NCERT Textbook - Julius Caesar Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Literature Reader Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - Julius Caesar Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


1. Consult a dictionary and find out the difference between
a) killing
b) murder
c) assassination
2. Popular and powerful leaders have been assassinated in the past and in recent 
times. Can you name some of them?
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
3. Discuss in groups the reasons why the leaders you named in (2) were 
assassinated. Is assassination the end to a problem?
Have a group discussion on the topic in the context of past/ present day political 
assassinations.
Introduction:
JULIUS CAESAR is the story of a man's personal dilemma over moral action, set 
against a backdrop of strained political drama. Julius Caesar, an able general and a 
conqueror returns to Rome amidst immense popularity after defeating the sons of 
Pompey. The people celebrate his victorious return and Mark Antony offers him the 
Crown which he refuses. Jealous of Caesar's growing power and afraid he may one 
day become a dictator, Cassius instigates a conspiracy to murder Caesar. He realises 
that to gain legitimacy in the eyes of the Romans, he must win over the noble Brutus to 
his side for Brutus is the most trusted and respected in Rome. Brutus, the idealist, 
•
•
•
•
•
D.2    Julius Caesar
by William Shakespeare 
CBSE
157
14 14
UNIT UNIT
Drama
Page 2


1. Consult a dictionary and find out the difference between
a) killing
b) murder
c) assassination
2. Popular and powerful leaders have been assassinated in the past and in recent 
times. Can you name some of them?
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
3. Discuss in groups the reasons why the leaders you named in (2) were 
assassinated. Is assassination the end to a problem?
Have a group discussion on the topic in the context of past/ present day political 
assassinations.
Introduction:
JULIUS CAESAR is the story of a man's personal dilemma over moral action, set 
against a backdrop of strained political drama. Julius Caesar, an able general and a 
conqueror returns to Rome amidst immense popularity after defeating the sons of 
Pompey. The people celebrate his victorious return and Mark Antony offers him the 
Crown which he refuses. Jealous of Caesar's growing power and afraid he may one 
day become a dictator, Cassius instigates a conspiracy to murder Caesar. He realises 
that to gain legitimacy in the eyes of the Romans, he must win over the noble Brutus to 
his side for Brutus is the most trusted and respected in Rome. Brutus, the idealist, 
•
•
•
•
•
D.2    Julius Caesar
by William Shakespeare 
CBSE
157
14 14
UNIT UNIT
Drama
CBSE
Drama
158
joins the conspiracy feeling that everyone is driven by motives as honourable as his 
own. Ironically, Caesar is murdered at the foot of Pompey's statue.
Some Important Characters
Julius Caesar- The greatest and most powerful of the Romans. Assassinated by 
Brutus, Cassius and a band of conspirators who feel Caesar is very 
ambitious and wants the crown.
Calpurnia- Caesar's wife
Mark Antony- Caesar's most loyal friend
Marcus Brutus-Caesar's great friend who joins the conspiracy because of his great love 
for Rome and for democracy.
Cassius- Inspirer and organizer of the conspiracy
Decius Brutus- Co-conspirator in Caesar's assassination
4. The play Julius Caesar can be performed on the stage. The first step would be a 
reading of the play as a whole class. Your teacher will then have an audition and 
assign you roles. Later the play can be put up on the stage.
Given below are some suggestions and sites which may be visited for 
instructions regarding set-design, costumes and direction. 
http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/ 
http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/theatre.htm
http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/xGlobe.html
http://www.shakespearetheatre.org/plays/details.aspx?id=115
http://www.zunal.com/process.php?w=56091
Act II Scene II
Caesar's house.
Thunder and lightning. Enter CAESAR in his night-gown
CAESAR Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace to-night:
Thrice hath Calpurnia in her sleep cried out,
'Help, ho! they murder Caesar!' Who's within?
Enter a servant
SERVANT  My lord?
Page 3


1. Consult a dictionary and find out the difference between
a) killing
b) murder
c) assassination
2. Popular and powerful leaders have been assassinated in the past and in recent 
times. Can you name some of them?
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
3. Discuss in groups the reasons why the leaders you named in (2) were 
assassinated. Is assassination the end to a problem?
Have a group discussion on the topic in the context of past/ present day political 
assassinations.
Introduction:
JULIUS CAESAR is the story of a man's personal dilemma over moral action, set 
against a backdrop of strained political drama. Julius Caesar, an able general and a 
conqueror returns to Rome amidst immense popularity after defeating the sons of 
Pompey. The people celebrate his victorious return and Mark Antony offers him the 
Crown which he refuses. Jealous of Caesar's growing power and afraid he may one 
day become a dictator, Cassius instigates a conspiracy to murder Caesar. He realises 
that to gain legitimacy in the eyes of the Romans, he must win over the noble Brutus to 
his side for Brutus is the most trusted and respected in Rome. Brutus, the idealist, 
•
•
•
•
•
D.2    Julius Caesar
by William Shakespeare 
CBSE
157
14 14
UNIT UNIT
Drama
CBSE
Drama
158
joins the conspiracy feeling that everyone is driven by motives as honourable as his 
own. Ironically, Caesar is murdered at the foot of Pompey's statue.
Some Important Characters
Julius Caesar- The greatest and most powerful of the Romans. Assassinated by 
Brutus, Cassius and a band of conspirators who feel Caesar is very 
ambitious and wants the crown.
Calpurnia- Caesar's wife
Mark Antony- Caesar's most loyal friend
Marcus Brutus-Caesar's great friend who joins the conspiracy because of his great love 
for Rome and for democracy.
Cassius- Inspirer and organizer of the conspiracy
Decius Brutus- Co-conspirator in Caesar's assassination
4. The play Julius Caesar can be performed on the stage. The first step would be a 
reading of the play as a whole class. Your teacher will then have an audition and 
assign you roles. Later the play can be put up on the stage.
Given below are some suggestions and sites which may be visited for 
instructions regarding set-design, costumes and direction. 
http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/ 
http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/theatre.htm
http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/xGlobe.html
http://www.shakespearetheatre.org/plays/details.aspx?id=115
http://www.zunal.com/process.php?w=56091
Act II Scene II
Caesar's house.
Thunder and lightning. Enter CAESAR in his night-gown
CAESAR Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace to-night:
Thrice hath Calpurnia in her sleep cried out,
'Help, ho! they murder Caesar!' Who's within?
Enter a servant
SERVANT  My lord?
CBSE
Drama
159
CAESAR  Go bid the priest do present sacrifice and bring me their opinions of success.
SERVANT I will, my lord
Enter CALPURNIA
CALPURNIA 
What mean you, Caesar? Think you to walk forth?
You shall not stir out of your house to-day.
CAESAR Caesar shall forth: the things that threaten'd me
Ne'er look'd but on my back; when they shall see
The face of Caesar, they are vanished.
1
CALPURNIA Caesar, I never stood on ceremonies ,
Yet now they fright me. There is one within,
Besides the things that we have heard and seen,
Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch.
A lioness hath whelped in the streets;
And graves have yawn'd, and yielded up their dead;
Fierce fiery warriors fought upon the clouds,
2
In ranks and squadrons and right form of war ,
Which drizzled blood upon the Capitol;
3
The noise of battle hurtled in the air,
Horses did neigh, and dying men did groan,
And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets.
4
O Caesar! these things are beyond all use ,
And I do fear them.
CAESAR What can be avoided
Whose end is purposed by the mighty gods?
Yet Caesar shall go forth; for these predictions
1 stood on ceremonies - paid much attention to omens and forecasts
2 right form of war - correct battle order
3 hurtled - clashed 
4 beyond all use - most unnatural
Page 4


1. Consult a dictionary and find out the difference between
a) killing
b) murder
c) assassination
2. Popular and powerful leaders have been assassinated in the past and in recent 
times. Can you name some of them?
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
3. Discuss in groups the reasons why the leaders you named in (2) were 
assassinated. Is assassination the end to a problem?
Have a group discussion on the topic in the context of past/ present day political 
assassinations.
Introduction:
JULIUS CAESAR is the story of a man's personal dilemma over moral action, set 
against a backdrop of strained political drama. Julius Caesar, an able general and a 
conqueror returns to Rome amidst immense popularity after defeating the sons of 
Pompey. The people celebrate his victorious return and Mark Antony offers him the 
Crown which he refuses. Jealous of Caesar's growing power and afraid he may one 
day become a dictator, Cassius instigates a conspiracy to murder Caesar. He realises 
that to gain legitimacy in the eyes of the Romans, he must win over the noble Brutus to 
his side for Brutus is the most trusted and respected in Rome. Brutus, the idealist, 
•
•
•
•
•
D.2    Julius Caesar
by William Shakespeare 
CBSE
157
14 14
UNIT UNIT
Drama
CBSE
Drama
158
joins the conspiracy feeling that everyone is driven by motives as honourable as his 
own. Ironically, Caesar is murdered at the foot of Pompey's statue.
Some Important Characters
Julius Caesar- The greatest and most powerful of the Romans. Assassinated by 
Brutus, Cassius and a band of conspirators who feel Caesar is very 
ambitious and wants the crown.
Calpurnia- Caesar's wife
Mark Antony- Caesar's most loyal friend
Marcus Brutus-Caesar's great friend who joins the conspiracy because of his great love 
for Rome and for democracy.
Cassius- Inspirer and organizer of the conspiracy
Decius Brutus- Co-conspirator in Caesar's assassination
4. The play Julius Caesar can be performed on the stage. The first step would be a 
reading of the play as a whole class. Your teacher will then have an audition and 
assign you roles. Later the play can be put up on the stage.
Given below are some suggestions and sites which may be visited for 
instructions regarding set-design, costumes and direction. 
http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/ 
http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/theatre.htm
http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/xGlobe.html
http://www.shakespearetheatre.org/plays/details.aspx?id=115
http://www.zunal.com/process.php?w=56091
Act II Scene II
Caesar's house.
Thunder and lightning. Enter CAESAR in his night-gown
CAESAR Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace to-night:
Thrice hath Calpurnia in her sleep cried out,
'Help, ho! they murder Caesar!' Who's within?
Enter a servant
SERVANT  My lord?
CBSE
Drama
159
CAESAR  Go bid the priest do present sacrifice and bring me their opinions of success.
SERVANT I will, my lord
Enter CALPURNIA
CALPURNIA 
What mean you, Caesar? Think you to walk forth?
You shall not stir out of your house to-day.
CAESAR Caesar shall forth: the things that threaten'd me
Ne'er look'd but on my back; when they shall see
The face of Caesar, they are vanished.
1
CALPURNIA Caesar, I never stood on ceremonies ,
Yet now they fright me. There is one within,
Besides the things that we have heard and seen,
Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch.
A lioness hath whelped in the streets;
And graves have yawn'd, and yielded up their dead;
Fierce fiery warriors fought upon the clouds,
2
In ranks and squadrons and right form of war ,
Which drizzled blood upon the Capitol;
3
The noise of battle hurtled in the air,
Horses did neigh, and dying men did groan,
And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets.
4
O Caesar! these things are beyond all use ,
And I do fear them.
CAESAR What can be avoided
Whose end is purposed by the mighty gods?
Yet Caesar shall go forth; for these predictions
1 stood on ceremonies - paid much attention to omens and forecasts
2 right form of war - correct battle order
3 hurtled - clashed 
4 beyond all use - most unnatural
CBSE
Drama
160
Are to the world in general as to Caesar.
CALPURNIA When beggars die, there are no comets seen;
The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes.
CAESAR Cowards die many times before their deaths;
The valiant never taste of death but once.
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard.
It seems to me most strange that men should fear;
5
Seeing that death, a necessary end,
Will come when it will come.
Re-enter Servant
What say the augurers?
Servant They would not have you to stir forth to-day.
Plucking the entrails of an offering forth,
They could not find a heart within the beast.
CAESAR The gods do this in shame of cowardice:
Caesar should be a beast without a heart,
If he should stay at home to-day for fear.
No, Caesar shall not: danger knows full well
That Caesar is more dangerous than he:
We are two lions litter'd in one day,
And I the elder and more terrible:
And Caesar shall go forth.
CALPURNIA  Alas, my lord,
Your wisdom is consumed in confidence.
Do not go forth to-day: call it my fear
That keeps you in the house, and not your own.
We'll send Mark Antony to the senate-house:
5 necessary - inevitable 
Page 5


1. Consult a dictionary and find out the difference between
a) killing
b) murder
c) assassination
2. Popular and powerful leaders have been assassinated in the past and in recent 
times. Can you name some of them?
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
3. Discuss in groups the reasons why the leaders you named in (2) were 
assassinated. Is assassination the end to a problem?
Have a group discussion on the topic in the context of past/ present day political 
assassinations.
Introduction:
JULIUS CAESAR is the story of a man's personal dilemma over moral action, set 
against a backdrop of strained political drama. Julius Caesar, an able general and a 
conqueror returns to Rome amidst immense popularity after defeating the sons of 
Pompey. The people celebrate his victorious return and Mark Antony offers him the 
Crown which he refuses. Jealous of Caesar's growing power and afraid he may one 
day become a dictator, Cassius instigates a conspiracy to murder Caesar. He realises 
that to gain legitimacy in the eyes of the Romans, he must win over the noble Brutus to 
his side for Brutus is the most trusted and respected in Rome. Brutus, the idealist, 
•
•
•
•
•
D.2    Julius Caesar
by William Shakespeare 
CBSE
157
14 14
UNIT UNIT
Drama
CBSE
Drama
158
joins the conspiracy feeling that everyone is driven by motives as honourable as his 
own. Ironically, Caesar is murdered at the foot of Pompey's statue.
Some Important Characters
Julius Caesar- The greatest and most powerful of the Romans. Assassinated by 
Brutus, Cassius and a band of conspirators who feel Caesar is very 
ambitious and wants the crown.
Calpurnia- Caesar's wife
Mark Antony- Caesar's most loyal friend
Marcus Brutus-Caesar's great friend who joins the conspiracy because of his great love 
for Rome and for democracy.
Cassius- Inspirer and organizer of the conspiracy
Decius Brutus- Co-conspirator in Caesar's assassination
4. The play Julius Caesar can be performed on the stage. The first step would be a 
reading of the play as a whole class. Your teacher will then have an audition and 
assign you roles. Later the play can be put up on the stage.
Given below are some suggestions and sites which may be visited for 
instructions regarding set-design, costumes and direction. 
http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/ 
http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/theatre.htm
http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/xGlobe.html
http://www.shakespearetheatre.org/plays/details.aspx?id=115
http://www.zunal.com/process.php?w=56091
Act II Scene II
Caesar's house.
Thunder and lightning. Enter CAESAR in his night-gown
CAESAR Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace to-night:
Thrice hath Calpurnia in her sleep cried out,
'Help, ho! they murder Caesar!' Who's within?
Enter a servant
SERVANT  My lord?
CBSE
Drama
159
CAESAR  Go bid the priest do present sacrifice and bring me their opinions of success.
SERVANT I will, my lord
Enter CALPURNIA
CALPURNIA 
What mean you, Caesar? Think you to walk forth?
You shall not stir out of your house to-day.
CAESAR Caesar shall forth: the things that threaten'd me
Ne'er look'd but on my back; when they shall see
The face of Caesar, they are vanished.
1
CALPURNIA Caesar, I never stood on ceremonies ,
Yet now they fright me. There is one within,
Besides the things that we have heard and seen,
Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch.
A lioness hath whelped in the streets;
And graves have yawn'd, and yielded up their dead;
Fierce fiery warriors fought upon the clouds,
2
In ranks and squadrons and right form of war ,
Which drizzled blood upon the Capitol;
3
The noise of battle hurtled in the air,
Horses did neigh, and dying men did groan,
And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets.
4
O Caesar! these things are beyond all use ,
And I do fear them.
CAESAR What can be avoided
Whose end is purposed by the mighty gods?
Yet Caesar shall go forth; for these predictions
1 stood on ceremonies - paid much attention to omens and forecasts
2 right form of war - correct battle order
3 hurtled - clashed 
4 beyond all use - most unnatural
CBSE
Drama
160
Are to the world in general as to Caesar.
CALPURNIA When beggars die, there are no comets seen;
The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes.
CAESAR Cowards die many times before their deaths;
The valiant never taste of death but once.
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard.
It seems to me most strange that men should fear;
5
Seeing that death, a necessary end,
Will come when it will come.
Re-enter Servant
What say the augurers?
Servant They would not have you to stir forth to-day.
Plucking the entrails of an offering forth,
They could not find a heart within the beast.
CAESAR The gods do this in shame of cowardice:
Caesar should be a beast without a heart,
If he should stay at home to-day for fear.
No, Caesar shall not: danger knows full well
That Caesar is more dangerous than he:
We are two lions litter'd in one day,
And I the elder and more terrible:
And Caesar shall go forth.
CALPURNIA  Alas, my lord,
Your wisdom is consumed in confidence.
Do not go forth to-day: call it my fear
That keeps you in the house, and not your own.
We'll send Mark Antony to the senate-house:
5 necessary - inevitable 
CBSE
Drama
161
And he shall say you are not well to-day:
Let me, upon my knee, prevail in this.
CAESAR Mark Antony shall say I am not well,
And, for thy humour, I will stay at home.
Enter DECIUS BRUTUS
Here's Decius Brutus, he shall tell them so.
DECIUS BRUTUS Caesar, all hail! good morrow, worthy Caesar:
I come to fetch you to the senate-house.
6
CAESAR And you are come in very happy time ,
To bear my greeting to the senators
And tell them that I will not come to-day:
Cannot, is false, and that I dare not, falser:
I will not come to-day: tell them so, Decius.
CALPURNIA Say he is sick.
CAESAR Shall Caesar send a lie?
Have I in conquest stretch'd mine arm so far,
7
To be afraid to tell graybeards the truth?
Decius, go tell them Caesar will not come.
DECIUS BRUTUS Most mighty Caesar, let me know some cause,
Lest I be laugh'd at when I tell them so.
CAESAR Calpurnia here, my wife, stays me at home:
She dreamt to-night she saw my statue,
Which, like a fountain with an hundred spouts,
8
Did run pure blood: and many lusty Romans
Came smiling, and did bathe their hands in it:
And these does she apply for warnings, and portents,
And evils imminent; and on her knee
6 in very happy time- at the right moment
7 graybeards- old men (contemptuously dismissing the senators) 
8 lusty- strong; vigorous
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