NCERT Textbook - शासक और इमारतें Notes | EduRev

इतिहास (History) for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - शासक और इमारतें Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


60
gekjs vrhr – 2
fp=k 1 o
+
qQRcehukj osQ igys NTts dks iznf'kZr djrk gSA o
+
qQRcmíhu ,scd
us yxHkx 1199 esa bldk fuekZ.k djok;k FkkA NTts osQ uhps NksVs esgjkc
rFkk T;kferh; :ijs[kkvksa }kjk fufeZr uewus dks ns[ksaA D;k vkidks NTts osQ
uhps vfHkys[kksa dh nks if^;k¡ fn[kkbZ ns jgh gSa\ ;s vfHkys[k vjch esa gSaA
xkSj djsa fd ehukj dk ckgjh fgLlk ?kqekonkj rFkk dks.kh; gSA ,slh lrg
ij vfHkys[k fy[kus osQ fy, dkI
+
kQh ifj'kq¼rk dh vko';drk gksrh FkhA
lokZf/d ;ksX; dkjhxj gh bl dk;Z dks laiUu dj ldrs FksA ;kn j[ksa fd
vkB lkS o"kZ iwoZ osQoy oqQN gh bekjrsa iRFkj ;k b±Vksa dh cuh gksrh FkhaA
rsjgoha 'krkCnh esa o
+
qQRcehukj tSlh bekjr dk ns[kus okyksa ij D;k izHkko
iM+k gksxk\
vkBoha vkSj vBkjgoha 'krkfCn;ksa osQ chp jktkvksa rFkk muosQ vfèkdkfj;ksa
us nks rjg dh bekjrksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA igyh rjg dh bekjrksa esaµlqjf{kr]
5
'kkld vkSj bekjrsa
fp=k 1
o
+
qQRcehukj ik¡p eaf”kyh
bekjr gSA vfHkys[kksa dh
ifêð;k¡ blosQ igys NTts
osQ uhps gSaA bl bekjr
dh igyh eaf”ky dk
fuekZ.k o
+
qQRcmíhu ,scd
rFkk 'ks"k eaf”kyksa dk
fuekZ.k 1229 osQ
vkl&ikl bYrqrfe'k }kjk
djok;k x;kA dbZ o"kks± esa
;g bekjr vk¡/h&rwI
+
kQku
rFkk HkwoaQi dh o”kg ls
{kfrxzLr gks xbZ FkhA
vykmíhu [+kyth]
eqgEen rqX
+
kyo
+
Q] fI
+
kQjks”k
'kkg rqX
+
kyo
+
Q rFkk bczkfge
yksnh us bldh ejEer
djokbZA
Page 2


60
gekjs vrhr – 2
fp=k 1 o
+
qQRcehukj osQ igys NTts dks iznf'kZr djrk gSA o
+
qQRcmíhu ,scd
us yxHkx 1199 esa bldk fuekZ.k djok;k FkkA NTts osQ uhps NksVs esgjkc
rFkk T;kferh; :ijs[kkvksa }kjk fufeZr uewus dks ns[ksaA D;k vkidks NTts osQ
uhps vfHkys[kksa dh nks if^;k¡ fn[kkbZ ns jgh gSa\ ;s vfHkys[k vjch esa gSaA
xkSj djsa fd ehukj dk ckgjh fgLlk ?kqekonkj rFkk dks.kh; gSA ,slh lrg
ij vfHkys[k fy[kus osQ fy, dkI
+
kQh ifj'kq¼rk dh vko';drk gksrh FkhA
lokZf/d ;ksX; dkjhxj gh bl dk;Z dks laiUu dj ldrs FksA ;kn j[ksa fd
vkB lkS o"kZ iwoZ osQoy oqQN gh bekjrsa iRFkj ;k b±Vksa dh cuh gksrh FkhaA
rsjgoha 'krkCnh esa o
+
qQRcehukj tSlh bekjr dk ns[kus okyksa ij D;k izHkko
iM+k gksxk\
vkBoha vkSj vBkjgoha 'krkfCn;ksa osQ chp jktkvksa rFkk muosQ vfèkdkfj;ksa
us nks rjg dh bekjrksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA igyh rjg dh bekjrksa esaµlqjf{kr]
5
'kkld vkSj bekjrsa
fp=k 1
o
+
qQRcehukj ik¡p eaf”kyh
bekjr gSA vfHkys[kksa dh
ifêð;k¡ blosQ igys NTts
osQ uhps gSaA bl bekjr
dh igyh eaf”ky dk
fuekZ.k o
+
qQRcmíhu ,scd
rFkk 'ks"k eaf”kyksa dk
fuekZ.k 1229 osQ
vkl&ikl bYrqrfe'k }kjk
djok;k x;kA dbZ o"kks± esa
;g bekjr vk¡/h&rwI
+
kQku
rFkk HkwoaQi dh o”kg ls
{kfrxzLr gks xbZ FkhA
vykmíhu [+kyth]
eqgEen rqX
+
kyo
+
Q] fI
+
kQjks”k
'kkg rqX
+
kyo
+
Q rFkk bczkfge
yksnh us bldh ejEer
djokbZA
61 'kkld vkSj bekjrsa
lajf{kr rFkk bl nqfu;k vkSj nwljh nqfu;k esa vkjke&fojke dh HkO;
txgsaµfOkQys] egy rFkk eOkQcjs FksA nwljh Js.kh esa eafnj] elf”kn] gkS”k]
oqQ,¡] ljk; rFkk ck”kkj tSlh turk osQ mi;ksx dh bekjrsa FkhaA jktkvksa ls
;g vis{kk dh tkrh Fkh fd os viuh iztk dh ns[k&Hkky djsaxs rFkk iztk
osQ mi;ksx vkSj vkjke osQ fy, bekjrksa dk fuekZ.k djokdj jktk mudh
iz'kalk ikus dh vk'kk djrs FksA bl rjg osQ fuekZ.k dk;Z] O;kikfj;ksa lfgr
vU; O;fDr;ksa osQ }kjk Hkh fd, tkrs FksA os eafnjksa] elf”knksa vkSj oq¡Qvksa dk
fuekZ.k djokrs FksA ijarq ?kjsyw LFkkiR;µO;kikfj;ksa dh fo'kky gosfy;ksa osQ
vo'ks"k vBkjgoha 'krkCnh ls gh feyus 'kq: gksrs gSaA
vfHk;kaf=kdh dkS'ky rFkk fuekZ.k dk;Z
Lekjdksa ls gesa muosQ fuekZ.k esa iz;qDr f'kYi foKku dk Hkh irk pyrk gSA
Nr dk gh mnkgj.k ys yhft,A ge pkj nhokjksa osQ vkj&ikj ydM+h dh
'kgrhjksa vFkok ,d iRFkj dh ifV;k j[kdj Nr cuk ldrs gSaaA ysfdu ;g
dk;Z ml le; cgqr dfBu gks tkrk gS tc ge ,d foLr`r vf/jpuk
okys fo'kky d{k dk fuekZ.k djuk pkgrs gSaA blosQ fy, vf/d ifj"Ñr
dkS'ky dh ”k:jr gksrh gSA
lkroha vkSj nloha 'krkCnh osQ eè; okLrqdkj Hkouksa esa vkSj vf/d
dejs] njok”ks vkSj f[kM+fd;k¡ cukus yxsA Nr] njok”ks vkSj f[kM+fd;k¡ vHkh
Hkh nks ÅèokZ/j [kaHkksa osQ vkj&ikj ,d vuqizLFk 'kgrhj j[kdj cuk, tkrs
FksA okLrqdyk dh ;g 'kSyh ^vuqizLFk VksMk fuekZ.k* dgykbZ tkrh gSA
vkBoha ls rsjgoha 'krkCnh osQ chp eafnjksa] elf”knksa] edcjksa rFkk lh<+hnkj
o¡qQvksa (ckoyh) ls tqM+s Hkouksa osQ fuekZ.k esa bl 'kSyh dk iz;ksx gqvkA
vkxjk fOkQYks osQ fuekZ.k
esa yxk Je
vdcj }kjk fufeZr vkxjk
fOkQys osQ fuekZ.k gsrq 2]000
iRFkj dkVus okyksa] 2]000
lhesaV o pwuk cukus okyksa
rFkk 8]000 e”knwjksa dh
vko';drk iM+hA
fp=k 2 d
fnYyh dh
o
+
qQOor vy&bLyke
elf”kn dk ,d fgLlk
(ckjgoha 'krkCnh dk
mÙkjk/Z)
fp=k 2 [k
esgjkc osQ fuekZ.k esa
vuqizLFk VksMk rduhd
dk bLrseky
vf/jpuk
Hkwry ls Åij fdlh Hkh
Hkou dk Hkkx
fp=k 2 d fp=k 2 [k
Page 3


60
gekjs vrhr – 2
fp=k 1 o
+
qQRcehukj osQ igys NTts dks iznf'kZr djrk gSA o
+
qQRcmíhu ,scd
us yxHkx 1199 esa bldk fuekZ.k djok;k FkkA NTts osQ uhps NksVs esgjkc
rFkk T;kferh; :ijs[kkvksa }kjk fufeZr uewus dks ns[ksaA D;k vkidks NTts osQ
uhps vfHkys[kksa dh nks if^;k¡ fn[kkbZ ns jgh gSa\ ;s vfHkys[k vjch esa gSaA
xkSj djsa fd ehukj dk ckgjh fgLlk ?kqekonkj rFkk dks.kh; gSA ,slh lrg
ij vfHkys[k fy[kus osQ fy, dkI
+
kQh ifj'kq¼rk dh vko';drk gksrh FkhA
lokZf/d ;ksX; dkjhxj gh bl dk;Z dks laiUu dj ldrs FksA ;kn j[ksa fd
vkB lkS o"kZ iwoZ osQoy oqQN gh bekjrsa iRFkj ;k b±Vksa dh cuh gksrh FkhaA
rsjgoha 'krkCnh esa o
+
qQRcehukj tSlh bekjr dk ns[kus okyksa ij D;k izHkko
iM+k gksxk\
vkBoha vkSj vBkjgoha 'krkfCn;ksa osQ chp jktkvksa rFkk muosQ vfèkdkfj;ksa
us nks rjg dh bekjrksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA igyh rjg dh bekjrksa esaµlqjf{kr]
5
'kkld vkSj bekjrsa
fp=k 1
o
+
qQRcehukj ik¡p eaf”kyh
bekjr gSA vfHkys[kksa dh
ifêð;k¡ blosQ igys NTts
osQ uhps gSaA bl bekjr
dh igyh eaf”ky dk
fuekZ.k o
+
qQRcmíhu ,scd
rFkk 'ks"k eaf”kyksa dk
fuekZ.k 1229 osQ
vkl&ikl bYrqrfe'k }kjk
djok;k x;kA dbZ o"kks± esa
;g bekjr vk¡/h&rwI
+
kQku
rFkk HkwoaQi dh o”kg ls
{kfrxzLr gks xbZ FkhA
vykmíhu [+kyth]
eqgEen rqX
+
kyo
+
Q] fI
+
kQjks”k
'kkg rqX
+
kyo
+
Q rFkk bczkfge
yksnh us bldh ejEer
djokbZA
61 'kkld vkSj bekjrsa
lajf{kr rFkk bl nqfu;k vkSj nwljh nqfu;k esa vkjke&fojke dh HkO;
txgsaµfOkQys] egy rFkk eOkQcjs FksA nwljh Js.kh esa eafnj] elf”kn] gkS”k]
oqQ,¡] ljk; rFkk ck”kkj tSlh turk osQ mi;ksx dh bekjrsa FkhaA jktkvksa ls
;g vis{kk dh tkrh Fkh fd os viuh iztk dh ns[k&Hkky djsaxs rFkk iztk
osQ mi;ksx vkSj vkjke osQ fy, bekjrksa dk fuekZ.k djokdj jktk mudh
iz'kalk ikus dh vk'kk djrs FksA bl rjg osQ fuekZ.k dk;Z] O;kikfj;ksa lfgr
vU; O;fDr;ksa osQ }kjk Hkh fd, tkrs FksA os eafnjksa] elf”knksa vkSj oq¡Qvksa dk
fuekZ.k djokrs FksA ijarq ?kjsyw LFkkiR;µO;kikfj;ksa dh fo'kky gosfy;ksa osQ
vo'ks"k vBkjgoha 'krkCnh ls gh feyus 'kq: gksrs gSaA
vfHk;kaf=kdh dkS'ky rFkk fuekZ.k dk;Z
Lekjdksa ls gesa muosQ fuekZ.k esa iz;qDr f'kYi foKku dk Hkh irk pyrk gSA
Nr dk gh mnkgj.k ys yhft,A ge pkj nhokjksa osQ vkj&ikj ydM+h dh
'kgrhjksa vFkok ,d iRFkj dh ifV;k j[kdj Nr cuk ldrs gSaaA ysfdu ;g
dk;Z ml le; cgqr dfBu gks tkrk gS tc ge ,d foLr`r vf/jpuk
okys fo'kky d{k dk fuekZ.k djuk pkgrs gSaA blosQ fy, vf/d ifj"Ñr
dkS'ky dh ”k:jr gksrh gSA
lkroha vkSj nloha 'krkCnh osQ eè; okLrqdkj Hkouksa esa vkSj vf/d
dejs] njok”ks vkSj f[kM+fd;k¡ cukus yxsA Nr] njok”ks vkSj f[kM+fd;k¡ vHkh
Hkh nks ÅèokZ/j [kaHkksa osQ vkj&ikj ,d vuqizLFk 'kgrhj j[kdj cuk, tkrs
FksA okLrqdyk dh ;g 'kSyh ^vuqizLFk VksMk fuekZ.k* dgykbZ tkrh gSA
vkBoha ls rsjgoha 'krkCnh osQ chp eafnjksa] elf”knksa] edcjksa rFkk lh<+hnkj
o¡qQvksa (ckoyh) ls tqM+s Hkouksa osQ fuekZ.k esa bl 'kSyh dk iz;ksx gqvkA
vkxjk fOkQYks osQ fuekZ.k
esa yxk Je
vdcj }kjk fufeZr vkxjk
fOkQys osQ fuekZ.k gsrq 2]000
iRFkj dkVus okyksa] 2]000
lhesaV o pwuk cukus okyksa
rFkk 8]000 e”knwjksa dh
vko';drk iM+hA
fp=k 2 d
fnYyh dh
o
+
qQOor vy&bLyke
elf”kn dk ,d fgLlk
(ckjgoha 'krkCnh dk
mÙkjk/Z)
fp=k 2 [k
esgjkc osQ fuekZ.k esa
vuqizLFk VksMk rduhd
dk bLrseky
vf/jpuk
Hkwry ls Åij fdlh Hkh
Hkou dk Hkkx
fp=k 2 d fp=k 2 [k
62
gekjs vrhr – 2
?
nks eafnjksa osQ f'k[kjksa esa
vki D;k varj ns[krs
gSa\ D;k vki ;g le>
ldrs gSa fd jktjkts'oj
eafnj dk f'k[kj]
oaQnfj;k egknso eafnj osQ
f'k[kj ls nksxquk Å¡pk
gS\
fp=k 4
ratkowj osQ jktjkts'oj eafnj dk f'k[kj] ml le; osQ eafnjksa esa lcls Å¡pk
FkkA bldk fuekZ.k dk;Z vklku ugha Fkk] D;ksafd mu fnuksa dksbZ ozsQu ugha FkhA
f'k[kj osQ 'kh"kZ ij 90 Vu dk iRFkj ys tkuk bruk Hkkjh gksrk Fkk fd
mls osQoy O;fDr ugha mBk ldrs FksA bl dke osQ
fy, okLrqdkjksa us eafnj osQ 'kh"kZ rd igq¡pus osQ fy,
p<+kbZnkj jkLrk cuok;kA jksyjksa }kjk Hkkjh iRFkjksa dks
bl jkLrs ls Åij ys tk;k x;kA bl dke osQ fy,
pkj fdyksehVj ls ”;knk yack iFk rS;kj fd;k
tkrk Fkk] ftlls p<+kbZ cgqr [kM+h u gksA
eafnj cu tkus osQ ckn bls fxjk fn;k
x;k] ysfdu ml {ks=k osQ yksxksa us
eafnj fuekZ.k osQ vuqHko dks
dkI
+
kQh yacs le; rd ;kn
j[kkA vkt Hkh eafnj osQ
ikl osQ ,d xk¡o dks
pk:iYye dgk tkrk gS]
ftldk 'kkfCnd vFkZ gS &
p<+kbZnkj jkLrs dk
xk¡oA
X;kjgoha 'krkCnh osQ izkjaHk esa eafnj fuekZ.k
fp=k 3 d
fp=k 3 [k
f'ko dh Lrqfr esa cuk, x, oaQnfj;k
egknso eafnj dk fuekZ.k pansy jktoa'k
osQ jktk /axnso }kjk 999 esa
fd;k x;k FkkA fp=k 3 [k eafnj
dh ;kstuk gSA ,d vyaÑr
}kj ls blosQ izos'k Hkkx vkSj
eq[; lHkk Hkou (egkeaMi)]
tgk¡ u`R; dk vk;kstu gksrk
Fkk] rd igq¡pk tkrk FkkA
izeq[k nsork dh ewfrZ
eq[; eafnj (xHkZx`g)
esa j[kh tkrh FkhA
èkkfeZd vuq"Bku blh txg
laiUu fd, tkrs Fks rFkk
blesa osQoy jktk] mudk
fudVre ifjokj rFkk
iqjksfgr ,df=kr gksrs FksA
[ktqjkgks lewg esa jktdh; eafnj
lfEefyr Fks tgk¡ lkekU; tuekul dks tkus dh vuqefr ugha FkhA ;s eafnj
lqifj"Ñr mRdhf.kZr ewfÙkZ;ksa ls vyaÑr FksA
Page 4


60
gekjs vrhr – 2
fp=k 1 o
+
qQRcehukj osQ igys NTts dks iznf'kZr djrk gSA o
+
qQRcmíhu ,scd
us yxHkx 1199 esa bldk fuekZ.k djok;k FkkA NTts osQ uhps NksVs esgjkc
rFkk T;kferh; :ijs[kkvksa }kjk fufeZr uewus dks ns[ksaA D;k vkidks NTts osQ
uhps vfHkys[kksa dh nks if^;k¡ fn[kkbZ ns jgh gSa\ ;s vfHkys[k vjch esa gSaA
xkSj djsa fd ehukj dk ckgjh fgLlk ?kqekonkj rFkk dks.kh; gSA ,slh lrg
ij vfHkys[k fy[kus osQ fy, dkI
+
kQh ifj'kq¼rk dh vko';drk gksrh FkhA
lokZf/d ;ksX; dkjhxj gh bl dk;Z dks laiUu dj ldrs FksA ;kn j[ksa fd
vkB lkS o"kZ iwoZ osQoy oqQN gh bekjrsa iRFkj ;k b±Vksa dh cuh gksrh FkhaA
rsjgoha 'krkCnh esa o
+
qQRcehukj tSlh bekjr dk ns[kus okyksa ij D;k izHkko
iM+k gksxk\
vkBoha vkSj vBkjgoha 'krkfCn;ksa osQ chp jktkvksa rFkk muosQ vfèkdkfj;ksa
us nks rjg dh bekjrksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA igyh rjg dh bekjrksa esaµlqjf{kr]
5
'kkld vkSj bekjrsa
fp=k 1
o
+
qQRcehukj ik¡p eaf”kyh
bekjr gSA vfHkys[kksa dh
ifêð;k¡ blosQ igys NTts
osQ uhps gSaA bl bekjr
dh igyh eaf”ky dk
fuekZ.k o
+
qQRcmíhu ,scd
rFkk 'ks"k eaf”kyksa dk
fuekZ.k 1229 osQ
vkl&ikl bYrqrfe'k }kjk
djok;k x;kA dbZ o"kks± esa
;g bekjr vk¡/h&rwI
+
kQku
rFkk HkwoaQi dh o”kg ls
{kfrxzLr gks xbZ FkhA
vykmíhu [+kyth]
eqgEen rqX
+
kyo
+
Q] fI
+
kQjks”k
'kkg rqX
+
kyo
+
Q rFkk bczkfge
yksnh us bldh ejEer
djokbZA
61 'kkld vkSj bekjrsa
lajf{kr rFkk bl nqfu;k vkSj nwljh nqfu;k esa vkjke&fojke dh HkO;
txgsaµfOkQys] egy rFkk eOkQcjs FksA nwljh Js.kh esa eafnj] elf”kn] gkS”k]
oqQ,¡] ljk; rFkk ck”kkj tSlh turk osQ mi;ksx dh bekjrsa FkhaA jktkvksa ls
;g vis{kk dh tkrh Fkh fd os viuh iztk dh ns[k&Hkky djsaxs rFkk iztk
osQ mi;ksx vkSj vkjke osQ fy, bekjrksa dk fuekZ.k djokdj jktk mudh
iz'kalk ikus dh vk'kk djrs FksA bl rjg osQ fuekZ.k dk;Z] O;kikfj;ksa lfgr
vU; O;fDr;ksa osQ }kjk Hkh fd, tkrs FksA os eafnjksa] elf”knksa vkSj oq¡Qvksa dk
fuekZ.k djokrs FksA ijarq ?kjsyw LFkkiR;µO;kikfj;ksa dh fo'kky gosfy;ksa osQ
vo'ks"k vBkjgoha 'krkCnh ls gh feyus 'kq: gksrs gSaA
vfHk;kaf=kdh dkS'ky rFkk fuekZ.k dk;Z
Lekjdksa ls gesa muosQ fuekZ.k esa iz;qDr f'kYi foKku dk Hkh irk pyrk gSA
Nr dk gh mnkgj.k ys yhft,A ge pkj nhokjksa osQ vkj&ikj ydM+h dh
'kgrhjksa vFkok ,d iRFkj dh ifV;k j[kdj Nr cuk ldrs gSaaA ysfdu ;g
dk;Z ml le; cgqr dfBu gks tkrk gS tc ge ,d foLr`r vf/jpuk
okys fo'kky d{k dk fuekZ.k djuk pkgrs gSaA blosQ fy, vf/d ifj"Ñr
dkS'ky dh ”k:jr gksrh gSA
lkroha vkSj nloha 'krkCnh osQ eè; okLrqdkj Hkouksa esa vkSj vf/d
dejs] njok”ks vkSj f[kM+fd;k¡ cukus yxsA Nr] njok”ks vkSj f[kM+fd;k¡ vHkh
Hkh nks ÅèokZ/j [kaHkksa osQ vkj&ikj ,d vuqizLFk 'kgrhj j[kdj cuk, tkrs
FksA okLrqdyk dh ;g 'kSyh ^vuqizLFk VksMk fuekZ.k* dgykbZ tkrh gSA
vkBoha ls rsjgoha 'krkCnh osQ chp eafnjksa] elf”knksa] edcjksa rFkk lh<+hnkj
o¡qQvksa (ckoyh) ls tqM+s Hkouksa osQ fuekZ.k esa bl 'kSyh dk iz;ksx gqvkA
vkxjk fOkQYks osQ fuekZ.k
esa yxk Je
vdcj }kjk fufeZr vkxjk
fOkQys osQ fuekZ.k gsrq 2]000
iRFkj dkVus okyksa] 2]000
lhesaV o pwuk cukus okyksa
rFkk 8]000 e”knwjksa dh
vko';drk iM+hA
fp=k 2 d
fnYyh dh
o
+
qQOor vy&bLyke
elf”kn dk ,d fgLlk
(ckjgoha 'krkCnh dk
mÙkjk/Z)
fp=k 2 [k
esgjkc osQ fuekZ.k esa
vuqizLFk VksMk rduhd
dk bLrseky
vf/jpuk
Hkwry ls Åij fdlh Hkh
Hkou dk Hkkx
fp=k 2 d fp=k 2 [k
62
gekjs vrhr – 2
?
nks eafnjksa osQ f'k[kjksa esa
vki D;k varj ns[krs
gSa\ D;k vki ;g le>
ldrs gSa fd jktjkts'oj
eafnj dk f'k[kj]
oaQnfj;k egknso eafnj osQ
f'k[kj ls nksxquk Å¡pk
gS\
fp=k 4
ratkowj osQ jktjkts'oj eafnj dk f'k[kj] ml le; osQ eafnjksa esa lcls Å¡pk
FkkA bldk fuekZ.k dk;Z vklku ugha Fkk] D;ksafd mu fnuksa dksbZ ozsQu ugha FkhA
f'k[kj osQ 'kh"kZ ij 90 Vu dk iRFkj ys tkuk bruk Hkkjh gksrk Fkk fd
mls osQoy O;fDr ugha mBk ldrs FksA bl dke osQ
fy, okLrqdkjksa us eafnj osQ 'kh"kZ rd igq¡pus osQ fy,
p<+kbZnkj jkLrk cuok;kA jksyjksa }kjk Hkkjh iRFkjksa dks
bl jkLrs ls Åij ys tk;k x;kA bl dke osQ fy,
pkj fdyksehVj ls ”;knk yack iFk rS;kj fd;k
tkrk Fkk] ftlls p<+kbZ cgqr [kM+h u gksA
eafnj cu tkus osQ ckn bls fxjk fn;k
x;k] ysfdu ml {ks=k osQ yksxksa us
eafnj fuekZ.k osQ vuqHko dks
dkI
+
kQh yacs le; rd ;kn
j[kkA vkt Hkh eafnj osQ
ikl osQ ,d xk¡o dks
pk:iYye dgk tkrk gS]
ftldk 'kkfCnd vFkZ gS &
p<+kbZnkj jkLrs dk
xk¡oA
X;kjgoha 'krkCnh osQ izkjaHk esa eafnj fuekZ.k
fp=k 3 d
fp=k 3 [k
f'ko dh Lrqfr esa cuk, x, oaQnfj;k
egknso eafnj dk fuekZ.k pansy jktoa'k
osQ jktk /axnso }kjk 999 esa
fd;k x;k FkkA fp=k 3 [k eafnj
dh ;kstuk gSA ,d vyaÑr
}kj ls blosQ izos'k Hkkx vkSj
eq[; lHkk Hkou (egkeaMi)]
tgk¡ u`R; dk vk;kstu gksrk
Fkk] rd igq¡pk tkrk FkkA
izeq[k nsork dh ewfrZ
eq[; eafnj (xHkZx`g)
esa j[kh tkrh FkhA
èkkfeZd vuq"Bku blh txg
laiUu fd, tkrs Fks rFkk
blesa osQoy jktk] mudk
fudVre ifjokj rFkk
iqjksfgr ,df=kr gksrs FksA
[ktqjkgks lewg esa jktdh; eafnj
lfEefyr Fks tgk¡ lkekU; tuekul dks tkus dh vuqefr ugha FkhA ;s eafnj
lqifj"Ñr mRdhf.kZr ewfÙkZ;ksa ls vyaÑr FksA
63 'kkld vkSj bekjrsa
?
ckjgoha 'krkCnh esa nks izkS|ksfxdh;
,oa 'kSyh laca/h ifjorZu fn[kkbZ
iM+us yxrs gSa&(1) njok”kksa vkSj
f[kM+fd;ksa osQ Åij dh vf/jpuk
dk Hkkj dHkh&dHkh esgjkcksa ij Mky
fn;k tkrk FkkA okLrqdyk dk ;g
^pkikdkj* :i FkkA
fp=k 2 d o 2 [k dh rqyuk
fp=k 5 d vkSj 5 [k ls djsaA
(2) fuekZ.k dk;Z esa pwuk&iRFkj]
lhesaV dk iz;ksx c<+ x;kA ;g
mPp Js.kh dh lhesaV gksrh Fkh]
ftlesa iRFkj osQ VqdM+ksa osQ
feykus ls oaQdjhV curh FkhA
bldh o”kg ls fo'kky <k¡pksa dk
fuekZ.k ljyrk vkSj rs”kh ls gksus
yxkA fp=k 6 esa fuekZ.k LFky ij
,d u”kj MkysaA
crkb;s fd e”knwj D;k dj jgs
gSa] dkSu&ls vkS”kkj fn[kk, x,
gSa rFkk iRFkjksa dks <ksus osQ fy,
fdu lk/uksa dk iz;ksx fd;k
x;k gSA
eafnjksa] elf”knksa vkSj gkS”kksa dk fuekZ.k
eafnjksa vkSj elf”knksa dk fuekZ.k cgqr lqanj rjhosQ ls fd;k tkrk Fkk
D;ksafd os mikluk osQ LFky FksA os vius laj{kd dh 'kfDr]
èku&oSHko rFkk HkfDr Hkko dk Hkh izn'kZu djrs FksA mnkgj.k osQ
fy,] jktjkts'oj eafnj dks fy;k tk ldrk gSA ,d vfHkys[k ls bl
ckr dk laosQr feyrk gS fd bl eafnj dk fuekZ.k jktk jktnso us
fp=k 5 [k
esgjkc dk fo'kq¼ :i
vykbZ njok”ks dk esgjkc
(izkjafHkd pkSngoha lnh)]
o
+
qQOor vy&bLyke
elf”kn] fnYyh
fp=k 6
vkxjk fdys esa ty&}kj
fuekZ.k dks fn[kkrh ,d
fp=kdkjhA bls vdcjukek
ls fy;k x;k gSA
MkV
fp=k 5 d
esgjkc dk ^fo'kq}* :i
esgjkc osQ eè; esa ^MkV* vf/jpuk osQ
Hkkj dks esgjkc dh vk/kjf'kyk ij Mky
nsrh gSA
Page 5


60
gekjs vrhr – 2
fp=k 1 o
+
qQRcehukj osQ igys NTts dks iznf'kZr djrk gSA o
+
qQRcmíhu ,scd
us yxHkx 1199 esa bldk fuekZ.k djok;k FkkA NTts osQ uhps NksVs esgjkc
rFkk T;kferh; :ijs[kkvksa }kjk fufeZr uewus dks ns[ksaA D;k vkidks NTts osQ
uhps vfHkys[kksa dh nks if^;k¡ fn[kkbZ ns jgh gSa\ ;s vfHkys[k vjch esa gSaA
xkSj djsa fd ehukj dk ckgjh fgLlk ?kqekonkj rFkk dks.kh; gSA ,slh lrg
ij vfHkys[k fy[kus osQ fy, dkI
+
kQh ifj'kq¼rk dh vko';drk gksrh FkhA
lokZf/d ;ksX; dkjhxj gh bl dk;Z dks laiUu dj ldrs FksA ;kn j[ksa fd
vkB lkS o"kZ iwoZ osQoy oqQN gh bekjrsa iRFkj ;k b±Vksa dh cuh gksrh FkhaA
rsjgoha 'krkCnh esa o
+
qQRcehukj tSlh bekjr dk ns[kus okyksa ij D;k izHkko
iM+k gksxk\
vkBoha vkSj vBkjgoha 'krkfCn;ksa osQ chp jktkvksa rFkk muosQ vfèkdkfj;ksa
us nks rjg dh bekjrksa dk fuekZ.k fd;kA igyh rjg dh bekjrksa esaµlqjf{kr]
5
'kkld vkSj bekjrsa
fp=k 1
o
+
qQRcehukj ik¡p eaf”kyh
bekjr gSA vfHkys[kksa dh
ifêð;k¡ blosQ igys NTts
osQ uhps gSaA bl bekjr
dh igyh eaf”ky dk
fuekZ.k o
+
qQRcmíhu ,scd
rFkk 'ks"k eaf”kyksa dk
fuekZ.k 1229 osQ
vkl&ikl bYrqrfe'k }kjk
djok;k x;kA dbZ o"kks± esa
;g bekjr vk¡/h&rwI
+
kQku
rFkk HkwoaQi dh o”kg ls
{kfrxzLr gks xbZ FkhA
vykmíhu [+kyth]
eqgEen rqX
+
kyo
+
Q] fI
+
kQjks”k
'kkg rqX
+
kyo
+
Q rFkk bczkfge
yksnh us bldh ejEer
djokbZA
61 'kkld vkSj bekjrsa
lajf{kr rFkk bl nqfu;k vkSj nwljh nqfu;k esa vkjke&fojke dh HkO;
txgsaµfOkQys] egy rFkk eOkQcjs FksA nwljh Js.kh esa eafnj] elf”kn] gkS”k]
oqQ,¡] ljk; rFkk ck”kkj tSlh turk osQ mi;ksx dh bekjrsa FkhaA jktkvksa ls
;g vis{kk dh tkrh Fkh fd os viuh iztk dh ns[k&Hkky djsaxs rFkk iztk
osQ mi;ksx vkSj vkjke osQ fy, bekjrksa dk fuekZ.k djokdj jktk mudh
iz'kalk ikus dh vk'kk djrs FksA bl rjg osQ fuekZ.k dk;Z] O;kikfj;ksa lfgr
vU; O;fDr;ksa osQ }kjk Hkh fd, tkrs FksA os eafnjksa] elf”knksa vkSj oq¡Qvksa dk
fuekZ.k djokrs FksA ijarq ?kjsyw LFkkiR;µO;kikfj;ksa dh fo'kky gosfy;ksa osQ
vo'ks"k vBkjgoha 'krkCnh ls gh feyus 'kq: gksrs gSaA
vfHk;kaf=kdh dkS'ky rFkk fuekZ.k dk;Z
Lekjdksa ls gesa muosQ fuekZ.k esa iz;qDr f'kYi foKku dk Hkh irk pyrk gSA
Nr dk gh mnkgj.k ys yhft,A ge pkj nhokjksa osQ vkj&ikj ydM+h dh
'kgrhjksa vFkok ,d iRFkj dh ifV;k j[kdj Nr cuk ldrs gSaaA ysfdu ;g
dk;Z ml le; cgqr dfBu gks tkrk gS tc ge ,d foLr`r vf/jpuk
okys fo'kky d{k dk fuekZ.k djuk pkgrs gSaA blosQ fy, vf/d ifj"Ñr
dkS'ky dh ”k:jr gksrh gSA
lkroha vkSj nloha 'krkCnh osQ eè; okLrqdkj Hkouksa esa vkSj vf/d
dejs] njok”ks vkSj f[kM+fd;k¡ cukus yxsA Nr] njok”ks vkSj f[kM+fd;k¡ vHkh
Hkh nks ÅèokZ/j [kaHkksa osQ vkj&ikj ,d vuqizLFk 'kgrhj j[kdj cuk, tkrs
FksA okLrqdyk dh ;g 'kSyh ^vuqizLFk VksMk fuekZ.k* dgykbZ tkrh gSA
vkBoha ls rsjgoha 'krkCnh osQ chp eafnjksa] elf”knksa] edcjksa rFkk lh<+hnkj
o¡qQvksa (ckoyh) ls tqM+s Hkouksa osQ fuekZ.k esa bl 'kSyh dk iz;ksx gqvkA
vkxjk fOkQYks osQ fuekZ.k
esa yxk Je
vdcj }kjk fufeZr vkxjk
fOkQys osQ fuekZ.k gsrq 2]000
iRFkj dkVus okyksa] 2]000
lhesaV o pwuk cukus okyksa
rFkk 8]000 e”knwjksa dh
vko';drk iM+hA
fp=k 2 d
fnYyh dh
o
+
qQOor vy&bLyke
elf”kn dk ,d fgLlk
(ckjgoha 'krkCnh dk
mÙkjk/Z)
fp=k 2 [k
esgjkc osQ fuekZ.k esa
vuqizLFk VksMk rduhd
dk bLrseky
vf/jpuk
Hkwry ls Åij fdlh Hkh
Hkou dk Hkkx
fp=k 2 d fp=k 2 [k
62
gekjs vrhr – 2
?
nks eafnjksa osQ f'k[kjksa esa
vki D;k varj ns[krs
gSa\ D;k vki ;g le>
ldrs gSa fd jktjkts'oj
eafnj dk f'k[kj]
oaQnfj;k egknso eafnj osQ
f'k[kj ls nksxquk Å¡pk
gS\
fp=k 4
ratkowj osQ jktjkts'oj eafnj dk f'k[kj] ml le; osQ eafnjksa esa lcls Å¡pk
FkkA bldk fuekZ.k dk;Z vklku ugha Fkk] D;ksafd mu fnuksa dksbZ ozsQu ugha FkhA
f'k[kj osQ 'kh"kZ ij 90 Vu dk iRFkj ys tkuk bruk Hkkjh gksrk Fkk fd
mls osQoy O;fDr ugha mBk ldrs FksA bl dke osQ
fy, okLrqdkjksa us eafnj osQ 'kh"kZ rd igq¡pus osQ fy,
p<+kbZnkj jkLrk cuok;kA jksyjksa }kjk Hkkjh iRFkjksa dks
bl jkLrs ls Åij ys tk;k x;kA bl dke osQ fy,
pkj fdyksehVj ls ”;knk yack iFk rS;kj fd;k
tkrk Fkk] ftlls p<+kbZ cgqr [kM+h u gksA
eafnj cu tkus osQ ckn bls fxjk fn;k
x;k] ysfdu ml {ks=k osQ yksxksa us
eafnj fuekZ.k osQ vuqHko dks
dkI
+
kQh yacs le; rd ;kn
j[kkA vkt Hkh eafnj osQ
ikl osQ ,d xk¡o dks
pk:iYye dgk tkrk gS]
ftldk 'kkfCnd vFkZ gS &
p<+kbZnkj jkLrs dk
xk¡oA
X;kjgoha 'krkCnh osQ izkjaHk esa eafnj fuekZ.k
fp=k 3 d
fp=k 3 [k
f'ko dh Lrqfr esa cuk, x, oaQnfj;k
egknso eafnj dk fuekZ.k pansy jktoa'k
osQ jktk /axnso }kjk 999 esa
fd;k x;k FkkA fp=k 3 [k eafnj
dh ;kstuk gSA ,d vyaÑr
}kj ls blosQ izos'k Hkkx vkSj
eq[; lHkk Hkou (egkeaMi)]
tgk¡ u`R; dk vk;kstu gksrk
Fkk] rd igq¡pk tkrk FkkA
izeq[k nsork dh ewfrZ
eq[; eafnj (xHkZx`g)
esa j[kh tkrh FkhA
èkkfeZd vuq"Bku blh txg
laiUu fd, tkrs Fks rFkk
blesa osQoy jktk] mudk
fudVre ifjokj rFkk
iqjksfgr ,df=kr gksrs FksA
[ktqjkgks lewg esa jktdh; eafnj
lfEefyr Fks tgk¡ lkekU; tuekul dks tkus dh vuqefr ugha FkhA ;s eafnj
lqifj"Ñr mRdhf.kZr ewfÙkZ;ksa ls vyaÑr FksA
63 'kkld vkSj bekjrsa
?
ckjgoha 'krkCnh esa nks izkS|ksfxdh;
,oa 'kSyh laca/h ifjorZu fn[kkbZ
iM+us yxrs gSa&(1) njok”kksa vkSj
f[kM+fd;ksa osQ Åij dh vf/jpuk
dk Hkkj dHkh&dHkh esgjkcksa ij Mky
fn;k tkrk FkkA okLrqdyk dk ;g
^pkikdkj* :i FkkA
fp=k 2 d o 2 [k dh rqyuk
fp=k 5 d vkSj 5 [k ls djsaA
(2) fuekZ.k dk;Z esa pwuk&iRFkj]
lhesaV dk iz;ksx c<+ x;kA ;g
mPp Js.kh dh lhesaV gksrh Fkh]
ftlesa iRFkj osQ VqdM+ksa osQ
feykus ls oaQdjhV curh FkhA
bldh o”kg ls fo'kky <k¡pksa dk
fuekZ.k ljyrk vkSj rs”kh ls gksus
yxkA fp=k 6 esa fuekZ.k LFky ij
,d u”kj MkysaA
crkb;s fd e”knwj D;k dj jgs
gSa] dkSu&ls vkS”kkj fn[kk, x,
gSa rFkk iRFkjksa dks <ksus osQ fy,
fdu lk/uksa dk iz;ksx fd;k
x;k gSA
eafnjksa] elf”knksa vkSj gkS”kksa dk fuekZ.k
eafnjksa vkSj elf”knksa dk fuekZ.k cgqr lqanj rjhosQ ls fd;k tkrk Fkk
D;ksafd os mikluk osQ LFky FksA os vius laj{kd dh 'kfDr]
èku&oSHko rFkk HkfDr Hkko dk Hkh izn'kZu djrs FksA mnkgj.k osQ
fy,] jktjkts'oj eafnj dks fy;k tk ldrk gSA ,d vfHkys[k ls bl
ckr dk laosQr feyrk gS fd bl eafnj dk fuekZ.k jktk jktnso us
fp=k 5 [k
esgjkc dk fo'kq¼ :i
vykbZ njok”ks dk esgjkc
(izkjafHkd pkSngoha lnh)]
o
+
qQOor vy&bLyke
elf”kn] fnYyh
fp=k 6
vkxjk fdys esa ty&}kj
fuekZ.k dks fn[kkrh ,d
fp=kdkjhA bls vdcjukek
ls fy;k x;k gSA
MkV
fp=k 5 d
esgjkc dk ^fo'kq}* :i
esgjkc osQ eè; esa ^MkV* vf/jpuk osQ
Hkkj dks esgjkc dh vk/kjf'kyk ij Mky
nsrh gSA
64
gekjs vrhr – 2
vius nsork jktjkts'oje dh mikluk gsrq fd;k FkkA è;ku nsa fd jktk
vkSj mlosQ nsork osQ uke dkI
+
kQh feyrs&tqyrs gSaA jktk us bl rjg dk uke
blfy, j[kk] D;ksafd ;g uke eaxydkjh Fkk vkSj jktk Lo;a dks bZ'oj
osQ :i esa fn[kkuk pkgrk FkkA /kfeZd vuq"Bku osQ ”kfj, eafnj esa
,d nsork (jktk jktnso)] nwljs nsork (jktjkts'oje) dk lEeku
djrk FkkA
lHkh fo'kkyre eafnjksa dk fuekZ.k jktkvksa us djok;k FkkA eafnj
osQ vU; y?kq nsork 'kkld osQ lg;ksfx;ksa rFkk v/huLFkksa osQ
nsoh&nsork FksA ;g eafnj 'kkld vkSj mlosQ lg;ksfx;ksa }kjk 'kkflr
fo'o dk ,d y?kq :i gh FkkA ftl rjg ls os jktdh; eafnjksa esa
bd_s gksdj vius nsorkvksa dh mikluk djrs Fks] ,slk izrhr gksrk Fkk
ekuks mUgksaus nsorkvksa osQ U;k;fiz; 'kklu dks i`Foh ij yk fn;k gksA
eqlyeku lqyrku rFkk ckn'kkg Lo;a dks Hkxoku osQ vorkj gksus
dk nkok rks ugha djrs Fks foaQrq I
+
kQkjlh njckjh bfrgklksa esa lqyrku dk
o.kZu ^vYykg dh ijNkbZ* osQ :i esa gqvk gSA fnYyh dh ,d
elf”kn osQ vfHkys[k ls irk pyrk gS fd vYykg us vykmíhu dks
,d 'kkgh okLrqf'kYih
eqqX
+
ky ckn'kkg 'kkgtgk¡
osQ bfrgkldkj us
'kkld dks ^lkezkT; o
/eZ dh dk;Z'kkyk osQ
okLrqf'kYih* osQ :i esa
mn~?kksf"kr fd;k gSA
fp=k 7
viuh u;h jkt/kuh
'kkgtgk¡ukckn
(1650&56) esa 'kkgtgk¡
}kjk cuokbZ xbZ tkeh
elf”kn dh ;kstuk
fdcyk
(eDdk dh vksj laosQr)
i-
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