NCERT Textbook - हज़ार वर्षों के दौरान हुए परिवर्तनों की पड़ताल Notes | EduRev

इतिहास (History) for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - हज़ार वर्षों के दौरान हुए परिवर्तनों की पड़ताल Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


1 ifjorZuksa dh iM+rky---
ekufp=k 1 vkSj 2 ij u”kj Mkfy,A ekufp=k 1 vjc HkwxksyosÙkk vy&bnzhlh
us 1154 esa cuk;k FkkA ;gk¡ tks uD'kk fn;k x;k gS og mlosQ }kjk cuk,
x, nqfu;k osQ cM+s ekufp=k dk ,d fgLlk gS vkSj Hkkjrh; miegk}hi
dks n'kkZrk gSA ekufp=k 2 ,d izQkalhlh ekufp=kdkj us 1720 esa cuk;k
FkkA nksuksa uD'ks ,d gh bykosQ osQ gSa exj muesa dkI
+
kQh varj gSaA
vy&bnzhlh osQ uD'ks esa nf{k.k Hkkjr ml txg gS tgk¡ ge vkt mÙkj
Hkkjr <w¡<saxsa vkSj Jhyadk dk }hi Åij dh rjI
+
kQ gSA txgksa osQ uke vjch
ekufp=kdkj
tks O;fDr ekufp=k@uD'ks
cukrk gSA
1
g”kkj o"kks± osQ nkSjku gq, ifjorZuksa dh
iM+rky
ekufp=k 1
ckjgoha lnh osQ
HkwxksyosÙkk vy&bæhlh dk
cuk;k gqvk nqfu;k osQ
uD'ks dk ,d fgLlk
ftlesa Hkkjrh; miegk}hi
fn[kk;k x;k gSA
Page 2


1 ifjorZuksa dh iM+rky---
ekufp=k 1 vkSj 2 ij u”kj Mkfy,A ekufp=k 1 vjc HkwxksyosÙkk vy&bnzhlh
us 1154 esa cuk;k FkkA ;gk¡ tks uD'kk fn;k x;k gS og mlosQ }kjk cuk,
x, nqfu;k osQ cM+s ekufp=k dk ,d fgLlk gS vkSj Hkkjrh; miegk}hi
dks n'kkZrk gSA ekufp=k 2 ,d izQkalhlh ekufp=kdkj us 1720 esa cuk;k
FkkA nksuksa uD'ks ,d gh bykosQ osQ gSa exj muesa dkI
+
kQh varj gSaA
vy&bnzhlh osQ uD'ks esa nf{k.k Hkkjr ml txg gS tgk¡ ge vkt mÙkj
Hkkjr <w¡<saxsa vkSj Jhyadk dk }hi Åij dh rjI
+
kQ gSA txgksa osQ uke vjch
ekufp=kdkj
tks O;fDr ekufp=k@uD'ks
cukrk gSA
1
g”kkj o"kks± osQ nkSjku gq, ifjorZuksa dh
iM+rky
ekufp=k 1
ckjgoha lnh osQ
HkwxksyosÙkk vy&bæhlh dk
cuk;k gqvk nqfu;k osQ
uD'ks dk ,d fgLlk
ftlesa Hkkjrh; miegk}hi
fn[kk;k x;k gSA
2 gekjs vrhr – 2
esa fn, x, gS vkSj muesa oqQN tkus&igpkus uke Hkh gSa tSls fd mÙkj izns'k
dk dUukStA ekufp=k 2 igys ekufp=k osQ cuus osQ yxHkx 600 o"kZ ckn
cuk;k x;kA bl dkykof/ esa miegk}hi osQ ckjs esa lwpuk,¡ dkI
+
kQh cny
xb± FkhaA ;g uD'kk gesa ”;knk ifjfpr yxsxkA mlesa fo'ks"kdj rVh;
bykdksa osQ ckjhd C;kSjs ns[kdj vk'p;Z gksrk gSA ;wjksi osQ ukfod rFkk
O;kikjh viuh leqnz ;k=kk osQ fy, bl uD'ks dk bLrseky fd;k djrs Fks
(ns[kas&vè;k; 6)A
ysfdu vc Hkhrjh bykdksa ij u”kj MkysaA D;k buesa Hkh mrus gh C;kSjs gSa
ftrus leqnz rV okys fgLls esa\ xaxk osQ ekxZ dks ns[kasA bls fdl rjg ls
n'kkZ;k x;k gS\ bl ekufp=k esa rVh; vkSj Hkhrjh bykoQksa osQ chp C;kSjksa
vkSj ckjhdh dk tks varj gS] vkiosQ [;ky esa mldk dkj.k D;k gS\
ekufp=k 2
vBkjgoha lnh osQ vkajHk
esa fXoykWe n fyLys osQ
,Vyl uwoks osQ vuqlkj
;g miegk}hi
?
Page 3


1 ifjorZuksa dh iM+rky---
ekufp=k 1 vkSj 2 ij u”kj Mkfy,A ekufp=k 1 vjc HkwxksyosÙkk vy&bnzhlh
us 1154 esa cuk;k FkkA ;gk¡ tks uD'kk fn;k x;k gS og mlosQ }kjk cuk,
x, nqfu;k osQ cM+s ekufp=k dk ,d fgLlk gS vkSj Hkkjrh; miegk}hi
dks n'kkZrk gSA ekufp=k 2 ,d izQkalhlh ekufp=kdkj us 1720 esa cuk;k
FkkA nksuksa uD'ks ,d gh bykosQ osQ gSa exj muesa dkI
+
kQh varj gSaA
vy&bnzhlh osQ uD'ks esa nf{k.k Hkkjr ml txg gS tgk¡ ge vkt mÙkj
Hkkjr <w¡<saxsa vkSj Jhyadk dk }hi Åij dh rjI
+
kQ gSA txgksa osQ uke vjch
ekufp=kdkj
tks O;fDr ekufp=k@uD'ks
cukrk gSA
1
g”kkj o"kks± osQ nkSjku gq, ifjorZuksa dh
iM+rky
ekufp=k 1
ckjgoha lnh osQ
HkwxksyosÙkk vy&bæhlh dk
cuk;k gqvk nqfu;k osQ
uD'ks dk ,d fgLlk
ftlesa Hkkjrh; miegk}hi
fn[kk;k x;k gSA
2 gekjs vrhr – 2
esa fn, x, gS vkSj muesa oqQN tkus&igpkus uke Hkh gSa tSls fd mÙkj izns'k
dk dUukStA ekufp=k 2 igys ekufp=k osQ cuus osQ yxHkx 600 o"kZ ckn
cuk;k x;kA bl dkykof/ esa miegk}hi osQ ckjs esa lwpuk,¡ dkI
+
kQh cny
xb± FkhaA ;g uD'kk gesa ”;knk ifjfpr yxsxkA mlesa fo'ks"kdj rVh;
bykdksa osQ ckjhd C;kSjs ns[kdj vk'p;Z gksrk gSA ;wjksi osQ ukfod rFkk
O;kikjh viuh leqnz ;k=kk osQ fy, bl uD'ks dk bLrseky fd;k djrs Fks
(ns[kas&vè;k; 6)A
ysfdu vc Hkhrjh bykdksa ij u”kj MkysaA D;k buesa Hkh mrus gh C;kSjs gSa
ftrus leqnz rV okys fgLls esa\ xaxk osQ ekxZ dks ns[kasA bls fdl rjg ls
n'kkZ;k x;k gS\ bl ekufp=k esa rVh; vkSj Hkhrjh bykoQksa osQ chp C;kSjksa
vkSj ckjhdh dk tks varj gS] vkiosQ [;ky esa mldk dkj.k D;k gS\
ekufp=k 2
vBkjgoha lnh osQ vkajHk
esa fXoykWe n fyLys osQ
,Vyl uwoks osQ vuqlkj
;g miegk}hi
?
3 ifjorZuksa dh iM+rky---
bruh gh egÙoiw.kZ ,d vkSj ckr ;g gS fd nwljs ;qx rd ekufp=k&vadu
dk foKku Hkh cgqr cny x;k FkkA bfrgkldkj tc chrs ;qxksa osQ nLrkos”kksa]
uD'kksa vkSj ys[kksa dk vè;;u djrs gSa rks muosQ fy, mu lwpukvksa osQ
lanHkks± dk] mudh fHkUu&fHkUu ,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe;ksa dk] è;ku j[kuk
”k:jh gksrk gSaA
ubZ vkSj iqjkuh 'kCnkoyh
vxj le; osQ lkFk&lkFk lwpukvksa osQ lanHkZ cnyrs gSa] rks Hkk"kk vkSj
vFkks± osQ lkFk D;k gksrk gS\ ,sfrgkfld vfHkys[k dbZ rjg dh
Hkk"kkvksa esa feyrs gSa vkSj ;s Hkk"kk,¡ Hkh le; osQ lkFk&lkFk cgqr
cnyh gSaA mnkgj.k osQ fy, eè;;qx dh I
+
kQkjlh] vk/qfud I
+
kQkjlh
Hkk"kk ls fHkUu gSA ;g fHkUurk flI
+
kZQ O;kdj.k vkSj 'kCn HkaMkj esa gh
ugha vkbZ gS] le; osQ lkFk 'kCnksa osQ vFkZ Hkh cny tkrs gSaA
mnkgj.k osQ fy, ^fganqLrku* 'kCn gh yhft,A vkt ge bls vkèkqfud
jk"Vª jkT; ^Hkkjr* osQ vFkZ esa ysrs gSaA rsjgoha lnh esa tc I
+
kQkjlh osQ
bfrgkldkj feUgkt&, fljkt us fganqLrku 'kCn dk iz;ksx fd;k Fkk rks
mldk vk'k; iatkc] gfj;k.kk vkSj xaxk&;equk osQ chp esa fLFkr
bykdksa ls FkkA mlus bl 'kCn dk jktuhfrd vFkZ esa mu bykdksa osQ
fy, bLrseky fd;k tks fnYyh osQ lqyrku osQ vf/dkj {ks=k esa vkrs
FksA lYrur osQ izlkj osQ lkFk&lkFk bl 'kCn osQ varxZr vkus okys
{ks=k Hkh c<+rs x,] ysfdu fganqLrku 'kCn esa nf{k.k Hkkjr dk lekos'k
dHkh ugha gqvkA blosQ foijhr] lksygoha lnh osQ vkajHk esa ckcj us
fganqLrku 'kCn dk iz;ksx bl miegk}hi osQ Hkwxksy] i'kq&if{k;ksa vkSj
;gk¡ osQ fuokfl;ksa dh laLo`Qfr dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, fd;kA ;g
iz;ksx pkSngoha lnh osQ dfo vehj [kqljksa }kjk iz;qDr 'kCn ^fgan* osQ
gh oqQN&oqQN leku FkkA exj tgk¡ ^Hkkjr* dks ,d HkkSxksfyd vkSj
lakLo`Qfrd lÙo osQ #i esa igpkuk tk jgk Fkk ogk¡ fganqLrku 'kCn ls
os jktuhfrd vkSj jk"Vªh; vFkZ ugha tqM+s Fks tks ge vkt tksM+rs gSaA
fdlh Hkh 'kCn dk iz;ksx djus esa bfrgkldkjksa dks cgqr lkoèkku
jguk pkfg, D;ksafd vrhr esa mu 'kCnksa osQ oqQN vyx gh vFkZ FksA
mnkgj.k osQ fy, ^fons'kh* tSlk lh/k&lknk 'kCn gh ys yhft,A gekjs
fy, vkt bldk vFkZ gksrk gS] ,slk O;fDr tks Hkkjrh; u gksA eè;;qx
D;k vkidks ,sls oqQN
vkSj 'kCnksa dk è;ku
vkrk gS ftuosQ vFkZ
fHkUu&fHkUu lanHkks± esa
cny tkrs gSa\
?
Page 4


1 ifjorZuksa dh iM+rky---
ekufp=k 1 vkSj 2 ij u”kj Mkfy,A ekufp=k 1 vjc HkwxksyosÙkk vy&bnzhlh
us 1154 esa cuk;k FkkA ;gk¡ tks uD'kk fn;k x;k gS og mlosQ }kjk cuk,
x, nqfu;k osQ cM+s ekufp=k dk ,d fgLlk gS vkSj Hkkjrh; miegk}hi
dks n'kkZrk gSA ekufp=k 2 ,d izQkalhlh ekufp=kdkj us 1720 esa cuk;k
FkkA nksuksa uD'ks ,d gh bykosQ osQ gSa exj muesa dkI
+
kQh varj gSaA
vy&bnzhlh osQ uD'ks esa nf{k.k Hkkjr ml txg gS tgk¡ ge vkt mÙkj
Hkkjr <w¡<saxsa vkSj Jhyadk dk }hi Åij dh rjI
+
kQ gSA txgksa osQ uke vjch
ekufp=kdkj
tks O;fDr ekufp=k@uD'ks
cukrk gSA
1
g”kkj o"kks± osQ nkSjku gq, ifjorZuksa dh
iM+rky
ekufp=k 1
ckjgoha lnh osQ
HkwxksyosÙkk vy&bæhlh dk
cuk;k gqvk nqfu;k osQ
uD'ks dk ,d fgLlk
ftlesa Hkkjrh; miegk}hi
fn[kk;k x;k gSA
2 gekjs vrhr – 2
esa fn, x, gS vkSj muesa oqQN tkus&igpkus uke Hkh gSa tSls fd mÙkj izns'k
dk dUukStA ekufp=k 2 igys ekufp=k osQ cuus osQ yxHkx 600 o"kZ ckn
cuk;k x;kA bl dkykof/ esa miegk}hi osQ ckjs esa lwpuk,¡ dkI
+
kQh cny
xb± FkhaA ;g uD'kk gesa ”;knk ifjfpr yxsxkA mlesa fo'ks"kdj rVh;
bykdksa osQ ckjhd C;kSjs ns[kdj vk'p;Z gksrk gSA ;wjksi osQ ukfod rFkk
O;kikjh viuh leqnz ;k=kk osQ fy, bl uD'ks dk bLrseky fd;k djrs Fks
(ns[kas&vè;k; 6)A
ysfdu vc Hkhrjh bykdksa ij u”kj MkysaA D;k buesa Hkh mrus gh C;kSjs gSa
ftrus leqnz rV okys fgLls esa\ xaxk osQ ekxZ dks ns[kasA bls fdl rjg ls
n'kkZ;k x;k gS\ bl ekufp=k esa rVh; vkSj Hkhrjh bykoQksa osQ chp C;kSjksa
vkSj ckjhdh dk tks varj gS] vkiosQ [;ky esa mldk dkj.k D;k gS\
ekufp=k 2
vBkjgoha lnh osQ vkajHk
esa fXoykWe n fyLys osQ
,Vyl uwoks osQ vuqlkj
;g miegk}hi
?
3 ifjorZuksa dh iM+rky---
bruh gh egÙoiw.kZ ,d vkSj ckr ;g gS fd nwljs ;qx rd ekufp=k&vadu
dk foKku Hkh cgqr cny x;k FkkA bfrgkldkj tc chrs ;qxksa osQ nLrkos”kksa]
uD'kksa vkSj ys[kksa dk vè;;u djrs gSa rks muosQ fy, mu lwpukvksa osQ
lanHkks± dk] mudh fHkUu&fHkUu ,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe;ksa dk] è;ku j[kuk
”k:jh gksrk gSaA
ubZ vkSj iqjkuh 'kCnkoyh
vxj le; osQ lkFk&lkFk lwpukvksa osQ lanHkZ cnyrs gSa] rks Hkk"kk vkSj
vFkks± osQ lkFk D;k gksrk gS\ ,sfrgkfld vfHkys[k dbZ rjg dh
Hkk"kkvksa esa feyrs gSa vkSj ;s Hkk"kk,¡ Hkh le; osQ lkFk&lkFk cgqr
cnyh gSaA mnkgj.k osQ fy, eè;;qx dh I
+
kQkjlh] vk/qfud I
+
kQkjlh
Hkk"kk ls fHkUu gSA ;g fHkUurk flI
+
kZQ O;kdj.k vkSj 'kCn HkaMkj esa gh
ugha vkbZ gS] le; osQ lkFk 'kCnksa osQ vFkZ Hkh cny tkrs gSaA
mnkgj.k osQ fy, ^fganqLrku* 'kCn gh yhft,A vkt ge bls vkèkqfud
jk"Vª jkT; ^Hkkjr* osQ vFkZ esa ysrs gSaA rsjgoha lnh esa tc I
+
kQkjlh osQ
bfrgkldkj feUgkt&, fljkt us fganqLrku 'kCn dk iz;ksx fd;k Fkk rks
mldk vk'k; iatkc] gfj;k.kk vkSj xaxk&;equk osQ chp esa fLFkr
bykdksa ls FkkA mlus bl 'kCn dk jktuhfrd vFkZ esa mu bykdksa osQ
fy, bLrseky fd;k tks fnYyh osQ lqyrku osQ vf/dkj {ks=k esa vkrs
FksA lYrur osQ izlkj osQ lkFk&lkFk bl 'kCn osQ varxZr vkus okys
{ks=k Hkh c<+rs x,] ysfdu fganqLrku 'kCn esa nf{k.k Hkkjr dk lekos'k
dHkh ugha gqvkA blosQ foijhr] lksygoha lnh osQ vkajHk esa ckcj us
fganqLrku 'kCn dk iz;ksx bl miegk}hi osQ Hkwxksy] i'kq&if{k;ksa vkSj
;gk¡ osQ fuokfl;ksa dh laLo`Qfr dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, fd;kA ;g
iz;ksx pkSngoha lnh osQ dfo vehj [kqljksa }kjk iz;qDr 'kCn ^fgan* osQ
gh oqQN&oqQN leku FkkA exj tgk¡ ^Hkkjr* dks ,d HkkSxksfyd vkSj
lakLo`Qfrd lÙo osQ #i esa igpkuk tk jgk Fkk ogk¡ fganqLrku 'kCn ls
os jktuhfrd vkSj jk"Vªh; vFkZ ugha tqM+s Fks tks ge vkt tksM+rs gSaA
fdlh Hkh 'kCn dk iz;ksx djus esa bfrgkldkjksa dks cgqr lkoèkku
jguk pkfg, D;ksafd vrhr esa mu 'kCnksa osQ oqQN vyx gh vFkZ FksA
mnkgj.k osQ fy, ^fons'kh* tSlk lh/k&lknk 'kCn gh ys yhft,A gekjs
fy, vkt bldk vFkZ gksrk gS] ,slk O;fDr tks Hkkjrh; u gksA eè;;qx
D;k vkidks ,sls oqQN
vkSj 'kCnksa dk è;ku
vkrk gS ftuosQ vFkZ
fHkUu&fHkUu lanHkks± esa
cny tkrs gSa\
?
4 gekjs vrhr – 2
esa] ekuks] fdlh xk¡o esa vkus okyk dksbZ Hkh vutkuk O;fDr] tks ml
lekt ;k laLo`Qfr dk vax u gks] ^fons'kh* dgykrk Fkk (,sls O;fDr
dks fganh esa ijnslh vkSj - iQkjlh esa vtuch dgk tk ldrk gS)A
blfy, fdlh uxjoklh osQ fy, ouoklh ^fons'kh* gksrk Fkk foaQrq ,d
gh xk¡o esa jgus okys nks fdlku vyx&vyx /kfeZd ;k tkfr
iajijkvksa ls tqMs+ gksus ij Hkh ,d&nwljs osQ fy, fons'kh ugha gksrs FksA
bfrgkldkj vkSj muosQ Ïksr
bfrgkldkj fdl ;qx dk vè;;u djrs gSa vkSj mudh [kkst dh izÑfr D;k
gS] bls ns[krs gq, os vyx&vyx rjg osQ Ïksrksa dk lgkjk ysrs gSaA mnkgj.k
osQ fy, fiNys lky vkius xqIroa'k osQ 'kkldksa vkSj g"kZoèkZu osQ ckjs esa i<+kA
bl iqLrd esa ge eksVs rkSj ij 700 ls 1750 bZloh rd yxHkx g”kkj o"kks±
osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA
bl dky osQ vè;;u osQ fy, bfrgkldkj ftu Ïksrksa dk iz;ksx djrs gSa]
muesa vkidks cgqr&lh ckrsa ,slh feysaxh tks fiNys ;qx ls oSlh gh pyh vk
jgh gSaA bfrgkldkj bl dky osQ ckjs esa lwpuk bd_h djus osQ fy, vHkh Hkh
flDdksa] f'kykys[kksa] LFkkiR; (Hkou fuekZ.k dyk) rFkk fyf[kr lkexzh ij
fuHkZj djrs gSaA ij oqQN ckrsa igys ls dkI
+
kQh fHkUu Hkh gSaA bl ;qx esa izkekf.kd
fyf[kr lkexzh dh la[;k vkSj fofo/rk vk'p;Ztud :i ls c<+ xbZA blosQ
vkxs bfrgkldkj lwpukvksa osQ nwljh izdkj osQ Ïksrksa dk bLrseky /hjs&/hjs
dkx”k dk ewY;
bu nks izlaxksa dh rqyuk dhft,%
(1) rsjgoha lnh osQ eè; esa ,d fo}ku dks ,d iqLrd dh izfrfyfi
dh ”k:jr iM+hA mlosQ ikl mruk dkXk”k ugha Fkk blfy, mlus ,d ,slh
ikaMqfyfi dks /ks Mkyk ftldh mls ”k:jr ugha Fkh] vkSj mlosQ dkXk”k dks
lq[kkdj mldk bLrseky dj fy;kA
(2) ,d lnh ckn vxj vki ck”kkj ls dksbZ [kk| inkFkZ [kjhnrs rks gks
ldrk gS fd vkidh fdLer vPNh gksrh vkSj nqdkunkj og oLrq dkXk”k esa
yisVdj nsrkA
rks dkXk”k dc vf/d eg¡xk Fkk vkSj dc vklkuh ls miyC/ Fkk &
rsjgoha 'krkCnh esa ;k pkSngoha 'krkCnh esa\
?
Page 5


1 ifjorZuksa dh iM+rky---
ekufp=k 1 vkSj 2 ij u”kj Mkfy,A ekufp=k 1 vjc HkwxksyosÙkk vy&bnzhlh
us 1154 esa cuk;k FkkA ;gk¡ tks uD'kk fn;k x;k gS og mlosQ }kjk cuk,
x, nqfu;k osQ cM+s ekufp=k dk ,d fgLlk gS vkSj Hkkjrh; miegk}hi
dks n'kkZrk gSA ekufp=k 2 ,d izQkalhlh ekufp=kdkj us 1720 esa cuk;k
FkkA nksuksa uD'ks ,d gh bykosQ osQ gSa exj muesa dkI
+
kQh varj gSaA
vy&bnzhlh osQ uD'ks esa nf{k.k Hkkjr ml txg gS tgk¡ ge vkt mÙkj
Hkkjr <w¡<saxsa vkSj Jhyadk dk }hi Åij dh rjI
+
kQ gSA txgksa osQ uke vjch
ekufp=kdkj
tks O;fDr ekufp=k@uD'ks
cukrk gSA
1
g”kkj o"kks± osQ nkSjku gq, ifjorZuksa dh
iM+rky
ekufp=k 1
ckjgoha lnh osQ
HkwxksyosÙkk vy&bæhlh dk
cuk;k gqvk nqfu;k osQ
uD'ks dk ,d fgLlk
ftlesa Hkkjrh; miegk}hi
fn[kk;k x;k gSA
2 gekjs vrhr – 2
esa fn, x, gS vkSj muesa oqQN tkus&igpkus uke Hkh gSa tSls fd mÙkj izns'k
dk dUukStA ekufp=k 2 igys ekufp=k osQ cuus osQ yxHkx 600 o"kZ ckn
cuk;k x;kA bl dkykof/ esa miegk}hi osQ ckjs esa lwpuk,¡ dkI
+
kQh cny
xb± FkhaA ;g uD'kk gesa ”;knk ifjfpr yxsxkA mlesa fo'ks"kdj rVh;
bykdksa osQ ckjhd C;kSjs ns[kdj vk'p;Z gksrk gSA ;wjksi osQ ukfod rFkk
O;kikjh viuh leqnz ;k=kk osQ fy, bl uD'ks dk bLrseky fd;k djrs Fks
(ns[kas&vè;k; 6)A
ysfdu vc Hkhrjh bykdksa ij u”kj MkysaA D;k buesa Hkh mrus gh C;kSjs gSa
ftrus leqnz rV okys fgLls esa\ xaxk osQ ekxZ dks ns[kasA bls fdl rjg ls
n'kkZ;k x;k gS\ bl ekufp=k esa rVh; vkSj Hkhrjh bykoQksa osQ chp C;kSjksa
vkSj ckjhdh dk tks varj gS] vkiosQ [;ky esa mldk dkj.k D;k gS\
ekufp=k 2
vBkjgoha lnh osQ vkajHk
esa fXoykWe n fyLys osQ
,Vyl uwoks osQ vuqlkj
;g miegk}hi
?
3 ifjorZuksa dh iM+rky---
bruh gh egÙoiw.kZ ,d vkSj ckr ;g gS fd nwljs ;qx rd ekufp=k&vadu
dk foKku Hkh cgqr cny x;k FkkA bfrgkldkj tc chrs ;qxksa osQ nLrkos”kksa]
uD'kksa vkSj ys[kksa dk vè;;u djrs gSa rks muosQ fy, mu lwpukvksa osQ
lanHkks± dk] mudh fHkUu&fHkUu ,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe;ksa dk] è;ku j[kuk
”k:jh gksrk gSaA
ubZ vkSj iqjkuh 'kCnkoyh
vxj le; osQ lkFk&lkFk lwpukvksa osQ lanHkZ cnyrs gSa] rks Hkk"kk vkSj
vFkks± osQ lkFk D;k gksrk gS\ ,sfrgkfld vfHkys[k dbZ rjg dh
Hkk"kkvksa esa feyrs gSa vkSj ;s Hkk"kk,¡ Hkh le; osQ lkFk&lkFk cgqr
cnyh gSaA mnkgj.k osQ fy, eè;;qx dh I
+
kQkjlh] vk/qfud I
+
kQkjlh
Hkk"kk ls fHkUu gSA ;g fHkUurk flI
+
kZQ O;kdj.k vkSj 'kCn HkaMkj esa gh
ugha vkbZ gS] le; osQ lkFk 'kCnksa osQ vFkZ Hkh cny tkrs gSaA
mnkgj.k osQ fy, ^fganqLrku* 'kCn gh yhft,A vkt ge bls vkèkqfud
jk"Vª jkT; ^Hkkjr* osQ vFkZ esa ysrs gSaA rsjgoha lnh esa tc I
+
kQkjlh osQ
bfrgkldkj feUgkt&, fljkt us fganqLrku 'kCn dk iz;ksx fd;k Fkk rks
mldk vk'k; iatkc] gfj;k.kk vkSj xaxk&;equk osQ chp esa fLFkr
bykdksa ls FkkA mlus bl 'kCn dk jktuhfrd vFkZ esa mu bykdksa osQ
fy, bLrseky fd;k tks fnYyh osQ lqyrku osQ vf/dkj {ks=k esa vkrs
FksA lYrur osQ izlkj osQ lkFk&lkFk bl 'kCn osQ varxZr vkus okys
{ks=k Hkh c<+rs x,] ysfdu fganqLrku 'kCn esa nf{k.k Hkkjr dk lekos'k
dHkh ugha gqvkA blosQ foijhr] lksygoha lnh osQ vkajHk esa ckcj us
fganqLrku 'kCn dk iz;ksx bl miegk}hi osQ Hkwxksy] i'kq&if{k;ksa vkSj
;gk¡ osQ fuokfl;ksa dh laLo`Qfr dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, fd;kA ;g
iz;ksx pkSngoha lnh osQ dfo vehj [kqljksa }kjk iz;qDr 'kCn ^fgan* osQ
gh oqQN&oqQN leku FkkA exj tgk¡ ^Hkkjr* dks ,d HkkSxksfyd vkSj
lakLo`Qfrd lÙo osQ #i esa igpkuk tk jgk Fkk ogk¡ fganqLrku 'kCn ls
os jktuhfrd vkSj jk"Vªh; vFkZ ugha tqM+s Fks tks ge vkt tksM+rs gSaA
fdlh Hkh 'kCn dk iz;ksx djus esa bfrgkldkjksa dks cgqr lkoèkku
jguk pkfg, D;ksafd vrhr esa mu 'kCnksa osQ oqQN vyx gh vFkZ FksA
mnkgj.k osQ fy, ^fons'kh* tSlk lh/k&lknk 'kCn gh ys yhft,A gekjs
fy, vkt bldk vFkZ gksrk gS] ,slk O;fDr tks Hkkjrh; u gksA eè;;qx
D;k vkidks ,sls oqQN
vkSj 'kCnksa dk è;ku
vkrk gS ftuosQ vFkZ
fHkUu&fHkUu lanHkks± esa
cny tkrs gSa\
?
4 gekjs vrhr – 2
esa] ekuks] fdlh xk¡o esa vkus okyk dksbZ Hkh vutkuk O;fDr] tks ml
lekt ;k laLo`Qfr dk vax u gks] ^fons'kh* dgykrk Fkk (,sls O;fDr
dks fganh esa ijnslh vkSj - iQkjlh esa vtuch dgk tk ldrk gS)A
blfy, fdlh uxjoklh osQ fy, ouoklh ^fons'kh* gksrk Fkk foaQrq ,d
gh xk¡o esa jgus okys nks fdlku vyx&vyx /kfeZd ;k tkfr
iajijkvksa ls tqMs+ gksus ij Hkh ,d&nwljs osQ fy, fons'kh ugha gksrs FksA
bfrgkldkj vkSj muosQ Ïksr
bfrgkldkj fdl ;qx dk vè;;u djrs gSa vkSj mudh [kkst dh izÑfr D;k
gS] bls ns[krs gq, os vyx&vyx rjg osQ Ïksrksa dk lgkjk ysrs gSaA mnkgj.k
osQ fy, fiNys lky vkius xqIroa'k osQ 'kkldksa vkSj g"kZoèkZu osQ ckjs esa i<+kA
bl iqLrd esa ge eksVs rkSj ij 700 ls 1750 bZloh rd yxHkx g”kkj o"kks±
osQ ckjs esa i<+saxsA
bl dky osQ vè;;u osQ fy, bfrgkldkj ftu Ïksrksa dk iz;ksx djrs gSa]
muesa vkidks cgqr&lh ckrsa ,slh feysaxh tks fiNys ;qx ls oSlh gh pyh vk
jgh gSaA bfrgkldkj bl dky osQ ckjs esa lwpuk bd_h djus osQ fy, vHkh Hkh
flDdksa] f'kykys[kksa] LFkkiR; (Hkou fuekZ.k dyk) rFkk fyf[kr lkexzh ij
fuHkZj djrs gSaA ij oqQN ckrsa igys ls dkI
+
kQh fHkUu Hkh gSaA bl ;qx esa izkekf.kd
fyf[kr lkexzh dh la[;k vkSj fofo/rk vk'p;Ztud :i ls c<+ xbZA blosQ
vkxs bfrgkldkj lwpukvksa osQ nwljh izdkj osQ Ïksrksa dk bLrseky /hjs&/hjs
dkx”k dk ewY;
bu nks izlaxksa dh rqyuk dhft,%
(1) rsjgoha lnh osQ eè; esa ,d fo}ku dks ,d iqLrd dh izfrfyfi
dh ”k:jr iM+hA mlosQ ikl mruk dkXk”k ugha Fkk blfy, mlus ,d ,slh
ikaMqfyfi dks /ks Mkyk ftldh mls ”k:jr ugha Fkh] vkSj mlosQ dkXk”k dks
lq[kkdj mldk bLrseky dj fy;kA
(2) ,d lnh ckn vxj vki ck”kkj ls dksbZ [kk| inkFkZ [kjhnrs rks gks
ldrk gS fd vkidh fdLer vPNh gksrh vkSj nqdkunkj og oLrq dkXk”k esa
yisVdj nsrkA
rks dkXk”k dc vf/d eg¡xk Fkk vkSj dc vklkuh ls miyC/ Fkk &
rsjgoha 'krkCnh esa ;k pkSngoha 'krkCnh esa\
?
5 ifjorZuksa dh iM+rky---
de djus yxsA bl le; osQ nkSjku dkXk”k ozQe'k% lLrk gksrk x;k vkSj cM+s
iSekus ij miyC/ Hkh gksus yxkA yksx /eZxzaFk] 'kkldksa osQ o`Ùkakr] larksa osQ
ys[ku rFkk mins'k] vf”kZ;k¡] vnkyrksa osQ nLrkos”k] fglkc rFkk djksa osQ [kkrs
vkfn fy[kus esa bldk mi;ksx djus yxsA /uh O;fDr] 'kkld tu] eB rFkk
eafnj] ikaMqfyfi;k¡ ,df=kr fd;k djrs FksA bu ikaMqfyfi;ksa dks iqLrdky;ksa
rFkk vfHkys[kkxkjksa esa j[kk tkrk FkkA bu ikaMqfyfi;ksa rFkk nLrkos”kksa ls
bfrgkldkjksa dks cgqr lkjh foLr`r tkudkjh feyrh gS exj lkFk gh budk
mi;ksx dfBu gSA
mu fnuksa Nkis[kkus rks Fks ugha] blfy, fyfid ;k uoQyuohl gkFk ls
gh ikaMqfyfi;ksa dh izfro`Qfr cukrs FksA vxj vkius dHkh fdlh fe=k osQ
x`gdk;Z dh uoQy mrkjh gS rks vki tkurs gksaxs fd ;g dke vklku ugha
gSA dHkh&dHkh vkidks vius fe=k dh fy[kkoV le> esa ugha vkrh gksxh
vkSj vkidks e”kcwj gksdj vank”k gh yxkuk iM+rk gksxk fd D;k fy[kk x;k
gSA iQyLo#i vkiosQ fy[ks esa fe=k osQ fy[ks gq, ls oqQN NksVs&eksVs ysfdu
vfHkys[kkxkj
,slk LFkku tgk¡
nLrkos”kksa vkSj
ikaMqfyfi;ksa dks laxzghr
fd;k tkrk gSA vkt
lHkh jk"Vªh; vkSj jkT;
ljdkjksa osQ vfHkys[kkxkj
gksrs gSa tgk¡ os vius
reke iqjkus ljdkjh
vfHkys[k vkSj ysu&nsu
osQ C;kSjksa dk fjdkMZ
j[krs gSaA
fp=k 1
;g ,d y?kqfp=k dh
izfro`Qfr gS ftlesa ,d
fyfid fdlh ikaMqfyfi
dh udy dj jgk gSA
bl fp=k dk vkdkj
fl- iZQ 10-5 ls-eh- × 7-1
ls-eh- gSA bl NksVs
vkdkj osQ dkj.k bls
y?kqfp=k ;k fefu;spj
dgk tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh
bu y?kqfp=kksa dk iz;ksx
ys[k esa vk;h ikaMqfyfi;ksa
dks Li"Vrk iznku djus
osQ fy, fd;k tkrk FkkA
;s brus laqnj gksrs Fks fd
vkxs pydj laxzgdrkZ
vdlj bu fp=kksa dks
ikaMqfyfi;ksa ls vyx
djosQ cspus yxs FksA
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