--- eSa [kqn ;g lksp dj vfHkHkwr gw¡--- fd
bu le`¼ fj;klrksa ij iwjk dC”kk gkfly djus esa dksbZ ijs'kkuh
ugha vk,xh % --- vc eSa ;g iSQlyk vki ij NksM+rk gw¡ fd
D;k lkykuk chl yk[k LVfy±x dh vkenuh vkSj rhu izkarksa dk
dC”kk--- dksbZ ,slh ph”k gS ftl ij bruk 'kksj epkuk mfpr
gks---A
Ïksr 1
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