NCERT Textbook - सौरमंडल में पृथ्वी Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - सौरमंडल में पृथ्वी Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


lkSjeaMy esa i`Foh
Lkw;kZLr osQ ckn vkdk'k dks ns[kuk fdruk vPNk yxrk gSA vkleku
esa igys ,d ;k nks pedrs fcanq gh fn[krs gSa] ysfdu ckn esa budh
la[;k c<+rh tkrh gSA vki mudh x.kuk ugha dj ldrsA laiw.kZ
vkdk'k NksVh&NksVh pednkj oLrqvksa ls Hkj tkrk gS] ftuesa ls oqQN
pedhys gksrs gSa ,oa oqQN èkq¡èkysA ,slk izrhr gksrk gS] ekuks vkdk'k
esa ghjs tM+s gksaA buesa ls oqQN fVefVekrs izrhr gksrs gSaA ysfdu vxj
vki mudks è;ku ls ns[ksaxs rks vki ik,¡xs fd buesa ls oqQN dh
fVefVekgV vU; ls vyx gSA ;s fcuk fdlh fVefVekgV osQ panzek
osQ leku pedrs gSaA
bu pedhyh oLrqvksa osQ lkFk vki yxHkx izfrfnu panzek dks
Hkh ns[krs gSaA ;g vyx&vyx le; ij vyx vkdkj rFkk vyx
fLFkfr;ksa esa fn[kkbZ IkM+rk gSA vki iw.kZ panz dks yxHkx ,d eghus esa
,d ckj ns[k ldrs gSaA ;g iw.kZ panzek okyh jkr ;k iwf.kZek gksrh gSA
ianzg fnu osQ ckn vki bls ugha ns[k ldrsA ;g u;s panzek dh jkf=k
;k vekoL;k gksrh gSA ,slh jkr esa vxj vkleku lkI
+
kQ gS rks vki
vkleku dk voyksdu vPNh rjg ls dj ldrs gSaA
D;k vkidks bl ckr ij vk'p;Z ugha gksrk gS fd ge fnu osQ le;
panzek ,oa bu lHkh NksVh pedhyh oLrqvksa dks D;ksa ugha ns[k ikrs gSa\ ,slk
blfy, gS] D;ksafd lw;Z osQ vR;fèkd rs”k izdk'k osQ dkj.k jkr osQ le;
pedus okyh oLrqvksa dks ge fnu esa ugha ns[k ikrs gSaA
Lkw;Z] panzek rFkk os lHkh oLrq,¡ tks jkr osQ le; vkleku esas
pedrh gSa] [kxksyh; fiaM dgykrh gSaA
oqQN [kxksyh; fiaM cM+s vkdkj okys rFkk xeZ gksrs gSaA ;s xSlksa ls
cus gksrs gSaA buosQ ikl viuh Å"ek rFkk izdk'k gksrk gS] ftls os
cgqr cM+h ek=kk esa mRlftZr djrs gSaA bu [kxksyh; fiaMksa dks rkjk
dgrs gSaA lw;Z Hkh ,d rkjk gSA
1 1
vkvks oqQN djosQ lh[ksa
vkidks vko';drk gksxh%
,d VWkpZ] ,d lknk dkx”k]
isafly rFkk ,d lqbZA
pj.k % 1- dkx”k osQ eè; esa VWkpZ dks
bl izdkj j[ksa fd mldk dk¡p
dkx”k ls lVk jgsA
2- vc VWkpZ osQ dk¡p osQ pkjksa vksj
,d o`Ùk [khapsaA
3- dkx”k ij o`Ùk osQ {ks=k esa lqbZ ls
NksVs&NksVs Nsn djasA
4- vc dkx”k osQ fNfnzr o`Ùkh;
Hkkx dks dk¡p ij lkeus dh rjI
+
kQ
j[ksa rFkk VkWpZ osQ pkjksa vksj dkx”k
dks yisVdj jcjcSaM yxk nasA
5- è;ku j[kas fd VWkpZ dh fLop
dkx”k osQ ckgj jgsA
6- v¡èksjs dejs esa] ,d lknh nhokj
dh vksj eq¡g djosQ bl VkWpZ dks
ysdj oqQN nwjh ij [kM+s gks tk,¡A
nwljh lHkh cfÙk;ksa dks cq>k nsaA
vc VWkpZ dh jks'kuh dks nhokj ij
MkyasA vki nhokj ij izdk'k osQ
vusd NksVs fcanqvksa dks ns[kasxs]
fcyoqQy oSls gh] tSls jkr osQ
le; vkleku esa rkjs pedrs gSaA
7- vc dejs dh lHkh cfÙk;ksa dks
tyk nasA izdk'k osQ lHkh fcanq
yxHkx vn`'; gks tk,¡xsA
8- vki bldh rqyuk ml voLFkk
ls dj ldrs gSa] tc jkf=k osQ
le; vkleku esa pedus okys
rkjs lw;ksZn; osQ ckn vn`'; gks
tkrs gSaA
cq/
'kfu
c`gLifr
usIP;wu
eaxy
i`Foh
'kqØ
;wjsul
IywVks
Page 2


lkSjeaMy esa i`Foh
Lkw;kZLr osQ ckn vkdk'k dks ns[kuk fdruk vPNk yxrk gSA vkleku
esa igys ,d ;k nks pedrs fcanq gh fn[krs gSa] ysfdu ckn esa budh
la[;k c<+rh tkrh gSA vki mudh x.kuk ugha dj ldrsA laiw.kZ
vkdk'k NksVh&NksVh pednkj oLrqvksa ls Hkj tkrk gS] ftuesa ls oqQN
pedhys gksrs gSa ,oa oqQN èkq¡èkysA ,slk izrhr gksrk gS] ekuks vkdk'k
esa ghjs tM+s gksaA buesa ls oqQN fVefVekrs izrhr gksrs gSaA ysfdu vxj
vki mudks è;ku ls ns[ksaxs rks vki ik,¡xs fd buesa ls oqQN dh
fVefVekgV vU; ls vyx gSA ;s fcuk fdlh fVefVekgV osQ panzek
osQ leku pedrs gSaA
bu pedhyh oLrqvksa osQ lkFk vki yxHkx izfrfnu panzek dks
Hkh ns[krs gSaA ;g vyx&vyx le; ij vyx vkdkj rFkk vyx
fLFkfr;ksa esa fn[kkbZ IkM+rk gSA vki iw.kZ panz dks yxHkx ,d eghus esa
,d ckj ns[k ldrs gSaA ;g iw.kZ panzek okyh jkr ;k iwf.kZek gksrh gSA
ianzg fnu osQ ckn vki bls ugha ns[k ldrsA ;g u;s panzek dh jkf=k
;k vekoL;k gksrh gSA ,slh jkr esa vxj vkleku lkI
+
kQ gS rks vki
vkleku dk voyksdu vPNh rjg ls dj ldrs gSaA
D;k vkidks bl ckr ij vk'p;Z ugha gksrk gS fd ge fnu osQ le;
panzek ,oa bu lHkh NksVh pedhyh oLrqvksa dks D;ksa ugha ns[k ikrs gSa\ ,slk
blfy, gS] D;ksafd lw;Z osQ vR;fèkd rs”k izdk'k osQ dkj.k jkr osQ le;
pedus okyh oLrqvksa dks ge fnu esa ugha ns[k ikrs gSaA
Lkw;Z] panzek rFkk os lHkh oLrq,¡ tks jkr osQ le; vkleku esas
pedrh gSa] [kxksyh; fiaM dgykrh gSaA
oqQN [kxksyh; fiaM cM+s vkdkj okys rFkk xeZ gksrs gSaA ;s xSlksa ls
cus gksrs gSaA buosQ ikl viuh Å"ek rFkk izdk'k gksrk gS] ftls os
cgqr cM+h ek=kk esa mRlftZr djrs gSaA bu [kxksyh; fiaMksa dks rkjk
dgrs gSaA lw;Z Hkh ,d rkjk gSA
1 1
vkvks oqQN djosQ lh[ksa
vkidks vko';drk gksxh%
,d VWkpZ] ,d lknk dkx”k]
isafly rFkk ,d lqbZA
pj.k % 1- dkx”k osQ eè; esa VWkpZ dks
bl izdkj j[ksa fd mldk dk¡p
dkx”k ls lVk jgsA
2- vc VWkpZ osQ dk¡p osQ pkjksa vksj
,d o`Ùk [khapsaA
3- dkx”k ij o`Ùk osQ {ks=k esa lqbZ ls
NksVs&NksVs Nsn djasA
4- vc dkx”k osQ fNfnzr o`Ùkh;
Hkkx dks dk¡p ij lkeus dh rjI
+
kQ
j[ksa rFkk VkWpZ osQ pkjksa vksj dkx”k
dks yisVdj jcjcSaM yxk nasA
5- è;ku j[kas fd VWkpZ dh fLop
dkx”k osQ ckgj jgsA
6- v¡èksjs dejs esa] ,d lknh nhokj
dh vksj eq¡g djosQ bl VkWpZ dks
ysdj oqQN nwjh ij [kM+s gks tk,¡A
nwljh lHkh cfÙk;ksa dks cq>k nsaA
vc VWkpZ dh jks'kuh dks nhokj ij
MkyasA vki nhokj ij izdk'k osQ
vusd NksVs fcanqvksa dks ns[kasxs]
fcyoqQy oSls gh] tSls jkr osQ
le; vkleku esa rkjs pedrs gSaA
7- vc dejs dh lHkh cfÙk;ksa dks
tyk nasA izdk'k osQ lHkh fcanq
yxHkx vn`'; gks tk,¡xsA
8- vki bldh rqyuk ml voLFkk
ls dj ldrs gSa] tc jkf=k osQ
le; vkleku esa pedus okys
rkjs lw;ksZn; osQ ckn vn`'; gks
tkrs gSaA
cq/
'kfu
c`gLifr
usIP;wu
eaxy
i`Foh
'kqØ
;wjsul
IywVks
2
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
fp=k  1.1 : lIr½f"k ,oa èkzqo rkjk
jkr osQ le; pedrs gq, vufxur rkjs lw;Z
osQ leku gh gSaA ysfdu gels cgqr vfèkd nwj
gksus osQ dkj.k ge yksx mudh Å"ek ;k izdk'k
dks eglwl ugha djrs gSa rFkk os vR;ar NksVs
fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSaA
vkius vo'; è;ku fn;k gksxk fd oqQN nwjh
ls ns[kus ij lHkh oLrq,¡ NksVh fn[kkbZ iM+rh gSaA
vR;fèkd Å¡pkbZ ij mM+ jgk gokbZ tgkt fdruk
NksVk fn[kkbZ nsrk gS!
jkf=k esa vkleku dh vksj ns[krs le; vki
rkjksa osQ fofHkUu lewgksa }kjk cukbZ xbZ fofoèk
vko`Qfr;ksa dks ns[k ldrs gSaA ;s u{k=keaMy dgykrs
gSaA vlkZ estj ;k fcx ch;j blh izdkj dk ,d
u{k=keaMy gSA cgqr vklkuh ls igpku esa vkus
okyk u{k=keaMy gS] LekWy ch;j ;k lIr½f"k
(lIr&lkr] ½f"k&lar) A ;g lkr rkjksa dk lewg gS]
tks fd ,d cM+s u{k=keaMy vlkZ estj dk Hkkx gS
(fp=k 1-1)A vius ifjokj ;k iM+ksl esa fdlh cM+s
O;fDr ls dfg, fd og vkidks vkleku esa vkSj
vfèkd rkjkas] xzgksa rFkk u{k=keaMyksa dks fn[kk,¡A
izkphu le; esa] yksx jkf=k esa fn'kk dk fuèkkZj.k rkjksa dh lgk;rk
ls djrs FksA mÙkjh rkjk mÙkj fn'kk dks crkrk gSA bls èkzqo rkjk Hkh
dgk tkrk gSA ;g vkleku esa ges'kk ,d gh LFkku ij jgrk gSA ge
lIr½f"k dh lgk;rk ls èkzqo rkjs dh fLFkfr dks tku ldrs gSaA fp=k
1-1 esa vki ns[ksaxs fd ;fn lIr½f"k eaMy osQ laosQrd rkjksa dks
vkil esa feykrs gq, ,d dkYifud js[kk [khaph tk, ,oa mls vkxs
dh vksj c<+k;k tk, rks ;g èkzqo rkjs dh vksj bafxr djsxhA
oqQN [kxksyh; fiaMksa esa viuk izdk'k ,oa Å"ek ugha gksrh gSA os
rkjksa osQ izdk'k ls izdkf'kr gksrs gSaA ,sls fiaM xzg dgykrs gSaA xzg
ftls vaxzsth esa IysusV (Planet) dgrs gSa xzhd Hkk"kk osQ IysusVkb
(Planetai) 'kCn ls cuk gS ftldk vFkZ gksrk gS ifjHkzed vFkkZr~
pkjksa vksj ?kweus okysA i`Foh] ftl ij ge jgrs gSa] ,d xzg gSA ;g
viuk laiw.kZ izdk'k ,oa Å"ek lw;Z ls izkIr djrh gS] tks i`Foh osQ
lcls u”knhd dk rkjk gSA i`Foh dks cgqr vfèkd nwjh ls] tSls panzek
ls ns[kus ij] ;g panzek dh rjg pedrh gqbZ izrhr gksxhA
oqQN jkspd rF;
c`gLifr] 'kfu rFkk ;wjsul
osQ pkjksa vksj NYys gSaA ;s
NYys fofHkUu inkFkks± osQ
vla[; NksVs&NksVs fiaMksa ls cuh ifêð;k¡
gSaA i`Foh ls bu NYyksa dks 'kfDr'kkyh
nwjchu dh lgk;rk ls ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA
Page 3


lkSjeaMy esa i`Foh
Lkw;kZLr osQ ckn vkdk'k dks ns[kuk fdruk vPNk yxrk gSA vkleku
esa igys ,d ;k nks pedrs fcanq gh fn[krs gSa] ysfdu ckn esa budh
la[;k c<+rh tkrh gSA vki mudh x.kuk ugha dj ldrsA laiw.kZ
vkdk'k NksVh&NksVh pednkj oLrqvksa ls Hkj tkrk gS] ftuesa ls oqQN
pedhys gksrs gSa ,oa oqQN èkq¡èkysA ,slk izrhr gksrk gS] ekuks vkdk'k
esa ghjs tM+s gksaA buesa ls oqQN fVefVekrs izrhr gksrs gSaA ysfdu vxj
vki mudks è;ku ls ns[ksaxs rks vki ik,¡xs fd buesa ls oqQN dh
fVefVekgV vU; ls vyx gSA ;s fcuk fdlh fVefVekgV osQ panzek
osQ leku pedrs gSaA
bu pedhyh oLrqvksa osQ lkFk vki yxHkx izfrfnu panzek dks
Hkh ns[krs gSaA ;g vyx&vyx le; ij vyx vkdkj rFkk vyx
fLFkfr;ksa esa fn[kkbZ IkM+rk gSA vki iw.kZ panz dks yxHkx ,d eghus esa
,d ckj ns[k ldrs gSaA ;g iw.kZ panzek okyh jkr ;k iwf.kZek gksrh gSA
ianzg fnu osQ ckn vki bls ugha ns[k ldrsA ;g u;s panzek dh jkf=k
;k vekoL;k gksrh gSA ,slh jkr esa vxj vkleku lkI
+
kQ gS rks vki
vkleku dk voyksdu vPNh rjg ls dj ldrs gSaA
D;k vkidks bl ckr ij vk'p;Z ugha gksrk gS fd ge fnu osQ le;
panzek ,oa bu lHkh NksVh pedhyh oLrqvksa dks D;ksa ugha ns[k ikrs gSa\ ,slk
blfy, gS] D;ksafd lw;Z osQ vR;fèkd rs”k izdk'k osQ dkj.k jkr osQ le;
pedus okyh oLrqvksa dks ge fnu esa ugha ns[k ikrs gSaA
Lkw;Z] panzek rFkk os lHkh oLrq,¡ tks jkr osQ le; vkleku esas
pedrh gSa] [kxksyh; fiaM dgykrh gSaA
oqQN [kxksyh; fiaM cM+s vkdkj okys rFkk xeZ gksrs gSaA ;s xSlksa ls
cus gksrs gSaA buosQ ikl viuh Å"ek rFkk izdk'k gksrk gS] ftls os
cgqr cM+h ek=kk esa mRlftZr djrs gSaA bu [kxksyh; fiaMksa dks rkjk
dgrs gSaA lw;Z Hkh ,d rkjk gSA
1 1
vkvks oqQN djosQ lh[ksa
vkidks vko';drk gksxh%
,d VWkpZ] ,d lknk dkx”k]
isafly rFkk ,d lqbZA
pj.k % 1- dkx”k osQ eè; esa VWkpZ dks
bl izdkj j[ksa fd mldk dk¡p
dkx”k ls lVk jgsA
2- vc VWkpZ osQ dk¡p osQ pkjksa vksj
,d o`Ùk [khapsaA
3- dkx”k ij o`Ùk osQ {ks=k esa lqbZ ls
NksVs&NksVs Nsn djasA
4- vc dkx”k osQ fNfnzr o`Ùkh;
Hkkx dks dk¡p ij lkeus dh rjI
+
kQ
j[ksa rFkk VkWpZ osQ pkjksa vksj dkx”k
dks yisVdj jcjcSaM yxk nasA
5- è;ku j[kas fd VWkpZ dh fLop
dkx”k osQ ckgj jgsA
6- v¡èksjs dejs esa] ,d lknh nhokj
dh vksj eq¡g djosQ bl VkWpZ dks
ysdj oqQN nwjh ij [kM+s gks tk,¡A
nwljh lHkh cfÙk;ksa dks cq>k nsaA
vc VWkpZ dh jks'kuh dks nhokj ij
MkyasA vki nhokj ij izdk'k osQ
vusd NksVs fcanqvksa dks ns[kasxs]
fcyoqQy oSls gh] tSls jkr osQ
le; vkleku esa rkjs pedrs gSaA
7- vc dejs dh lHkh cfÙk;ksa dks
tyk nasA izdk'k osQ lHkh fcanq
yxHkx vn`'; gks tk,¡xsA
8- vki bldh rqyuk ml voLFkk
ls dj ldrs gSa] tc jkf=k osQ
le; vkleku esa pedus okys
rkjs lw;ksZn; osQ ckn vn`'; gks
tkrs gSaA
cq/
'kfu
c`gLifr
usIP;wu
eaxy
i`Foh
'kqØ
;wjsul
IywVks
2
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
fp=k  1.1 : lIr½f"k ,oa èkzqo rkjk
jkr osQ le; pedrs gq, vufxur rkjs lw;Z
osQ leku gh gSaA ysfdu gels cgqr vfèkd nwj
gksus osQ dkj.k ge yksx mudh Å"ek ;k izdk'k
dks eglwl ugha djrs gSa rFkk os vR;ar NksVs
fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSaA
vkius vo'; è;ku fn;k gksxk fd oqQN nwjh
ls ns[kus ij lHkh oLrq,¡ NksVh fn[kkbZ iM+rh gSaA
vR;fèkd Å¡pkbZ ij mM+ jgk gokbZ tgkt fdruk
NksVk fn[kkbZ nsrk gS!
jkf=k esa vkleku dh vksj ns[krs le; vki
rkjksa osQ fofHkUu lewgksa }kjk cukbZ xbZ fofoèk
vko`Qfr;ksa dks ns[k ldrs gSaA ;s u{k=keaMy dgykrs
gSaA vlkZ estj ;k fcx ch;j blh izdkj dk ,d
u{k=keaMy gSA cgqr vklkuh ls igpku esa vkus
okyk u{k=keaMy gS] LekWy ch;j ;k lIr½f"k
(lIr&lkr] ½f"k&lar) A ;g lkr rkjksa dk lewg gS]
tks fd ,d cM+s u{k=keaMy vlkZ estj dk Hkkx gS
(fp=k 1-1)A vius ifjokj ;k iM+ksl esa fdlh cM+s
O;fDr ls dfg, fd og vkidks vkleku esa vkSj
vfèkd rkjkas] xzgksa rFkk u{k=keaMyksa dks fn[kk,¡A
izkphu le; esa] yksx jkf=k esa fn'kk dk fuèkkZj.k rkjksa dh lgk;rk
ls djrs FksA mÙkjh rkjk mÙkj fn'kk dks crkrk gSA bls èkzqo rkjk Hkh
dgk tkrk gSA ;g vkleku esa ges'kk ,d gh LFkku ij jgrk gSA ge
lIr½f"k dh lgk;rk ls èkzqo rkjs dh fLFkfr dks tku ldrs gSaA fp=k
1-1 esa vki ns[ksaxs fd ;fn lIr½f"k eaMy osQ laosQrd rkjksa dks
vkil esa feykrs gq, ,d dkYifud js[kk [khaph tk, ,oa mls vkxs
dh vksj c<+k;k tk, rks ;g èkzqo rkjs dh vksj bafxr djsxhA
oqQN [kxksyh; fiaMksa esa viuk izdk'k ,oa Å"ek ugha gksrh gSA os
rkjksa osQ izdk'k ls izdkf'kr gksrs gSaA ,sls fiaM xzg dgykrs gSaA xzg
ftls vaxzsth esa IysusV (Planet) dgrs gSa xzhd Hkk"kk osQ IysusVkb
(Planetai) 'kCn ls cuk gS ftldk vFkZ gksrk gS ifjHkzed vFkkZr~
pkjksa vksj ?kweus okysA i`Foh] ftl ij ge jgrs gSa] ,d xzg gSA ;g
viuk laiw.kZ izdk'k ,oa Å"ek lw;Z ls izkIr djrh gS] tks i`Foh osQ
lcls u”knhd dk rkjk gSA i`Foh dks cgqr vfèkd nwjh ls] tSls panzek
ls ns[kus ij] ;g panzek dh rjg pedrh gqbZ izrhr gksxhA
oqQN jkspd rF;
c`gLifr] 'kfu rFkk ;wjsul
osQ pkjksa vksj NYys gSaA ;s
NYys fofHkUu inkFkks± osQ
vla[; NksVs&NksVs fiaMksa ls cuh ifêð;k¡
gSaA i`Foh ls bu NYyksa dks 'kfDr'kkyh
nwjchu dh lgk;rk ls ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA
3
lkSjeaMy esa i`Foh
1. cqèk - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 88 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 59 fnu
2. 'kqØ - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 255 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu & 243 fnu
3. i`Foh - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 365 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 1 fnu
panzek dh la[;k - 1
4. eaxy - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 687 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 1 fnu
panzek dh la[;k - 02
5. c`gLifr - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 11 lky] 11
eghus yxHkx 12 lkyA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 9
?kaVs] 56 feuV] panzek dh la[;k - 16
6. 'kfu - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 29 lky, 5
eghusA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 10 ?kaVs 40 feuV,
panzek dh la[;k & 30 ls vf/d
7. ;wjsul - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 84
lkyA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 17 ?kaVs] 14
feuV, panzek dh la[;k  - yxHkx 17
8. usIP;wu - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 164
lkyA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 16 ?kaVs] 7
feuV] panzek dh la[;k - 8
vkarfjd xzg - lw;Z osQ cgqr utnhd gSaA ;s pêðkuksa ls cus gSaA cká xzg - lw;Z ls cgqr nwj gSa rFkk cgqr cM+s vkdkj osQ gSaA ;s xSl vkSj rjy inkFkks± ls cus gSaA
fp=k  1.2 : lkSje.My
Page 4


lkSjeaMy esa i`Foh
Lkw;kZLr osQ ckn vkdk'k dks ns[kuk fdruk vPNk yxrk gSA vkleku
esa igys ,d ;k nks pedrs fcanq gh fn[krs gSa] ysfdu ckn esa budh
la[;k c<+rh tkrh gSA vki mudh x.kuk ugha dj ldrsA laiw.kZ
vkdk'k NksVh&NksVh pednkj oLrqvksa ls Hkj tkrk gS] ftuesa ls oqQN
pedhys gksrs gSa ,oa oqQN èkq¡èkysA ,slk izrhr gksrk gS] ekuks vkdk'k
esa ghjs tM+s gksaA buesa ls oqQN fVefVekrs izrhr gksrs gSaA ysfdu vxj
vki mudks è;ku ls ns[ksaxs rks vki ik,¡xs fd buesa ls oqQN dh
fVefVekgV vU; ls vyx gSA ;s fcuk fdlh fVefVekgV osQ panzek
osQ leku pedrs gSaA
bu pedhyh oLrqvksa osQ lkFk vki yxHkx izfrfnu panzek dks
Hkh ns[krs gSaA ;g vyx&vyx le; ij vyx vkdkj rFkk vyx
fLFkfr;ksa esa fn[kkbZ IkM+rk gSA vki iw.kZ panz dks yxHkx ,d eghus esa
,d ckj ns[k ldrs gSaA ;g iw.kZ panzek okyh jkr ;k iwf.kZek gksrh gSA
ianzg fnu osQ ckn vki bls ugha ns[k ldrsA ;g u;s panzek dh jkf=k
;k vekoL;k gksrh gSA ,slh jkr esa vxj vkleku lkI
+
kQ gS rks vki
vkleku dk voyksdu vPNh rjg ls dj ldrs gSaA
D;k vkidks bl ckr ij vk'p;Z ugha gksrk gS fd ge fnu osQ le;
panzek ,oa bu lHkh NksVh pedhyh oLrqvksa dks D;ksa ugha ns[k ikrs gSa\ ,slk
blfy, gS] D;ksafd lw;Z osQ vR;fèkd rs”k izdk'k osQ dkj.k jkr osQ le;
pedus okyh oLrqvksa dks ge fnu esa ugha ns[k ikrs gSaA
Lkw;Z] panzek rFkk os lHkh oLrq,¡ tks jkr osQ le; vkleku esas
pedrh gSa] [kxksyh; fiaM dgykrh gSaA
oqQN [kxksyh; fiaM cM+s vkdkj okys rFkk xeZ gksrs gSaA ;s xSlksa ls
cus gksrs gSaA buosQ ikl viuh Å"ek rFkk izdk'k gksrk gS] ftls os
cgqr cM+h ek=kk esa mRlftZr djrs gSaA bu [kxksyh; fiaMksa dks rkjk
dgrs gSaA lw;Z Hkh ,d rkjk gSA
1 1
vkvks oqQN djosQ lh[ksa
vkidks vko';drk gksxh%
,d VWkpZ] ,d lknk dkx”k]
isafly rFkk ,d lqbZA
pj.k % 1- dkx”k osQ eè; esa VWkpZ dks
bl izdkj j[ksa fd mldk dk¡p
dkx”k ls lVk jgsA
2- vc VWkpZ osQ dk¡p osQ pkjksa vksj
,d o`Ùk [khapsaA
3- dkx”k ij o`Ùk osQ {ks=k esa lqbZ ls
NksVs&NksVs Nsn djasA
4- vc dkx”k osQ fNfnzr o`Ùkh;
Hkkx dks dk¡p ij lkeus dh rjI
+
kQ
j[ksa rFkk VkWpZ osQ pkjksa vksj dkx”k
dks yisVdj jcjcSaM yxk nasA
5- è;ku j[kas fd VWkpZ dh fLop
dkx”k osQ ckgj jgsA
6- v¡èksjs dejs esa] ,d lknh nhokj
dh vksj eq¡g djosQ bl VkWpZ dks
ysdj oqQN nwjh ij [kM+s gks tk,¡A
nwljh lHkh cfÙk;ksa dks cq>k nsaA
vc VWkpZ dh jks'kuh dks nhokj ij
MkyasA vki nhokj ij izdk'k osQ
vusd NksVs fcanqvksa dks ns[kasxs]
fcyoqQy oSls gh] tSls jkr osQ
le; vkleku esa rkjs pedrs gSaA
7- vc dejs dh lHkh cfÙk;ksa dks
tyk nasA izdk'k osQ lHkh fcanq
yxHkx vn`'; gks tk,¡xsA
8- vki bldh rqyuk ml voLFkk
ls dj ldrs gSa] tc jkf=k osQ
le; vkleku esa pedus okys
rkjs lw;ksZn; osQ ckn vn`'; gks
tkrs gSaA
cq/
'kfu
c`gLifr
usIP;wu
eaxy
i`Foh
'kqØ
;wjsul
IywVks
2
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
fp=k  1.1 : lIr½f"k ,oa èkzqo rkjk
jkr osQ le; pedrs gq, vufxur rkjs lw;Z
osQ leku gh gSaA ysfdu gels cgqr vfèkd nwj
gksus osQ dkj.k ge yksx mudh Å"ek ;k izdk'k
dks eglwl ugha djrs gSa rFkk os vR;ar NksVs
fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSaA
vkius vo'; è;ku fn;k gksxk fd oqQN nwjh
ls ns[kus ij lHkh oLrq,¡ NksVh fn[kkbZ iM+rh gSaA
vR;fèkd Å¡pkbZ ij mM+ jgk gokbZ tgkt fdruk
NksVk fn[kkbZ nsrk gS!
jkf=k esa vkleku dh vksj ns[krs le; vki
rkjksa osQ fofHkUu lewgksa }kjk cukbZ xbZ fofoèk
vko`Qfr;ksa dks ns[k ldrs gSaA ;s u{k=keaMy dgykrs
gSaA vlkZ estj ;k fcx ch;j blh izdkj dk ,d
u{k=keaMy gSA cgqr vklkuh ls igpku esa vkus
okyk u{k=keaMy gS] LekWy ch;j ;k lIr½f"k
(lIr&lkr] ½f"k&lar) A ;g lkr rkjksa dk lewg gS]
tks fd ,d cM+s u{k=keaMy vlkZ estj dk Hkkx gS
(fp=k 1-1)A vius ifjokj ;k iM+ksl esa fdlh cM+s
O;fDr ls dfg, fd og vkidks vkleku esa vkSj
vfèkd rkjkas] xzgksa rFkk u{k=keaMyksa dks fn[kk,¡A
izkphu le; esa] yksx jkf=k esa fn'kk dk fuèkkZj.k rkjksa dh lgk;rk
ls djrs FksA mÙkjh rkjk mÙkj fn'kk dks crkrk gSA bls èkzqo rkjk Hkh
dgk tkrk gSA ;g vkleku esa ges'kk ,d gh LFkku ij jgrk gSA ge
lIr½f"k dh lgk;rk ls èkzqo rkjs dh fLFkfr dks tku ldrs gSaA fp=k
1-1 esa vki ns[ksaxs fd ;fn lIr½f"k eaMy osQ laosQrd rkjksa dks
vkil esa feykrs gq, ,d dkYifud js[kk [khaph tk, ,oa mls vkxs
dh vksj c<+k;k tk, rks ;g èkzqo rkjs dh vksj bafxr djsxhA
oqQN [kxksyh; fiaMksa esa viuk izdk'k ,oa Å"ek ugha gksrh gSA os
rkjksa osQ izdk'k ls izdkf'kr gksrs gSaA ,sls fiaM xzg dgykrs gSaA xzg
ftls vaxzsth esa IysusV (Planet) dgrs gSa xzhd Hkk"kk osQ IysusVkb
(Planetai) 'kCn ls cuk gS ftldk vFkZ gksrk gS ifjHkzed vFkkZr~
pkjksa vksj ?kweus okysA i`Foh] ftl ij ge jgrs gSa] ,d xzg gSA ;g
viuk laiw.kZ izdk'k ,oa Å"ek lw;Z ls izkIr djrh gS] tks i`Foh osQ
lcls u”knhd dk rkjk gSA i`Foh dks cgqr vfèkd nwjh ls] tSls panzek
ls ns[kus ij] ;g panzek dh rjg pedrh gqbZ izrhr gksxhA
oqQN jkspd rF;
c`gLifr] 'kfu rFkk ;wjsul
osQ pkjksa vksj NYys gSaA ;s
NYys fofHkUu inkFkks± osQ
vla[; NksVs&NksVs fiaMksa ls cuh ifêð;k¡
gSaA i`Foh ls bu NYyksa dks 'kfDr'kkyh
nwjchu dh lgk;rk ls ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA
3
lkSjeaMy esa i`Foh
1. cqèk - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 88 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 59 fnu
2. 'kqØ - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 255 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu & 243 fnu
3. i`Foh - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 365 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 1 fnu
panzek dh la[;k - 1
4. eaxy - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 687 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 1 fnu
panzek dh la[;k - 02
5. c`gLifr - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 11 lky] 11
eghus yxHkx 12 lkyA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 9
?kaVs] 56 feuV] panzek dh la[;k - 16
6. 'kfu - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 29 lky, 5
eghusA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 10 ?kaVs 40 feuV,
panzek dh la[;k & 30 ls vf/d
7. ;wjsul - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 84
lkyA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 17 ?kaVs] 14
feuV, panzek dh la[;k  - yxHkx 17
8. usIP;wu - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 164
lkyA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 16 ?kaVs] 7
feuV] panzek dh la[;k - 8
vkarfjd xzg - lw;Z osQ cgqr utnhd gSaA ;s pêðkuksa ls cus gSaA cká xzg - lw;Z ls cgqr nwj gSa rFkk cgqr cM+s vkdkj osQ gSaA ;s xSl vkSj rjy inkFkks± ls cus gSaA
fp=k  1.2 : lkSje.My
4
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
vkleku esa fn[kus okyk panzek ,d mixzg gSA ;g gekjh i`Foh
dk lgpj gS rFkk blosQ pkjksa vksj pDdj yxkrk gSA gekjh i`Foh osQ
leku] vkB vU; xzg gSa tks lw;Z ls izdk'k ,oa Å"ek izkIr djrs gSaA
muesa ls oqQN osQ ikl vius panzek Hkh gSaA
lkSjeaMy
lw;Z] ukS xzg] mixzg rFkk oqQN vU; [kxksyh; fiaM] tSls {kqnz xzg ,oa
mYdkfiaM feydj lkSjeaMy dk fuekZ.k djrs gSaA mls ge lkSj
ifjokj dk uke nsrs gSa] ftldk eqf[k;k lw;Z gSA
lw;Z
lw;Z lkSjeaMy osQ osaQnz esa fLFkr gSA ;g cgqr cM+k gS ,oa vR;fèkd
xeZ xSlksa ls cuk gSA bldk f[kapko cy blls lkSjeaMy dks
ck¡èks j[krk gSA lw;Z] lkSjeaMy osQ fy, izdk'k ,oa Å"ek dk ,dek=k
lzksr gSA ysfdu ge bldh vR;fèkd rs”k Å"ek dks eglwl ugha
djrs gSa] D;ksafd lcls u”knhd dk rkjk gksus osQ ckotwn ;g gels
cgqr nwj gSA lw;Z i`Foh ls yxHkx 15 djksM+ fdyksehVj nwj gSA
xzg
gekjs lkSjeaMy esa vkB xzg gSaA lw;Z ls nwjh osQ vuqlkj] os gSa% cqèk]
'kqØ] i`Foh] eaxy] c`gLifr] 'kfu] ;wjsul rFkk usIP;wuA
lw;Z ls mudh nwjh osQ vuqlkj vaxzsth esa xzgksa osQ uke ;kn j[kus dk vklku
rjhdk gS%
MY VERY EFFICIENT MOTHER JUST SERVED US NUTS.
lkSjeaMy osQ lHkh vkB xzg ,d fuf'pr iFk ij lw;Z dk pDdj
yxkrs gSaA ;s jkLrs nh?kZo`Ùkkdkj esa iSQys gq, gSaA ;s d{kk dgykrs gSaA
cqèk lw;Z osQ lcls u”knhd gSA viuh d{kk esa lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d
pDdj yxkus esa bls osQoy 88 fnu yxrs gSaA 'kqØ dks i`Foh dk
tqM+ok¡ xzg ekuk tkrk gS] D;ksafd bldk vkdkj ,oa vko`Qfr yxHkx
i`Foh osQ gh leku gSA
vHkh rd IywVks Hkh ,d xzg ekuk tkrk FkkA ijUrq varjkZ"Vªh;
[kxksyh; laxBu us viuh cSBd (vxLr 2006) esa ;g fu.kZ; fy;k
fd oqQN le; igys [kksts x, vU; [kxksyh; fi.M (2003 UB
313
]
fljl) rFkk IywVks ^ckSus xzg* dgs tk ldrs gSaA
D;k vki tkurs gSa\
IkkSjkf.kd jkseu dgkfu;ksa
esa ^lksy* lw;Z nsork dks
dgk tkrk gSA ^lkSj* 'kCn
dk vFkZ gS] lw;Z ls lacafèkrA blhfy,
lw;Z osQ ifjokj dks ^lkSjeaMy* (Solar
System) dgk tkrk gSA lkSj 'kCn dk
mi;ksx djrs gq, vkSj vfèkd 'kCnksa dks
fy[ksaA
D;k vki tkurs gSa\
jkr esa vkleku dks
ns[kdj euq"; ges'kk ls
eksfgr gqvk gSA [kxksyh; fiaMksa ,oa
mudh xfr osQ lacaèk esa vè;;u
djus okyksa dks [kxksy'kkL=kh dgrs
gSaA vk;ZHkêð izkphu Hkkjr osQ izfl¼
[kxksy'kkL=kh FksA vkt fo'o osQ lHkh
Hkkxksa esa [kxksyfon czãkaM osQ jgL;ksa
dks [kkstus esa yxs gSaA
'kCn dh mRifÙk
,sls cgqr ls 'kCn ftudk
mi;ksx ge ,d Hkk"kk esa
djrs gSa] vDlj os nwljh
Hkk"kkvksa ls fy, x, 'kCn gks ldrs gSaA
mnkgj.k osQ fy,] T;ksxzkI
+
kQh ,d vaxzs”kh
'kCn gSA ;g xzhd Hkk"kk ls fy;k x;k
'kCn gS] ftldk vFkZ gS] i`Foh dk
fooj.kA ;g nks xzhd 'kCnksa ls feydj
cuk gS] ftuesa ^ge* 'kCn dk vFkZ gS
i`Foh ,oa xzkfiQ;k graphia dk vFkZ
gS] fy[kukA vkb, i`Foh osQ lacaèk esa
vkSj vfèkd tkusaA
Page 5


lkSjeaMy esa i`Foh
Lkw;kZLr osQ ckn vkdk'k dks ns[kuk fdruk vPNk yxrk gSA vkleku
esa igys ,d ;k nks pedrs fcanq gh fn[krs gSa] ysfdu ckn esa budh
la[;k c<+rh tkrh gSA vki mudh x.kuk ugha dj ldrsA laiw.kZ
vkdk'k NksVh&NksVh pednkj oLrqvksa ls Hkj tkrk gS] ftuesa ls oqQN
pedhys gksrs gSa ,oa oqQN èkq¡èkysA ,slk izrhr gksrk gS] ekuks vkdk'k
esa ghjs tM+s gksaA buesa ls oqQN fVefVekrs izrhr gksrs gSaA ysfdu vxj
vki mudks è;ku ls ns[ksaxs rks vki ik,¡xs fd buesa ls oqQN dh
fVefVekgV vU; ls vyx gSA ;s fcuk fdlh fVefVekgV osQ panzek
osQ leku pedrs gSaA
bu pedhyh oLrqvksa osQ lkFk vki yxHkx izfrfnu panzek dks
Hkh ns[krs gSaA ;g vyx&vyx le; ij vyx vkdkj rFkk vyx
fLFkfr;ksa esa fn[kkbZ IkM+rk gSA vki iw.kZ panz dks yxHkx ,d eghus esa
,d ckj ns[k ldrs gSaA ;g iw.kZ panzek okyh jkr ;k iwf.kZek gksrh gSA
ianzg fnu osQ ckn vki bls ugha ns[k ldrsA ;g u;s panzek dh jkf=k
;k vekoL;k gksrh gSA ,slh jkr esa vxj vkleku lkI
+
kQ gS rks vki
vkleku dk voyksdu vPNh rjg ls dj ldrs gSaA
D;k vkidks bl ckr ij vk'p;Z ugha gksrk gS fd ge fnu osQ le;
panzek ,oa bu lHkh NksVh pedhyh oLrqvksa dks D;ksa ugha ns[k ikrs gSa\ ,slk
blfy, gS] D;ksafd lw;Z osQ vR;fèkd rs”k izdk'k osQ dkj.k jkr osQ le;
pedus okyh oLrqvksa dks ge fnu esa ugha ns[k ikrs gSaA
Lkw;Z] panzek rFkk os lHkh oLrq,¡ tks jkr osQ le; vkleku esas
pedrh gSa] [kxksyh; fiaM dgykrh gSaA
oqQN [kxksyh; fiaM cM+s vkdkj okys rFkk xeZ gksrs gSaA ;s xSlksa ls
cus gksrs gSaA buosQ ikl viuh Å"ek rFkk izdk'k gksrk gS] ftls os
cgqr cM+h ek=kk esa mRlftZr djrs gSaA bu [kxksyh; fiaMksa dks rkjk
dgrs gSaA lw;Z Hkh ,d rkjk gSA
1 1
vkvks oqQN djosQ lh[ksa
vkidks vko';drk gksxh%
,d VWkpZ] ,d lknk dkx”k]
isafly rFkk ,d lqbZA
pj.k % 1- dkx”k osQ eè; esa VWkpZ dks
bl izdkj j[ksa fd mldk dk¡p
dkx”k ls lVk jgsA
2- vc VWkpZ osQ dk¡p osQ pkjksa vksj
,d o`Ùk [khapsaA
3- dkx”k ij o`Ùk osQ {ks=k esa lqbZ ls
NksVs&NksVs Nsn djasA
4- vc dkx”k osQ fNfnzr o`Ùkh;
Hkkx dks dk¡p ij lkeus dh rjI
+
kQ
j[ksa rFkk VkWpZ osQ pkjksa vksj dkx”k
dks yisVdj jcjcSaM yxk nasA
5- è;ku j[kas fd VWkpZ dh fLop
dkx”k osQ ckgj jgsA
6- v¡èksjs dejs esa] ,d lknh nhokj
dh vksj eq¡g djosQ bl VkWpZ dks
ysdj oqQN nwjh ij [kM+s gks tk,¡A
nwljh lHkh cfÙk;ksa dks cq>k nsaA
vc VWkpZ dh jks'kuh dks nhokj ij
MkyasA vki nhokj ij izdk'k osQ
vusd NksVs fcanqvksa dks ns[kasxs]
fcyoqQy oSls gh] tSls jkr osQ
le; vkleku esa rkjs pedrs gSaA
7- vc dejs dh lHkh cfÙk;ksa dks
tyk nasA izdk'k osQ lHkh fcanq
yxHkx vn`'; gks tk,¡xsA
8- vki bldh rqyuk ml voLFkk
ls dj ldrs gSa] tc jkf=k osQ
le; vkleku esa pedus okys
rkjs lw;ksZn; osQ ckn vn`'; gks
tkrs gSaA
cq/
'kfu
c`gLifr
usIP;wu
eaxy
i`Foh
'kqØ
;wjsul
IywVks
2
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
fp=k  1.1 : lIr½f"k ,oa èkzqo rkjk
jkr osQ le; pedrs gq, vufxur rkjs lw;Z
osQ leku gh gSaA ysfdu gels cgqr vfèkd nwj
gksus osQ dkj.k ge yksx mudh Å"ek ;k izdk'k
dks eglwl ugha djrs gSa rFkk os vR;ar NksVs
fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSaA
vkius vo'; è;ku fn;k gksxk fd oqQN nwjh
ls ns[kus ij lHkh oLrq,¡ NksVh fn[kkbZ iM+rh gSaA
vR;fèkd Å¡pkbZ ij mM+ jgk gokbZ tgkt fdruk
NksVk fn[kkbZ nsrk gS!
jkf=k esa vkleku dh vksj ns[krs le; vki
rkjksa osQ fofHkUu lewgksa }kjk cukbZ xbZ fofoèk
vko`Qfr;ksa dks ns[k ldrs gSaA ;s u{k=keaMy dgykrs
gSaA vlkZ estj ;k fcx ch;j blh izdkj dk ,d
u{k=keaMy gSA cgqr vklkuh ls igpku esa vkus
okyk u{k=keaMy gS] LekWy ch;j ;k lIr½f"k
(lIr&lkr] ½f"k&lar) A ;g lkr rkjksa dk lewg gS]
tks fd ,d cM+s u{k=keaMy vlkZ estj dk Hkkx gS
(fp=k 1-1)A vius ifjokj ;k iM+ksl esa fdlh cM+s
O;fDr ls dfg, fd og vkidks vkleku esa vkSj
vfèkd rkjkas] xzgksa rFkk u{k=keaMyksa dks fn[kk,¡A
izkphu le; esa] yksx jkf=k esa fn'kk dk fuèkkZj.k rkjksa dh lgk;rk
ls djrs FksA mÙkjh rkjk mÙkj fn'kk dks crkrk gSA bls èkzqo rkjk Hkh
dgk tkrk gSA ;g vkleku esa ges'kk ,d gh LFkku ij jgrk gSA ge
lIr½f"k dh lgk;rk ls èkzqo rkjs dh fLFkfr dks tku ldrs gSaA fp=k
1-1 esa vki ns[ksaxs fd ;fn lIr½f"k eaMy osQ laosQrd rkjksa dks
vkil esa feykrs gq, ,d dkYifud js[kk [khaph tk, ,oa mls vkxs
dh vksj c<+k;k tk, rks ;g èkzqo rkjs dh vksj bafxr djsxhA
oqQN [kxksyh; fiaMksa esa viuk izdk'k ,oa Å"ek ugha gksrh gSA os
rkjksa osQ izdk'k ls izdkf'kr gksrs gSaA ,sls fiaM xzg dgykrs gSaA xzg
ftls vaxzsth esa IysusV (Planet) dgrs gSa xzhd Hkk"kk osQ IysusVkb
(Planetai) 'kCn ls cuk gS ftldk vFkZ gksrk gS ifjHkzed vFkkZr~
pkjksa vksj ?kweus okysA i`Foh] ftl ij ge jgrs gSa] ,d xzg gSA ;g
viuk laiw.kZ izdk'k ,oa Å"ek lw;Z ls izkIr djrh gS] tks i`Foh osQ
lcls u”knhd dk rkjk gSA i`Foh dks cgqr vfèkd nwjh ls] tSls panzek
ls ns[kus ij] ;g panzek dh rjg pedrh gqbZ izrhr gksxhA
oqQN jkspd rF;
c`gLifr] 'kfu rFkk ;wjsul
osQ pkjksa vksj NYys gSaA ;s
NYys fofHkUu inkFkks± osQ
vla[; NksVs&NksVs fiaMksa ls cuh ifêð;k¡
gSaA i`Foh ls bu NYyksa dks 'kfDr'kkyh
nwjchu dh lgk;rk ls ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA
3
lkSjeaMy esa i`Foh
1. cqèk - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 88 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 59 fnu
2. 'kqØ - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 255 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu & 243 fnu
3. i`Foh - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 365 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 1 fnu
panzek dh la[;k - 1
4. eaxy - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 687 fnu
vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 1 fnu
panzek dh la[;k - 02
5. c`gLifr - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 11 lky] 11
eghus yxHkx 12 lkyA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 9
?kaVs] 56 feuV] panzek dh la[;k - 16
6. 'kfu - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 29 lky, 5
eghusA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 10 ?kaVs 40 feuV,
panzek dh la[;k & 30 ls vf/d
7. ;wjsul - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 84
lkyA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 17 ?kaVs] 14
feuV, panzek dh la[;k  - yxHkx 17
8. usIP;wu - lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d ifjØe.k - 164
lkyA vius v{k ij ?kw.kZu - 16 ?kaVs] 7
feuV] panzek dh la[;k - 8
vkarfjd xzg - lw;Z osQ cgqr utnhd gSaA ;s pêðkuksa ls cus gSaA cká xzg - lw;Z ls cgqr nwj gSa rFkk cgqr cM+s vkdkj osQ gSaA ;s xSl vkSj rjy inkFkks± ls cus gSaA
fp=k  1.2 : lkSje.My
4
i`Foh % gekjk vkokl
vkleku esa fn[kus okyk panzek ,d mixzg gSA ;g gekjh i`Foh
dk lgpj gS rFkk blosQ pkjksa vksj pDdj yxkrk gSA gekjh i`Foh osQ
leku] vkB vU; xzg gSa tks lw;Z ls izdk'k ,oa Å"ek izkIr djrs gSaA
muesa ls oqQN osQ ikl vius panzek Hkh gSaA
lkSjeaMy
lw;Z] ukS xzg] mixzg rFkk oqQN vU; [kxksyh; fiaM] tSls {kqnz xzg ,oa
mYdkfiaM feydj lkSjeaMy dk fuekZ.k djrs gSaA mls ge lkSj
ifjokj dk uke nsrs gSa] ftldk eqf[k;k lw;Z gSA
lw;Z
lw;Z lkSjeaMy osQ osaQnz esa fLFkr gSA ;g cgqr cM+k gS ,oa vR;fèkd
xeZ xSlksa ls cuk gSA bldk f[kapko cy blls lkSjeaMy dks
ck¡èks j[krk gSA lw;Z] lkSjeaMy osQ fy, izdk'k ,oa Å"ek dk ,dek=k
lzksr gSA ysfdu ge bldh vR;fèkd rs”k Å"ek dks eglwl ugha
djrs gSa] D;ksafd lcls u”knhd dk rkjk gksus osQ ckotwn ;g gels
cgqr nwj gSA lw;Z i`Foh ls yxHkx 15 djksM+ fdyksehVj nwj gSA
xzg
gekjs lkSjeaMy esa vkB xzg gSaA lw;Z ls nwjh osQ vuqlkj] os gSa% cqèk]
'kqØ] i`Foh] eaxy] c`gLifr] 'kfu] ;wjsul rFkk usIP;wuA
lw;Z ls mudh nwjh osQ vuqlkj vaxzsth esa xzgksa osQ uke ;kn j[kus dk vklku
rjhdk gS%
MY VERY EFFICIENT MOTHER JUST SERVED US NUTS.
lkSjeaMy osQ lHkh vkB xzg ,d fuf'pr iFk ij lw;Z dk pDdj
yxkrs gSaA ;s jkLrs nh?kZo`Ùkkdkj esa iSQys gq, gSaA ;s d{kk dgykrs gSaA
cqèk lw;Z osQ lcls u”knhd gSA viuh d{kk esa lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj ,d
pDdj yxkus esa bls osQoy 88 fnu yxrs gSaA 'kqØ dks i`Foh dk
tqM+ok¡ xzg ekuk tkrk gS] D;ksafd bldk vkdkj ,oa vko`Qfr yxHkx
i`Foh osQ gh leku gSA
vHkh rd IywVks Hkh ,d xzg ekuk tkrk FkkA ijUrq varjkZ"Vªh;
[kxksyh; laxBu us viuh cSBd (vxLr 2006) esa ;g fu.kZ; fy;k
fd oqQN le; igys [kksts x, vU; [kxksyh; fi.M (2003 UB
313
]
fljl) rFkk IywVks ^ckSus xzg* dgs tk ldrs gSaA
D;k vki tkurs gSa\
IkkSjkf.kd jkseu dgkfu;ksa
esa ^lksy* lw;Z nsork dks
dgk tkrk gSA ^lkSj* 'kCn
dk vFkZ gS] lw;Z ls lacafèkrA blhfy,
lw;Z osQ ifjokj dks ^lkSjeaMy* (Solar
System) dgk tkrk gSA lkSj 'kCn dk
mi;ksx djrs gq, vkSj vfèkd 'kCnksa dks
fy[ksaA
D;k vki tkurs gSa\
jkr esa vkleku dks
ns[kdj euq"; ges'kk ls
eksfgr gqvk gSA [kxksyh; fiaMksa ,oa
mudh xfr osQ lacaèk esa vè;;u
djus okyksa dks [kxksy'kkL=kh dgrs
gSaA vk;ZHkêð izkphu Hkkjr osQ izfl¼
[kxksy'kkL=kh FksA vkt fo'o osQ lHkh
Hkkxksa esa [kxksyfon czãkaM osQ jgL;ksa
dks [kkstus esa yxs gSaA
'kCn dh mRifÙk
,sls cgqr ls 'kCn ftudk
mi;ksx ge ,d Hkk"kk esa
djrs gSa] vDlj os nwljh
Hkk"kkvksa ls fy, x, 'kCn gks ldrs gSaA
mnkgj.k osQ fy,] T;ksxzkI
+
kQh ,d vaxzs”kh
'kCn gSA ;g xzhd Hkk"kk ls fy;k x;k
'kCn gS] ftldk vFkZ gS] i`Foh dk
fooj.kA ;g nks xzhd 'kCnksa ls feydj
cuk gS] ftuesa ^ge* 'kCn dk vFkZ gS
i`Foh ,oa xzkfiQ;k graphia dk vFkZ
gS] fy[kukA vkb, i`Foh osQ lacaèk esa
vkSj vfèkd tkusaA
5
lkSjeaMy esa i`Foh
fp=k 1.3 : varfj{k ls fy;k x;k panzek
dk fp=k
D;k vki tkurs gSa\
izdk'k dh xfr yxHkx
3]00]000 fdeh-@izfr
lsosaQM gSA bl xfr osQ
ckotwn lw;Z osQ izdk'k dks i`Foh rd
igq¡pus esa yxHkx 8 feuV dk le;
yxrk gSA
jkspd rF;
uhy vkeZLVªkax igys O;fDr
Fks] ftUgksauss 29 tqykbZ 1969
dks lcls igys panzek dh
lrg ij dne j[kkA ekywe djks
fd D;k dksbZ Hkkjrh; panzek ij x;k
gS\
mixzg ,d [kxksyh; fiaM gS] tks xzgksa
osQ pkjksa vksj mlh izdkj pDdj yxkrk
gS] ftl izdkj xzg lw;Z osQ pkjksa vksj
pDdj yxkrs gSaA
ekuo&fufeZr mixzg ,d o`Qf=ke fiaM
gSA ;g oSKkfudksa osQ }kjk cuk;k x;k
gS] ftldk mi;ksx czãkaM osQ ckjs esa
tkudkjh izkIr djus ,oa i`Foh ij
lapkj ekè;e osQ fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
bls jkWosQV osQ }kjk  varfj{k esa Hkstk
tkrk gS ,oa i`Foh dh d{kk esa LFkkfir
dj fn;k tkrk gSA
varfj{k esa mifLFkr oqQN Hkkjrh; mixzg
bulsV] vkbZ-vkj-,l-] ,MwlSV bR;kfn
gSaA
fp=k 1.4 : ekuo&fu£er mixzg
jkWosQV dk iz{ksi.k jkWosQV dk i`Foh ij fxjuk mixzg dk d{kk esa izos'k
i`Foh
lw;Z ls nwjh osQ fglkc ls i`Foh rhljk xzg gSA vkdkj esa] ;g ik¡pok¡
lcls cM+k xzg gSA ;g èkzqoksa osQ ikl FkksM+h piVh gSA ;gh dkj.k gS
fd blosQ vkdkj dks Hkw&vkHk dgk tkrk gSA Hkw&vkHk dk vFkZ gS]
i`Foh osQ leku vkdkjA
thou osQ fy, vuqowQy ifjfLFkfr;k¡ laHkor% osQoy i`Foh ij
gh ikbZ tkrh gSaA i`Foh u rks vfèkd xeZ gS vkSj u gh
vfèkd BaMhA ;gk¡ ikuh ,oa ok;q mifLFkr gS] tks gekjs thou osQ
fy, vko';d gSA ok;q esa thou osQ fy, vko';d xSlsa] tSls
vkWDlhtu ekStwn gSA bUgha dkj.kksa ls] i`Foh lkSjeaMy dk lcls
vn~Hkqr xzg gSA
varfj{k ls ns[kus ij i`Foh uhys jax dh fn[kkbZ iM+rh gS] D;ksafd
bldh nks&frgkbZ lrg ikuh ls <dh gqbZ gSA blfy, bls] uhyk xzg
dgk tkrk gSA
panzek
gekjh i`Foh osQ ikl osQoy ,d
mixzg gS] panzekA bldk O;kl
i`Foh osQ O;kl dk osQoy
,d&pkSFkkbZ gSA ;g bruk cM+k
blfy, izrhr gksrk gS] D;ksafd
;g gekjs xzg ls vU; [kxksyh;
fiaMksa dh vis{kk utnhd gSA
;g gels yxHkx 3]84]400 fdyksehVj nwj gSA vc vki i`Foh ls
lw;Z ,oa panzek dh nwfj;ksa dh rqyuk dj ldrs gSaA
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