NCERT Textbook - Traders, Kings and Pilgrims Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 6

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - Traders, Kings and Pilgrims Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


91 n
Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the market et et et et
Jagini looked forward to the fair in the village. She loved
to see and touch the pots and pans of shiny steel, bright
plastic buckets, cloth printed with brilliant floral designs,
and clockwork toys, all of which came from the city. The
men who spread out their wares came in buses and trucks
and went back at the end of the day. Why were they
always on the move? She wondered. Her mother
explained that they were traders — people who bought
things where they were made, and sold them elsewhere.
Ho Ho Ho Ho How to f w to f w to f w to f w to find out about tr ind out about tr ind out about tr ind out about tr ind out about trade and tr ade and tr ade and tr ade and tr ade and traders aders aders aders aders
You read about the Northern Black Polished Ware
in Chapter 8. This fine pottery, especially bowls
and plates, were found from several archaeological
sites throughout the subcontinent. How do you
think it reached these places? Traders may have
carried them from the places where they were
made, to sell them at other places.
South India was famous for gold, spices,
especially pepper, and precious stones. Pepper
was particularly valued in the Roman Empire, so
much so that it was known as black gold. So,
traders carried many of these goods to Rome in
ships, across the sea, and by land in caravans.
There must have been quite a lot of trade as many
Roman gold coins have been found in south India.
Can you think of how and why these reached
India?
CHAPTER 9
TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PILGRIMS GRIMS GRIMS GRIMS GRIMS
TRADERS, KINGS AND
PILGRIMS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 2


91 n
Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the market et et et et
Jagini looked forward to the fair in the village. She loved
to see and touch the pots and pans of shiny steel, bright
plastic buckets, cloth printed with brilliant floral designs,
and clockwork toys, all of which came from the city. The
men who spread out their wares came in buses and trucks
and went back at the end of the day. Why were they
always on the move? She wondered. Her mother
explained that they were traders — people who bought
things where they were made, and sold them elsewhere.
Ho Ho Ho Ho How to f w to f w to f w to f w to find out about tr ind out about tr ind out about tr ind out about tr ind out about trade and tr ade and tr ade and tr ade and tr ade and traders aders aders aders aders
You read about the Northern Black Polished Ware
in Chapter 8. This fine pottery, especially bowls
and plates, were found from several archaeological
sites throughout the subcontinent. How do you
think it reached these places? Traders may have
carried them from the places where they were
made, to sell them at other places.
South India was famous for gold, spices,
especially pepper, and precious stones. Pepper
was particularly valued in the Roman Empire, so
much so that it was known as black gold. So,
traders carried many of these goods to Rome in
ships, across the sea, and by land in caravans.
There must have been quite a lot of trade as many
Roman gold coins have been found in south India.
Can you think of how and why these reached
India?
CHAPTER 9
TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PILGRIMS GRIMS GRIMS GRIMS GRIMS
TRADERS, KINGS AND
PILGRIMS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 92
OUR PASTS–I
A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about trade ade ade ade ade
We can find evidence of trade in the Sangam poems.
Here is one which describes the goods brought
into Puhar, an important port on the east coast:
“(Here are brought)
Swift, prancing horses by sea in ships,
Bales of black pepper in carts,
Gems and gold born in the Himalayas,
Sandalwood born in the western hills,
The pearls of the southern seas
And corals from the eastern oceans
The yield of the Ganga and the crops from the
Kaveri,
Foodstuffs from Sri Lanka, pottery from
Myanmar,
And other rare and rich imports.”
Make a list of all the things that are mentioned.
What would they be used for?
Traders explored several sea routes. Some of
these followed the coasts. There were others across
the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, where
sailors took advantage of the monsoon winds to
cross the seas more quickly. So, if they wanted to
reach the western coast of the subcontinent from
East Africa or Arabia, they chose to sail with the
south-west monsoon. And sturdy ships had to be
built for these long journeys.
New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts
The southern half of the subcontinent is marked
by a long coastline, and with hills, plateaus, and
river valleys. Amongst the river valleys, that of
the Kaveri is the most fertile. Chiefs and kings
who controlled the river valleys and the coasts
became rich and powerful. Sangam poems
mention the muvendar. This is a Tamil word
meaning three chiefs, used for the heads of three
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 3


91 n
Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the market et et et et
Jagini looked forward to the fair in the village. She loved
to see and touch the pots and pans of shiny steel, bright
plastic buckets, cloth printed with brilliant floral designs,
and clockwork toys, all of which came from the city. The
men who spread out their wares came in buses and trucks
and went back at the end of the day. Why were they
always on the move? She wondered. Her mother
explained that they were traders — people who bought
things where they were made, and sold them elsewhere.
Ho Ho Ho Ho How to f w to f w to f w to f w to find out about tr ind out about tr ind out about tr ind out about tr ind out about trade and tr ade and tr ade and tr ade and tr ade and traders aders aders aders aders
You read about the Northern Black Polished Ware
in Chapter 8. This fine pottery, especially bowls
and plates, were found from several archaeological
sites throughout the subcontinent. How do you
think it reached these places? Traders may have
carried them from the places where they were
made, to sell them at other places.
South India was famous for gold, spices,
especially pepper, and precious stones. Pepper
was particularly valued in the Roman Empire, so
much so that it was known as black gold. So,
traders carried many of these goods to Rome in
ships, across the sea, and by land in caravans.
There must have been quite a lot of trade as many
Roman gold coins have been found in south India.
Can you think of how and why these reached
India?
CHAPTER 9
TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PILGRIMS GRIMS GRIMS GRIMS GRIMS
TRADERS, KINGS AND
PILGRIMS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 92
OUR PASTS–I
A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about trade ade ade ade ade
We can find evidence of trade in the Sangam poems.
Here is one which describes the goods brought
into Puhar, an important port on the east coast:
“(Here are brought)
Swift, prancing horses by sea in ships,
Bales of black pepper in carts,
Gems and gold born in the Himalayas,
Sandalwood born in the western hills,
The pearls of the southern seas
And corals from the eastern oceans
The yield of the Ganga and the crops from the
Kaveri,
Foodstuffs from Sri Lanka, pottery from
Myanmar,
And other rare and rich imports.”
Make a list of all the things that are mentioned.
What would they be used for?
Traders explored several sea routes. Some of
these followed the coasts. There were others across
the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, where
sailors took advantage of the monsoon winds to
cross the seas more quickly. So, if they wanted to
reach the western coast of the subcontinent from
East Africa or Arabia, they chose to sail with the
south-west monsoon. And sturdy ships had to be
built for these long journeys.
New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts
The southern half of the subcontinent is marked
by a long coastline, and with hills, plateaus, and
river valleys. Amongst the river valleys, that of
the Kaveri is the most fertile. Chiefs and kings
who controlled the river valleys and the coasts
became rich and powerful. Sangam poems
mention the muvendar. This is a Tamil word
meaning three chiefs, used for the heads of three
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
93 n
ruling families, the Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas
(see Map 7, page 105), who became powerful in
south India around 2300 years ago.
Each of the three chiefs had two centres of
power: one inland, and one on the coast. Of these
six cities, two were very important: Puhar or
Kaveripattinam, the port of the Cholas, and
Madurai, the capital of the Pandyas.
The chiefs did not collect regular taxes. Instead,
they demanded and received gifts from the people.
They also went on military expeditions, and
collected tribute from neighbouring areas. They
kept some of the wealth and distributed the rest
amongst their supporters, including members of
their family, soldiers, and poets. Many poets
whose compositions are found in the Sangam
collection composed poems in praise of chiefs who
often rewarded them with precious stones, gold,
horses, elephants, chariots, and fine cloth.
Around 200 years later a dynasty known as the
Satavahanas became powerful in western India
(see Map 7, page 105). The most important ruler of
the Satavahanas was Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni.
We know about him from an inscription composed
on behalf of his mother, Gautami Balashri. He and
other Satavahana rulers were known as lords of
the dakshinapatha, literally the route leading to
the south, which was also used as a name for the
entire southern region. He sent his army to the
eastern, western and southern coasts.
Why do you think he wanted to control the
coasts?
The stor The stor The stor The stor The story of the Silk R y of the Silk R y of the Silk R y of the Silk R y of the Silk Route oute oute oute oute
The rich, glossy colours of silk, as well as its
smooth texture, make it a highly valued fabric in
most societies. Making silk is a complicated
process. Raw silk has to be extracted from the
TRADERS, KINGS AND
PILGRIMS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 4


91 n
Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the market et et et et
Jagini looked forward to the fair in the village. She loved
to see and touch the pots and pans of shiny steel, bright
plastic buckets, cloth printed with brilliant floral designs,
and clockwork toys, all of which came from the city. The
men who spread out their wares came in buses and trucks
and went back at the end of the day. Why were they
always on the move? She wondered. Her mother
explained that they were traders — people who bought
things where they were made, and sold them elsewhere.
Ho Ho Ho Ho How to f w to f w to f w to f w to find out about tr ind out about tr ind out about tr ind out about tr ind out about trade and tr ade and tr ade and tr ade and tr ade and traders aders aders aders aders
You read about the Northern Black Polished Ware
in Chapter 8. This fine pottery, especially bowls
and plates, were found from several archaeological
sites throughout the subcontinent. How do you
think it reached these places? Traders may have
carried them from the places where they were
made, to sell them at other places.
South India was famous for gold, spices,
especially pepper, and precious stones. Pepper
was particularly valued in the Roman Empire, so
much so that it was known as black gold. So,
traders carried many of these goods to Rome in
ships, across the sea, and by land in caravans.
There must have been quite a lot of trade as many
Roman gold coins have been found in south India.
Can you think of how and why these reached
India?
CHAPTER 9
TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PILGRIMS GRIMS GRIMS GRIMS GRIMS
TRADERS, KINGS AND
PILGRIMS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 92
OUR PASTS–I
A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about trade ade ade ade ade
We can find evidence of trade in the Sangam poems.
Here is one which describes the goods brought
into Puhar, an important port on the east coast:
“(Here are brought)
Swift, prancing horses by sea in ships,
Bales of black pepper in carts,
Gems and gold born in the Himalayas,
Sandalwood born in the western hills,
The pearls of the southern seas
And corals from the eastern oceans
The yield of the Ganga and the crops from the
Kaveri,
Foodstuffs from Sri Lanka, pottery from
Myanmar,
And other rare and rich imports.”
Make a list of all the things that are mentioned.
What would they be used for?
Traders explored several sea routes. Some of
these followed the coasts. There were others across
the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, where
sailors took advantage of the monsoon winds to
cross the seas more quickly. So, if they wanted to
reach the western coast of the subcontinent from
East Africa or Arabia, they chose to sail with the
south-west monsoon. And sturdy ships had to be
built for these long journeys.
New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts
The southern half of the subcontinent is marked
by a long coastline, and with hills, plateaus, and
river valleys. Amongst the river valleys, that of
the Kaveri is the most fertile. Chiefs and kings
who controlled the river valleys and the coasts
became rich and powerful. Sangam poems
mention the muvendar. This is a Tamil word
meaning three chiefs, used for the heads of three
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
93 n
ruling families, the Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas
(see Map 7, page 105), who became powerful in
south India around 2300 years ago.
Each of the three chiefs had two centres of
power: one inland, and one on the coast. Of these
six cities, two were very important: Puhar or
Kaveripattinam, the port of the Cholas, and
Madurai, the capital of the Pandyas.
The chiefs did not collect regular taxes. Instead,
they demanded and received gifts from the people.
They also went on military expeditions, and
collected tribute from neighbouring areas. They
kept some of the wealth and distributed the rest
amongst their supporters, including members of
their family, soldiers, and poets. Many poets
whose compositions are found in the Sangam
collection composed poems in praise of chiefs who
often rewarded them with precious stones, gold,
horses, elephants, chariots, and fine cloth.
Around 200 years later a dynasty known as the
Satavahanas became powerful in western India
(see Map 7, page 105). The most important ruler of
the Satavahanas was Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni.
We know about him from an inscription composed
on behalf of his mother, Gautami Balashri. He and
other Satavahana rulers were known as lords of
the dakshinapatha, literally the route leading to
the south, which was also used as a name for the
entire southern region. He sent his army to the
eastern, western and southern coasts.
Why do you think he wanted to control the
coasts?
The stor The stor The stor The stor The story of the Silk R y of the Silk R y of the Silk R y of the Silk R y of the Silk Route oute oute oute oute
The rich, glossy colours of silk, as well as its
smooth texture, make it a highly valued fabric in
most societies. Making silk is a complicated
process. Raw silk has to be extracted from the
TRADERS, KINGS AND
PILGRIMS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 94
OUR PASTS–I
cocoons of silk worms, spun into thread and then
woven into cloth. Techniques of making silk were
first invented in China around 7000 years ago.
While the methods remained a closely guarded
secret for thousands of years, some people from
China who went to distant lands on foot,
horseback, and on camels, carried silk with them.
The paths they followed came to be known as the
Silk Route.
Sometimes, Chinese rulers sent gifts of silk to
rulers in Iran and west Asia, and from there, the
knowledge of silk spread further west. About 2000
years ago, wearing silk became the fashion
amongst rulers and rich people in Rome. It was
very expensive, as it had to be brought all the
way from China, along dangerous roads, through
mountains and deserts. People living along the
route often demanded payments for allowing
traders to pass through.
Look at Map 6 (pages 76-77) which shows the
Silk Route and its branches. Some kings tried to
control large portions of the route. This was
because they could benefit from taxes, tributes
and gifts that were brought by traders travelling
along the route. In return, they often protected
the traders who passed through their kingdoms
from attacks by robbers.
The best-known of the rulers who controlled
the Silk Route were the Kushanas, who ruled over
central Asia and north-west India around 2000
years ago. Their two major centres of power were
Peshawar and Mathura. Taxila was also included
in their kingdom. During their rule, a branch of
the Silk Route extended from Central Asia down
to the seaports at the mouth of the river Indus,
from where silk was shipped westwards to the
Roman Empire. The Kushanas were amongst the
earliest rulers of the subcontinent to issue gold
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 5


91 n
Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the mark Jagini at the market et et et et
Jagini looked forward to the fair in the village. She loved
to see and touch the pots and pans of shiny steel, bright
plastic buckets, cloth printed with brilliant floral designs,
and clockwork toys, all of which came from the city. The
men who spread out their wares came in buses and trucks
and went back at the end of the day. Why were they
always on the move? She wondered. Her mother
explained that they were traders — people who bought
things where they were made, and sold them elsewhere.
Ho Ho Ho Ho How to f w to f w to f w to f w to find out about tr ind out about tr ind out about tr ind out about tr ind out about trade and tr ade and tr ade and tr ade and tr ade and traders aders aders aders aders
You read about the Northern Black Polished Ware
in Chapter 8. This fine pottery, especially bowls
and plates, were found from several archaeological
sites throughout the subcontinent. How do you
think it reached these places? Traders may have
carried them from the places where they were
made, to sell them at other places.
South India was famous for gold, spices,
especially pepper, and precious stones. Pepper
was particularly valued in the Roman Empire, so
much so that it was known as black gold. So,
traders carried many of these goods to Rome in
ships, across the sea, and by land in caravans.
There must have been quite a lot of trade as many
Roman gold coins have been found in south India.
Can you think of how and why these reached
India?
CHAPTER 9
TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PIL TRADERS, KINGS AND PILGRIMS GRIMS GRIMS GRIMS GRIMS
TRADERS, KINGS AND
PILGRIMS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 92
OUR PASTS–I
A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about tr A poem about trade ade ade ade ade
We can find evidence of trade in the Sangam poems.
Here is one which describes the goods brought
into Puhar, an important port on the east coast:
“(Here are brought)
Swift, prancing horses by sea in ships,
Bales of black pepper in carts,
Gems and gold born in the Himalayas,
Sandalwood born in the western hills,
The pearls of the southern seas
And corals from the eastern oceans
The yield of the Ganga and the crops from the
Kaveri,
Foodstuffs from Sri Lanka, pottery from
Myanmar,
And other rare and rich imports.”
Make a list of all the things that are mentioned.
What would they be used for?
Traders explored several sea routes. Some of
these followed the coasts. There were others across
the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, where
sailors took advantage of the monsoon winds to
cross the seas more quickly. So, if they wanted to
reach the western coast of the subcontinent from
East Africa or Arabia, they chose to sail with the
south-west monsoon. And sturdy ships had to be
built for these long journeys.
New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts New kingdoms along the coasts
The southern half of the subcontinent is marked
by a long coastline, and with hills, plateaus, and
river valleys. Amongst the river valleys, that of
the Kaveri is the most fertile. Chiefs and kings
who controlled the river valleys and the coasts
became rich and powerful. Sangam poems
mention the muvendar. This is a Tamil word
meaning three chiefs, used for the heads of three
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
93 n
ruling families, the Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas
(see Map 7, page 105), who became powerful in
south India around 2300 years ago.
Each of the three chiefs had two centres of
power: one inland, and one on the coast. Of these
six cities, two were very important: Puhar or
Kaveripattinam, the port of the Cholas, and
Madurai, the capital of the Pandyas.
The chiefs did not collect regular taxes. Instead,
they demanded and received gifts from the people.
They also went on military expeditions, and
collected tribute from neighbouring areas. They
kept some of the wealth and distributed the rest
amongst their supporters, including members of
their family, soldiers, and poets. Many poets
whose compositions are found in the Sangam
collection composed poems in praise of chiefs who
often rewarded them with precious stones, gold,
horses, elephants, chariots, and fine cloth.
Around 200 years later a dynasty known as the
Satavahanas became powerful in western India
(see Map 7, page 105). The most important ruler of
the Satavahanas was Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni.
We know about him from an inscription composed
on behalf of his mother, Gautami Balashri. He and
other Satavahana rulers were known as lords of
the dakshinapatha, literally the route leading to
the south, which was also used as a name for the
entire southern region. He sent his army to the
eastern, western and southern coasts.
Why do you think he wanted to control the
coasts?
The stor The stor The stor The stor The story of the Silk R y of the Silk R y of the Silk R y of the Silk R y of the Silk Route oute oute oute oute
The rich, glossy colours of silk, as well as its
smooth texture, make it a highly valued fabric in
most societies. Making silk is a complicated
process. Raw silk has to be extracted from the
TRADERS, KINGS AND
PILGRIMS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 94
OUR PASTS–I
cocoons of silk worms, spun into thread and then
woven into cloth. Techniques of making silk were
first invented in China around 7000 years ago.
While the methods remained a closely guarded
secret for thousands of years, some people from
China who went to distant lands on foot,
horseback, and on camels, carried silk with them.
The paths they followed came to be known as the
Silk Route.
Sometimes, Chinese rulers sent gifts of silk to
rulers in Iran and west Asia, and from there, the
knowledge of silk spread further west. About 2000
years ago, wearing silk became the fashion
amongst rulers and rich people in Rome. It was
very expensive, as it had to be brought all the
way from China, along dangerous roads, through
mountains and deserts. People living along the
route often demanded payments for allowing
traders to pass through.
Look at Map 6 (pages 76-77) which shows the
Silk Route and its branches. Some kings tried to
control large portions of the route. This was
because they could benefit from taxes, tributes
and gifts that were brought by traders travelling
along the route. In return, they often protected
the traders who passed through their kingdoms
from attacks by robbers.
The best-known of the rulers who controlled
the Silk Route were the Kushanas, who ruled over
central Asia and north-west India around 2000
years ago. Their two major centres of power were
Peshawar and Mathura. Taxila was also included
in their kingdom. During their rule, a branch of
the Silk Route extended from Central Asia down
to the seaports at the mouth of the river Indus,
from where silk was shipped westwards to the
Roman Empire. The Kushanas were amongst the
earliest rulers of the subcontinent to issue gold
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
95 n
coins. These were used by traders along the Silk
Route.
Why do you think it would have been difficult
to use carts along the Silk Route?
Silk was also sent from China by sea. Trace
the routes on Map 6 (pages 76-77). What do you
think would have been the advantages and
problems in transporting silk by sea?
The spread of Buddhism The spread of Buddhism The spread of Buddhism The spread of Buddhism The spread of Buddhism
The most famous Kushana ruler was Kanishka,
who ruled around 1900 years ago. He organised
a Buddhist council, where scholars met and
discussed important matters.
Ashvaghosha, a poet who
composed a biography of the
Buddha, the Buddhacharita,
lived in his court. Ashvaghosha
and other Buddhist scholars now
began writing in Sanskrit.
A new form of Buddhism,
known as Mahayana Buddhism,
now developed. This had two
distinct features. Earlier, the
Buddha’s presence was shown in
sculpture by using certain signs.
For instance, his attainment of
enlightenment was shown by
sculptures of the peepal tree.
Now, statues of the Buddha
were made. Many of these were
made in Mathura, while others
were made in Taxila.
The second change was a belief
in Bodhisattvas. These were
supposed to be persons who had
attained enlightenment. Once they attained
enlightenment, they could live in complete
A sculpture from the
stupa at Sanchi.
Look at the tree and the
empty seat below it.
Sculptors carved this to
indicate that the Buddha
had attained
enlightenment while
meditating under the
tree.
TRADERS, KINGS AND
PILGRIMS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
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