NCERT Textbook - शासक और इतिवृत्तः Notes | EduRev

इतिहास (History) for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - शासक और इतिवृत्तः Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


224
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
eqX
+
ky lkezkT; osQ 'kkld Lo;a dks ,d fo'kky vkSj fotkrh;
turk ij 'kklu osQ fy,] fu;qDr ekurs FksA gkyk¡fd vlfy;r esa
jktuhfrd ifjfLFkfr;k¡ bl HkO; n`f"V dks lhekc¼ dj nsrh Fkha
fiQj Hkh ,slh n`f"V lnSo egÙoiw.kZ jghA bl n`f"V
osQ izpkj&izlkj dk ,d rjhdk jktoa'kh; bfrgkl
fy[kuk&fy[kokuk FkkA eqX
+
ky jktkvksa us njckjh
bfrgkldkjksa dks fooj.kksa osQ ys[ku dk dk;Z lkSaikA
bu fooj.kksa esa ckn'kkg osQ le; dh ?kVukvksa dk
ys[kk&tks[kk fn;k x;kA blosQ vfrfjDr muosQ
ys[kdksa us 'kkldksa dks vius {ks=k osQ 'kklu esa enn
osQ fy, miegk}hi osQ vU; {ks=kksa ls <sjksa tkudkfj;k¡
bdêòh dhaA
vaxzs”kh esa fy[kus okys vkèkqfud bfrgkldkjksa
us ewy&ikB dh bl 'kSyh dks ØkWfudYl
(bfro`Ùk@bfrgkl) uke fn;kA ;s bfro`Ùk ?kVukvksa dk
vuojr dkykuqozQfed fooj.k izLrqr djrs gSaA
eqX
+
kyksa dk bfrgkl fy[kus osQ bPNqd fdlh Hkh
fo}ku osQ fy, ;s bfro`Ùk vifjgk;Z lzksr gSaA ,d
vksj rks ;s bfro`Ùk eqX
+
ky jkT; dh laLFkkvksa osQ ckjs
esa rF;kRed lwpukvksa dk [+k”kkuk Fks] ftUgsa njckj
ls ?kfu"B :i ls tqM+s O;fDr;ksa }kjk dkI
+
kQh esgur
ls ,df=kr ,oa oxhZo`Qr fd;k x;k FkkA nwljh vksj
bu ewy&ikBksa dk mís'; mu vk'k;ksa dks laizsf"kr
djuk Fkk ftUgsa eqX
+
ky 'kkld vius {ks=k esa ykxw
djuk pkgrs FksA vr% ;s bfro`Ùk gesa bl ckr dh
,d >yd nsrs gSa fd oSQls 'kkgh fopkjèkkjk,¡ jph rFkk izpkfjr dh
tkrh FkhaA ;g vè;k; eqX
+
ky lkezkT; osQ bl le`¼ vkSj yqHkkous
vk;ke dh dk;Ziz.kkyh ij izdk'k MkysxkA
fp=k 9-1
ckcj dks jktoa'kh; eqoqQV lkSairk rSewj] xksoèkZu
}kjk yxHkx 1630 esa fpf=kr
'kkld vkSj bfro`Ùk%
eqX
+
ky njckj
(yxHkx lksygoha vkSj l=kgoha 'krkfCn;k¡)
fo"k;
ukS
Page 2


224
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
eqX
+
ky lkezkT; osQ 'kkld Lo;a dks ,d fo'kky vkSj fotkrh;
turk ij 'kklu osQ fy,] fu;qDr ekurs FksA gkyk¡fd vlfy;r esa
jktuhfrd ifjfLFkfr;k¡ bl HkO; n`f"V dks lhekc¼ dj nsrh Fkha
fiQj Hkh ,slh n`f"V lnSo egÙoiw.kZ jghA bl n`f"V
osQ izpkj&izlkj dk ,d rjhdk jktoa'kh; bfrgkl
fy[kuk&fy[kokuk FkkA eqX
+
ky jktkvksa us njckjh
bfrgkldkjksa dks fooj.kksa osQ ys[ku dk dk;Z lkSaikA
bu fooj.kksa esa ckn'kkg osQ le; dh ?kVukvksa dk
ys[kk&tks[kk fn;k x;kA blosQ vfrfjDr muosQ
ys[kdksa us 'kkldksa dks vius {ks=k osQ 'kklu esa enn
osQ fy, miegk}hi osQ vU; {ks=kksa ls <sjksa tkudkfj;k¡
bdêòh dhaA
vaxzs”kh esa fy[kus okys vkèkqfud bfrgkldkjksa
us ewy&ikB dh bl 'kSyh dks ØkWfudYl
(bfro`Ùk@bfrgkl) uke fn;kA ;s bfro`Ùk ?kVukvksa dk
vuojr dkykuqozQfed fooj.k izLrqr djrs gSaA
eqX
+
kyksa dk bfrgkl fy[kus osQ bPNqd fdlh Hkh
fo}ku osQ fy, ;s bfro`Ùk vifjgk;Z lzksr gSaA ,d
vksj rks ;s bfro`Ùk eqX
+
ky jkT; dh laLFkkvksa osQ ckjs
esa rF;kRed lwpukvksa dk [+k”kkuk Fks] ftUgsa njckj
ls ?kfu"B :i ls tqM+s O;fDr;ksa }kjk dkI
+
kQh esgur
ls ,df=kr ,oa oxhZo`Qr fd;k x;k FkkA nwljh vksj
bu ewy&ikBksa dk mís'; mu vk'k;ksa dks laizsf"kr
djuk Fkk ftUgsa eqX
+
ky 'kkld vius {ks=k esa ykxw
djuk pkgrs FksA vr% ;s bfro`Ùk gesa bl ckr dh
,d >yd nsrs gSa fd oSQls 'kkgh fopkjèkkjk,¡ jph rFkk izpkfjr dh
tkrh FkhaA ;g vè;k; eqX
+
ky lkezkT; osQ bl le`¼ vkSj yqHkkous
vk;ke dh dk;Ziz.kkyh ij izdk'k MkysxkA
fp=k 9-1
ckcj dks jktoa'kh; eqoqQV lkSairk rSewj] xksoèkZu
}kjk yxHkx 1630 esa fpf=kr
'kkld vkSj bfro`Ùk%
eqX
+
ky njckj
(yxHkx lksygoha vkSj l=kgoha 'krkfCn;k¡)
fo"k;
ukS
225
'kkld vkSj bfro`Ùk % eqx+y njckj
1- eqX
+
ky 'kkld vkSj mudk lkezkT;
eqX
+
ky uke eaxksy ls O;qRiUu gqvk gSA ;|fi vkt ;g uke ,d
lkezkT; dh HkO;rk dk vglkl djkrk gS ysfdu jktoa'k osQ 'kkldksa
us Lo;a osQ fy, ;g uke ugha pquk FkkA mUgksaus vius dks rSewjh dgk
D;ksafd fir`i{k ls os rqdhZ 'kkld frewj osQ oa'kt FksA igyk eqX
+
ky
'kkld ckcj ekr`i{k ls paxs”k [kk¡ dk lacaèkh FkkA og rqdhZ cksyrk Fkk
vkSj mlus eaxksyksa dk migkl djrs gq, mUgsa ccZj fxjksg osQ :i esa
mfYyf[kr fd;k gSA
lksygoha 'krkCnh osQ nkSjku ;wjksfi;ksa us ifjokj dh bl 'kk[kk osQ
Hkkjrh; 'kkldksa dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, eqX
+
ky 'kCn dk iz;ksx fd;kA
lksygoha 'krkCnh ls gh bl 'kCn dk fujarj iz;ksx gksrk jgk gSA ;gk¡
rd fd jM;kMZ fdifyax dh taxy cqd osQ ;qok uk;d eksxyh dk
uke Hkh blls O;qRiUu gqvk gSA
eqX
+
kyksa o LFkkuh; ljnkjksa osQ chp jktuhfrd&eSf=k;ksa osQ ”kfj, rFkk
fot;ksa osQ ”kfj, Hkkjr osQ fofoèk {ks=kh; jkT;ksa dks feykdj lkezkT;
dh jpuk dh xbZA lkezkT; osQ laLFkkid ”kgh#íhu ckcj dks mlosQ
eè; ,f'k;kbZ Lons'k iQjxkuk ls izfr}a}h m”kcsdksa us Hkxk fn;k FkkA
mlus lcls igys Lo;a dks dkcqy esa LFkkfir fd;k vkSj fiQj 1526
esa vius ny osQ lnL;ksa dh vko';drk,¡ iwjh djus osQ fy, {ks=kksa vkSj
lalkèkuksa dh [kkst esa og Hkkjrh; miegk}hi esa vkSj vkxs dh vksj
c<+kA
blosQ mÙkjkfèkdkjh ulh#íhu gqek;w¡ (1530&40] 1555&56) us
lkezkT; dh lhekvksa esa foLrkj fd;k foaQrq og vI
+
kQxku usrk 'ksj'kkg
lwj ls ijkftr gks x;k ftlus mls bZjku osQ lI
+
kQkoh 'kkld osQ njckj
esa fuokZflr gksus dks ckè; dj fn;kA 1555 esa gqek;w¡ us lwjksa dks
ijkftr dj fn;k foaQrq ,d o"kZ ckn gh mldh e`R;q gks xbZA
dbZ yksx tykyqíhu vdcj (1556&1605) dks eqX
+
ky ckn'kkgksa esa
egkure ekurs gSa D;ksafd mlus u osQoy vius lkezkT; dk foLrkj gh
fd;k cfYd bls vius le; dk fo'kkyre] n`<+re vkSj lcls le`¼
jkT; cukdj lqn`<+ Hkh fd;kA vdcj fganqoqQ'k ioZr rd vius lkezkT;
dh lhekvksa osQ foLrkj esa liQy gqvk vkSj mlus bZjku osQ lI
+
kQkfo;ksa vkSj
rwjku (eè; ,f'k;k) osQ m”kcsdksa dh foLrkjoknh ;kstukvksa ij yxke
yxk, j[khA vdcj ossQ ckn tgk¡xhj (1605&27)] 'kkgtgk¡ (1628&58)
vkSj vkSjax”ksc (1658&1707) osQ :i esa fHkUu&fHkUu O;fDrRoksa okys
rhu cgqr ;ksX; mÙkjkfèkdkjh gq,A buosQ vèkhu {ks=kh; foLrkj tkjh jgk
;|fi bldh xfr dkI
+
kQh èkheh jghA rhuksa 'kkldksa us 'kklu osQ fofoèk
;a=kksa dks cuk, j[kk vkSj mUgsa lqn`<+ fd;kA
fp=k 9-2
gqek;w¡ dh iRuh ukfnjk dk] jktLFkku osQ jsfxLrku
dks ikj djrs fn[kkrk gqvk] vBkjgoha 'krkCnh dk
fp=k.k
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