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ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 71
You can very easily see the structural similarities and variations in the
external morphology of the larger living organism, both plants and
animals. Similarly, if we were to study the internal structure, one also
finds several similarities as well as differences. This chapter introduces
you to the internal structure and functional organisation of higher plants.
Study of internal structure of plants is called anatomy. Plants have cells
as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn the tissues
are organised into organs. Different organs in a plant show differences in
their internal structure. Within angiosperms, the monocots and dicots
are also seen to be anatomically different. Internal structures also show
adaptations to diverse environments.
6.1 THE TISSUE SYSTEM
We were discussing types of tissues based on the types of cells present.
Let us now consider how tissues vary depending on their location in the
plant body. Their structure and function would also be dependent on
location. On the basis of their structure and location, there are three types
of tissue systems. These are the epidermal tissue system, the ground or
fundamental tissue system and the vascular or conducting tissue system.
6.1.1 Epidermal Tissue System
The epidermal tissue system forms the outer-most covering of the whole
plant body and comprises epidermal cells, stomata and the epidermal
appendages – the trichomes and hairs. The epidermis is the outermost
layer of the primary plant body. It is made up of elongated, compactly
ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS
CHAPTER  6
6.1 The Tissue
System
6.2 Anatomy of
Dicotyledonous
and
Monocotyledonous
Plants
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2


ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 71
You can very easily see the structural similarities and variations in the
external morphology of the larger living organism, both plants and
animals. Similarly, if we were to study the internal structure, one also
finds several similarities as well as differences. This chapter introduces
you to the internal structure and functional organisation of higher plants.
Study of internal structure of plants is called anatomy. Plants have cells
as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn the tissues
are organised into organs. Different organs in a plant show differences in
their internal structure. Within angiosperms, the monocots and dicots
are also seen to be anatomically different. Internal structures also show
adaptations to diverse environments.
6.1 THE TISSUE SYSTEM
We were discussing types of tissues based on the types of cells present.
Let us now consider how tissues vary depending on their location in the
plant body. Their structure and function would also be dependent on
location. On the basis of their structure and location, there are three types
of tissue systems. These are the epidermal tissue system, the ground or
fundamental tissue system and the vascular or conducting tissue system.
6.1.1 Epidermal Tissue System
The epidermal tissue system forms the outer-most covering of the whole
plant body and comprises epidermal cells, stomata and the epidermal
appendages – the trichomes and hairs. The epidermis is the outermost
layer of the primary plant body. It is made up of elongated, compactly
ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS
CHAPTER  6
6.1 The Tissue
System
6.2 Anatomy of
Dicotyledonous
and
Monocotyledonous
Plants
Rationalised 2023-24
72 BIOLOGY
The cells of epidermis bear a number of hairs. The root hairs are
unicellular elongations of the epidermal cells and help absorb water and
minerals from the soil. On the stem the epidermal hairs are called
trichomes. The trichomes in the shoot system are usually multicellular.
They may be branched  or unbranched and soft or stiff. They may even
be secretory. The trichomes help in preventing water loss due to
transpiration.
6.1.2 The Ground Tissue System
All tissues except epidermis and vascular bundles constitute the ground
tissue. It consists of simple tissues such as parenchyma, collenchyma
and sclerenchyma. Parenchymatous cells are usually present in cortex,
pericycle, pith and medullary rays, in the primary stems and roots. In
leaves, the ground tissue consists of thin-walled chloroplast containing
cells and is called mesophyll.
arranged cells, which form a continuous layer. Epidermis is usually single-
layered. Epidermal cells are parenchymatous with a small amount of
cytoplasm lining the cell wall and a large vacuole. The outside of the
epidermis is often covered with a waxy thick layer called the cuticle which
prevents the loss of water. Cuticle is absent in roots. Stomata are structures
present in the epidermis of leaves. Stomata regulate the process of
transpiration and gaseous exchange. Each stoma is composed of two bean-
shaped cells known as guard cells which enclose stomatal pore. In
grasses, the guard cells are dumb-bell shaped. The outer walls of guard
cells (away from the stomatal pore) are thin and the inner walls (towards
the stomatal pore) are highly thickened. The guard cells possess chloroplasts
and regulate the opening and closing of stomata. Sometimes, a few epidermal
cells, in the vicinity of the guard cells become specialised in their shape and
size and are known as subsidiary cells. The stomatal aperture, guard
cells and the surrounding subsidiary cells are together called stomatal
apparatus (Figure 6.1).
Figure 6.1 Diagrammatic representation: (a) stomata with bean-shaped guard cells
(b) stomata with dumb-bell shaped guard cell
Epidermal cells
Subsidiary cells
Guard cells
Stomatal
pore
Chloroplast
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3


ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 71
You can very easily see the structural similarities and variations in the
external morphology of the larger living organism, both plants and
animals. Similarly, if we were to study the internal structure, one also
finds several similarities as well as differences. This chapter introduces
you to the internal structure and functional organisation of higher plants.
Study of internal structure of plants is called anatomy. Plants have cells
as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn the tissues
are organised into organs. Different organs in a plant show differences in
their internal structure. Within angiosperms, the monocots and dicots
are also seen to be anatomically different. Internal structures also show
adaptations to diverse environments.
6.1 THE TISSUE SYSTEM
We were discussing types of tissues based on the types of cells present.
Let us now consider how tissues vary depending on their location in the
plant body. Their structure and function would also be dependent on
location. On the basis of their structure and location, there are three types
of tissue systems. These are the epidermal tissue system, the ground or
fundamental tissue system and the vascular or conducting tissue system.
6.1.1 Epidermal Tissue System
The epidermal tissue system forms the outer-most covering of the whole
plant body and comprises epidermal cells, stomata and the epidermal
appendages – the trichomes and hairs. The epidermis is the outermost
layer of the primary plant body. It is made up of elongated, compactly
ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS
CHAPTER  6
6.1 The Tissue
System
6.2 Anatomy of
Dicotyledonous
and
Monocotyledonous
Plants
Rationalised 2023-24
72 BIOLOGY
The cells of epidermis bear a number of hairs. The root hairs are
unicellular elongations of the epidermal cells and help absorb water and
minerals from the soil. On the stem the epidermal hairs are called
trichomes. The trichomes in the shoot system are usually multicellular.
They may be branched  or unbranched and soft or stiff. They may even
be secretory. The trichomes help in preventing water loss due to
transpiration.
6.1.2 The Ground Tissue System
All tissues except epidermis and vascular bundles constitute the ground
tissue. It consists of simple tissues such as parenchyma, collenchyma
and sclerenchyma. Parenchymatous cells are usually present in cortex,
pericycle, pith and medullary rays, in the primary stems and roots. In
leaves, the ground tissue consists of thin-walled chloroplast containing
cells and is called mesophyll.
arranged cells, which form a continuous layer. Epidermis is usually single-
layered. Epidermal cells are parenchymatous with a small amount of
cytoplasm lining the cell wall and a large vacuole. The outside of the
epidermis is often covered with a waxy thick layer called the cuticle which
prevents the loss of water. Cuticle is absent in roots. Stomata are structures
present in the epidermis of leaves. Stomata regulate the process of
transpiration and gaseous exchange. Each stoma is composed of two bean-
shaped cells known as guard cells which enclose stomatal pore. In
grasses, the guard cells are dumb-bell shaped. The outer walls of guard
cells (away from the stomatal pore) are thin and the inner walls (towards
the stomatal pore) are highly thickened. The guard cells possess chloroplasts
and regulate the opening and closing of stomata. Sometimes, a few epidermal
cells, in the vicinity of the guard cells become specialised in their shape and
size and are known as subsidiary cells. The stomatal aperture, guard
cells and the surrounding subsidiary cells are together called stomatal
apparatus (Figure 6.1).
Figure 6.1 Diagrammatic representation: (a) stomata with bean-shaped guard cells
(b) stomata with dumb-bell shaped guard cell
Epidermal cells
Subsidiary cells
Guard cells
Stomatal
pore
Chloroplast
Rationalised 2023-24
ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 73
6.1.3 The Vascular Tissue System
The vascular system consists of complex tissues,
the phloem and the xylem.The xylem and
phloem together constitute vascular bundles
(Figure 6.2). In dicotyledonous stems,
cambium is present between phloem and
xylem. Such vascular bundles because of the
presence of cambium possess the ability to form
secondary xylem and phloem tissues, and hence
are called open vascular bundles. In the
monocotyledons, the vascular bundles have no
cambium present in them. Hence, since they do
not form secondary tissues they are referred to
as closed. When xylem and phloem within a
vascular bundle are arranged in an alternate
manner along the  different radii, the
arrangement is called radial such as in roots.
In conjoint type of vascular bundles, the xylem
and phloem are jointly situated  along the same
radius of vascular bundles. Such vascular
bundles are common in stems and leaves. The
conjoint vascular bundles usually have the
phloem located only on the outer side of xylem.
6.2 ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS AND
MONOCOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS
For a better understanding of tissue
organisation of roots, stems and leaves, it is
convenient to study the transverse sections of
the mature zones of these organs.
6.2.1 Dicotyledonous Root
Look at Figure 6.3 (a), it shows the transverse
section of the sunflower root. The internal tissue
organisation is as follows:
The outermost layer is epiblema. Many of
the cells of epiblema protrude in the form of
unicellular root hairs. The cortex consists of
several layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells
Figure 6.2 Various types of vascular bundles :
(a) radial  (b) conjoint closed
(c) conjoint open
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4


ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 71
You can very easily see the structural similarities and variations in the
external morphology of the larger living organism, both plants and
animals. Similarly, if we were to study the internal structure, one also
finds several similarities as well as differences. This chapter introduces
you to the internal structure and functional organisation of higher plants.
Study of internal structure of plants is called anatomy. Plants have cells
as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn the tissues
are organised into organs. Different organs in a plant show differences in
their internal structure. Within angiosperms, the monocots and dicots
are also seen to be anatomically different. Internal structures also show
adaptations to diverse environments.
6.1 THE TISSUE SYSTEM
We were discussing types of tissues based on the types of cells present.
Let us now consider how tissues vary depending on their location in the
plant body. Their structure and function would also be dependent on
location. On the basis of their structure and location, there are three types
of tissue systems. These are the epidermal tissue system, the ground or
fundamental tissue system and the vascular or conducting tissue system.
6.1.1 Epidermal Tissue System
The epidermal tissue system forms the outer-most covering of the whole
plant body and comprises epidermal cells, stomata and the epidermal
appendages – the trichomes and hairs. The epidermis is the outermost
layer of the primary plant body. It is made up of elongated, compactly
ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS
CHAPTER  6
6.1 The Tissue
System
6.2 Anatomy of
Dicotyledonous
and
Monocotyledonous
Plants
Rationalised 2023-24
72 BIOLOGY
The cells of epidermis bear a number of hairs. The root hairs are
unicellular elongations of the epidermal cells and help absorb water and
minerals from the soil. On the stem the epidermal hairs are called
trichomes. The trichomes in the shoot system are usually multicellular.
They may be branched  or unbranched and soft or stiff. They may even
be secretory. The trichomes help in preventing water loss due to
transpiration.
6.1.2 The Ground Tissue System
All tissues except epidermis and vascular bundles constitute the ground
tissue. It consists of simple tissues such as parenchyma, collenchyma
and sclerenchyma. Parenchymatous cells are usually present in cortex,
pericycle, pith and medullary rays, in the primary stems and roots. In
leaves, the ground tissue consists of thin-walled chloroplast containing
cells and is called mesophyll.
arranged cells, which form a continuous layer. Epidermis is usually single-
layered. Epidermal cells are parenchymatous with a small amount of
cytoplasm lining the cell wall and a large vacuole. The outside of the
epidermis is often covered with a waxy thick layer called the cuticle which
prevents the loss of water. Cuticle is absent in roots. Stomata are structures
present in the epidermis of leaves. Stomata regulate the process of
transpiration and gaseous exchange. Each stoma is composed of two bean-
shaped cells known as guard cells which enclose stomatal pore. In
grasses, the guard cells are dumb-bell shaped. The outer walls of guard
cells (away from the stomatal pore) are thin and the inner walls (towards
the stomatal pore) are highly thickened. The guard cells possess chloroplasts
and regulate the opening and closing of stomata. Sometimes, a few epidermal
cells, in the vicinity of the guard cells become specialised in their shape and
size and are known as subsidiary cells. The stomatal aperture, guard
cells and the surrounding subsidiary cells are together called stomatal
apparatus (Figure 6.1).
Figure 6.1 Diagrammatic representation: (a) stomata with bean-shaped guard cells
(b) stomata with dumb-bell shaped guard cell
Epidermal cells
Subsidiary cells
Guard cells
Stomatal
pore
Chloroplast
Rationalised 2023-24
ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 73
6.1.3 The Vascular Tissue System
The vascular system consists of complex tissues,
the phloem and the xylem.The xylem and
phloem together constitute vascular bundles
(Figure 6.2). In dicotyledonous stems,
cambium is present between phloem and
xylem. Such vascular bundles because of the
presence of cambium possess the ability to form
secondary xylem and phloem tissues, and hence
are called open vascular bundles. In the
monocotyledons, the vascular bundles have no
cambium present in them. Hence, since they do
not form secondary tissues they are referred to
as closed. When xylem and phloem within a
vascular bundle are arranged in an alternate
manner along the  different radii, the
arrangement is called radial such as in roots.
In conjoint type of vascular bundles, the xylem
and phloem are jointly situated  along the same
radius of vascular bundles. Such vascular
bundles are common in stems and leaves. The
conjoint vascular bundles usually have the
phloem located only on the outer side of xylem.
6.2 ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS AND
MONOCOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS
For a better understanding of tissue
organisation of roots, stems and leaves, it is
convenient to study the transverse sections of
the mature zones of these organs.
6.2.1 Dicotyledonous Root
Look at Figure 6.3 (a), it shows the transverse
section of the sunflower root. The internal tissue
organisation is as follows:
The outermost layer is epiblema. Many of
the cells of epiblema protrude in the form of
unicellular root hairs. The cortex consists of
several layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells
Figure 6.2 Various types of vascular bundles :
(a) radial  (b) conjoint closed
(c) conjoint open
Rationalised 2023-24
74 BIOLOGY
with intercellular spaces. The innermost
layer of the cortex is called endodermis.
It comprises a single layer of barrel-
shaped cells without any intercellular
spaces. The tangential as well as radial
walls of the endodermal cells have a
deposition of water-impermeable, waxy
material suberin in the form of casparian
strips. Next to endodermis lies a few layers
of thick-walled parenchyomatous cells
referred to as pericycle.  Initiation of lateral
roots and vascular cambium during the
secondary growth takes place in these
cells. The pith is small or inconspicuous.
The parenchymatous cells which lie
between the xylem and the phloem are
called conjuctive tissue. There are
usually two to four xylem and phloem
patches. Later, a cambium ring develops
between the xylem and phloem. All tissues
on the innerside of the endodermis such
as pericycle, vascular bundles and pith
constitute the stele.
6.2.2 Monocotyledonous Root
The anatomy of the monocot root is similar
to the dicot root in many respects (Figure
6.3 b). It has epidermis, cortex, endodermis,
pericycle, vascular bundles and pith. As
compared to the dicot root which have fewer
xylem bundles, there are usually more
than six (polyarch) xylem bundles in the
monocot root. Pith is large and well
developed. Monocotyledonous roots do not
undergo any secondary growth.
6.2.3 Dicotyledonous Stem
The transverse section of a typical young
dicotyledonous stem shows that the epidermis
is the outermost protective layer of the stem
Root hair
Epidermis
Cortex
Endodermis
Protoxylem
Metaxylem
Pith
Phloem
(a)
Pericycle
Root hair
Cortex
Endodermis
Phloem
Protoxylem
Pith
Metaxylem
(b)
Epidermis
Pericycle
Figure 6.3 T.S. : (a) Dicot root (Primary)
(b) Monocot root
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5


ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 71
You can very easily see the structural similarities and variations in the
external morphology of the larger living organism, both plants and
animals. Similarly, if we were to study the internal structure, one also
finds several similarities as well as differences. This chapter introduces
you to the internal structure and functional organisation of higher plants.
Study of internal structure of plants is called anatomy. Plants have cells
as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn the tissues
are organised into organs. Different organs in a plant show differences in
their internal structure. Within angiosperms, the monocots and dicots
are also seen to be anatomically different. Internal structures also show
adaptations to diverse environments.
6.1 THE TISSUE SYSTEM
We were discussing types of tissues based on the types of cells present.
Let us now consider how tissues vary depending on their location in the
plant body. Their structure and function would also be dependent on
location. On the basis of their structure and location, there are three types
of tissue systems. These are the epidermal tissue system, the ground or
fundamental tissue system and the vascular or conducting tissue system.
6.1.1 Epidermal Tissue System
The epidermal tissue system forms the outer-most covering of the whole
plant body and comprises epidermal cells, stomata and the epidermal
appendages – the trichomes and hairs. The epidermis is the outermost
layer of the primary plant body. It is made up of elongated, compactly
ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS
CHAPTER  6
6.1 The Tissue
System
6.2 Anatomy of
Dicotyledonous
and
Monocotyledonous
Plants
Rationalised 2023-24
72 BIOLOGY
The cells of epidermis bear a number of hairs. The root hairs are
unicellular elongations of the epidermal cells and help absorb water and
minerals from the soil. On the stem the epidermal hairs are called
trichomes. The trichomes in the shoot system are usually multicellular.
They may be branched  or unbranched and soft or stiff. They may even
be secretory. The trichomes help in preventing water loss due to
transpiration.
6.1.2 The Ground Tissue System
All tissues except epidermis and vascular bundles constitute the ground
tissue. It consists of simple tissues such as parenchyma, collenchyma
and sclerenchyma. Parenchymatous cells are usually present in cortex,
pericycle, pith and medullary rays, in the primary stems and roots. In
leaves, the ground tissue consists of thin-walled chloroplast containing
cells and is called mesophyll.
arranged cells, which form a continuous layer. Epidermis is usually single-
layered. Epidermal cells are parenchymatous with a small amount of
cytoplasm lining the cell wall and a large vacuole. The outside of the
epidermis is often covered with a waxy thick layer called the cuticle which
prevents the loss of water. Cuticle is absent in roots. Stomata are structures
present in the epidermis of leaves. Stomata regulate the process of
transpiration and gaseous exchange. Each stoma is composed of two bean-
shaped cells known as guard cells which enclose stomatal pore. In
grasses, the guard cells are dumb-bell shaped. The outer walls of guard
cells (away from the stomatal pore) are thin and the inner walls (towards
the stomatal pore) are highly thickened. The guard cells possess chloroplasts
and regulate the opening and closing of stomata. Sometimes, a few epidermal
cells, in the vicinity of the guard cells become specialised in their shape and
size and are known as subsidiary cells. The stomatal aperture, guard
cells and the surrounding subsidiary cells are together called stomatal
apparatus (Figure 6.1).
Figure 6.1 Diagrammatic representation: (a) stomata with bean-shaped guard cells
(b) stomata with dumb-bell shaped guard cell
Epidermal cells
Subsidiary cells
Guard cells
Stomatal
pore
Chloroplast
Rationalised 2023-24
ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 73
6.1.3 The Vascular Tissue System
The vascular system consists of complex tissues,
the phloem and the xylem.The xylem and
phloem together constitute vascular bundles
(Figure 6.2). In dicotyledonous stems,
cambium is present between phloem and
xylem. Such vascular bundles because of the
presence of cambium possess the ability to form
secondary xylem and phloem tissues, and hence
are called open vascular bundles. In the
monocotyledons, the vascular bundles have no
cambium present in them. Hence, since they do
not form secondary tissues they are referred to
as closed. When xylem and phloem within a
vascular bundle are arranged in an alternate
manner along the  different radii, the
arrangement is called radial such as in roots.
In conjoint type of vascular bundles, the xylem
and phloem are jointly situated  along the same
radius of vascular bundles. Such vascular
bundles are common in stems and leaves. The
conjoint vascular bundles usually have the
phloem located only on the outer side of xylem.
6.2 ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS AND
MONOCOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS
For a better understanding of tissue
organisation of roots, stems and leaves, it is
convenient to study the transverse sections of
the mature zones of these organs.
6.2.1 Dicotyledonous Root
Look at Figure 6.3 (a), it shows the transverse
section of the sunflower root. The internal tissue
organisation is as follows:
The outermost layer is epiblema. Many of
the cells of epiblema protrude in the form of
unicellular root hairs. The cortex consists of
several layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells
Figure 6.2 Various types of vascular bundles :
(a) radial  (b) conjoint closed
(c) conjoint open
Rationalised 2023-24
74 BIOLOGY
with intercellular spaces. The innermost
layer of the cortex is called endodermis.
It comprises a single layer of barrel-
shaped cells without any intercellular
spaces. The tangential as well as radial
walls of the endodermal cells have a
deposition of water-impermeable, waxy
material suberin in the form of casparian
strips. Next to endodermis lies a few layers
of thick-walled parenchyomatous cells
referred to as pericycle.  Initiation of lateral
roots and vascular cambium during the
secondary growth takes place in these
cells. The pith is small or inconspicuous.
The parenchymatous cells which lie
between the xylem and the phloem are
called conjuctive tissue. There are
usually two to four xylem and phloem
patches. Later, a cambium ring develops
between the xylem and phloem. All tissues
on the innerside of the endodermis such
as pericycle, vascular bundles and pith
constitute the stele.
6.2.2 Monocotyledonous Root
The anatomy of the monocot root is similar
to the dicot root in many respects (Figure
6.3 b). It has epidermis, cortex, endodermis,
pericycle, vascular bundles and pith. As
compared to the dicot root which have fewer
xylem bundles, there are usually more
than six (polyarch) xylem bundles in the
monocot root. Pith is large and well
developed. Monocotyledonous roots do not
undergo any secondary growth.
6.2.3 Dicotyledonous Stem
The transverse section of a typical young
dicotyledonous stem shows that the epidermis
is the outermost protective layer of the stem
Root hair
Epidermis
Cortex
Endodermis
Protoxylem
Metaxylem
Pith
Phloem
(a)
Pericycle
Root hair
Cortex
Endodermis
Phloem
Protoxylem
Pith
Metaxylem
(b)
Epidermis
Pericycle
Figure 6.3 T.S. : (a) Dicot root (Primary)
(b) Monocot root
Rationalised 2023-24
ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 75
(Figure 6.4 a). Covered with a thin layer of cuticle, it may bear trichomes and
a few stomata. The cells arranged in multiple layers between epidermis and
pericycle constitute the cortex. It consists of three sub-zones. The outer
hypodermis, consists of a few layers of collenchymatous cells just below the
epidermis, which provide mechanical strength to the young stem. Cortical
layers below hypodermis consist of rounded thin walled parenchymatous
cells with conspicuous intercellular spaces. The innermost layer of the cortex
is called the endodermis. The cells of the endodermis are rich in starch
grains and the layer is also referred to as the starch sheath. Pericycle is
Figure 6.4  T.S. of stem :  (a) Dicot  (b) Monocot
Rationalised 2023-24
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FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Anatomy of Flowering Plants - Biology Class 11 - NEET

1. What is the anatomy of a flowering plant?
Ans. The anatomy of a flowering plant refers to the internal structure and organization of its various parts. It includes the study of tissues, cells, and organs such as stems, roots, leaves, and flowers. Understanding the anatomy helps in comprehending the functions and processes carried out by different plant parts.
2. What are the different types of tissues in flowering plants?
Ans. Flowering plants have three main types of tissues: dermal, ground, and vascular tissues. Dermal tissues form the outer protective covering of the plant, ground tissues are responsible for photosynthesis and storage, while vascular tissues facilitate the transport of water, minerals, and nutrients throughout the plant.
3. How are the stems of flowering plants classified based on their structure?
Ans. Stems of flowering plants can be classified into herbaceous and woody stems. Herbaceous stems are soft, flexible, and usually green, while woody stems are hard, rigid, and brown in color. Woody stems have secondary growth, which results in the formation of wood and bark.
4. What is the importance of roots in flowering plants?
Ans. Roots play a crucial role in flowering plants. They anchor the plant in the soil, provide support, and absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Roots also store food and help in vegetative propagation. Additionally, they assist in preventing soil erosion and contribute to the overall stability of the plant.
5. How are flowers essential for the reproductive process in flowering plants?
Ans. Flowers are the reproductive structures of flowering plants. They contain male and female reproductive organs, namely stamen and carpel. The stamen produces pollen grains, which are transferred to the carpel through pollination. Fertilization occurs when the pollen grain reaches the ovule in the carpel, leading to the formation of seeds. Flowers are vital for the continuation of plant species through sexual reproduction.
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NCERT Textbook: Anatomy of Flowering Plants | Biology Class 11 - NEET

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NCERT Textbook: Anatomy of Flowering Plants | Biology Class 11 - NEET

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