NCERT Textbook - Management of Natural Resources Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Science Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - Management of Natural Resources Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Science
266
Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1
Sustainable
Management of
Natural Resources
16 CHAPTER
‘Living in harmony with nature’ is not new to us.  Sustainable living has
always been an integral part of India’s tradition and culture. It has been
integrated with our long-lasting traditions and practices, customs, art
and crafts, festivals, food, beliefs, rituals and folklore. Ingrained within us
is the philosophy that ‘entire natural world be in harmony’ which is
reflected in the famous phrase in Sanskrit ‘Vasudhaiv kutumbakam’ that
means “the entire earth is one family”. The phrase is mentioned in
‘Mahaupanishad’, that is probably a part of the ancient Indian text,
Atharva Veda.
In Class IX we have already learnt about some natural resources
like soil, air and water and how various components are cycled over and
over again in nature. Also, we learnt in the previous chapter about the
pollution of these resources because of some of our activities. In this
chapter, we shall look at some of our resources and how we are using
them. Maybe we should also think about how we ought to be using our
resources so as to sustain them and conserve our environment. We shall
be looking at our natural resources like forests, wildlife, water, coal and
petroleum and see what are the issues at stake in deciding how these
resources are to be managed for sustainable development along with
the input from our traditional practices.
We often hear or read about environmental problems. These are often
global-level problems and we feel helpless to bring any change. There
are international laws and regulations, and then there are our own
national laws and acts for environmental protection. There are also
national and international organisations working towards protecting our
environment.
n Find out about the international norms to regulate the emission
of carbon dioxide.
n Have a discussion in class about how we can contribute towards
meeting those norms.
2020-21
Page 2


Science
266
Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1
Sustainable
Management of
Natural Resources
16 CHAPTER
‘Living in harmony with nature’ is not new to us.  Sustainable living has
always been an integral part of India’s tradition and culture. It has been
integrated with our long-lasting traditions and practices, customs, art
and crafts, festivals, food, beliefs, rituals and folklore. Ingrained within us
is the philosophy that ‘entire natural world be in harmony’ which is
reflected in the famous phrase in Sanskrit ‘Vasudhaiv kutumbakam’ that
means “the entire earth is one family”. The phrase is mentioned in
‘Mahaupanishad’, that is probably a part of the ancient Indian text,
Atharva Veda.
In Class IX we have already learnt about some natural resources
like soil, air and water and how various components are cycled over and
over again in nature. Also, we learnt in the previous chapter about the
pollution of these resources because of some of our activities. In this
chapter, we shall look at some of our resources and how we are using
them. Maybe we should also think about how we ought to be using our
resources so as to sustain them and conserve our environment. We shall
be looking at our natural resources like forests, wildlife, water, coal and
petroleum and see what are the issues at stake in deciding how these
resources are to be managed for sustainable development along with
the input from our traditional practices.
We often hear or read about environmental problems. These are often
global-level problems and we feel helpless to bring any change. There
are international laws and regulations, and then there are our own
national laws and acts for environmental protection. There are also
national and international organisations working towards protecting our
environment.
n Find out about the international norms to regulate the emission
of carbon dioxide.
n Have a discussion in class about how we can contribute towards
meeting those norms.
2020-21
Sustainable Management of Natural Resources 267
Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2
n There are a number of organisations that seek to spread awareness
about our environment and promote activities and attitudes that
lead to the conservation of our environment and natural resources.
Find out about the organisation(s) active in your neighbourhood/
village/town/city.
n Find out how you can contribute towards the same cause.
Awareness about the problems caused by unthinkingly exploiting
our resources has been a fairly recent phenomenon in our society. And
once this awareness rises, some action is usually taken. You must have
heard about the Ganga Action Plan. This multi-crore project came about
in 1985 because the quality of the water in the Ganga was very poor.
Coliform is a group of bacteria, found in human intestines, whose
presence in water indicates contamination by disease-causing
microorganisms.
Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Total coliform count levels in the Ganga
Source: Central Pollution Control Board, 2012
2020-21
Page 3


Science
266
Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1
Sustainable
Management of
Natural Resources
16 CHAPTER
‘Living in harmony with nature’ is not new to us.  Sustainable living has
always been an integral part of India’s tradition and culture. It has been
integrated with our long-lasting traditions and practices, customs, art
and crafts, festivals, food, beliefs, rituals and folklore. Ingrained within us
is the philosophy that ‘entire natural world be in harmony’ which is
reflected in the famous phrase in Sanskrit ‘Vasudhaiv kutumbakam’ that
means “the entire earth is one family”. The phrase is mentioned in
‘Mahaupanishad’, that is probably a part of the ancient Indian text,
Atharva Veda.
In Class IX we have already learnt about some natural resources
like soil, air and water and how various components are cycled over and
over again in nature. Also, we learnt in the previous chapter about the
pollution of these resources because of some of our activities. In this
chapter, we shall look at some of our resources and how we are using
them. Maybe we should also think about how we ought to be using our
resources so as to sustain them and conserve our environment. We shall
be looking at our natural resources like forests, wildlife, water, coal and
petroleum and see what are the issues at stake in deciding how these
resources are to be managed for sustainable development along with
the input from our traditional practices.
We often hear or read about environmental problems. These are often
global-level problems and we feel helpless to bring any change. There
are international laws and regulations, and then there are our own
national laws and acts for environmental protection. There are also
national and international organisations working towards protecting our
environment.
n Find out about the international norms to regulate the emission
of carbon dioxide.
n Have a discussion in class about how we can contribute towards
meeting those norms.
2020-21
Sustainable Management of Natural Resources 267
Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2
n There are a number of organisations that seek to spread awareness
about our environment and promote activities and attitudes that
lead to the conservation of our environment and natural resources.
Find out about the organisation(s) active in your neighbourhood/
village/town/city.
n Find out how you can contribute towards the same cause.
Awareness about the problems caused by unthinkingly exploiting
our resources has been a fairly recent phenomenon in our society. And
once this awareness rises, some action is usually taken. You must have
heard about the Ganga Action Plan. This multi-crore project came about
in 1985 because the quality of the water in the Ganga was very poor.
Coliform is a group of bacteria, found in human intestines, whose
presence in water indicates contamination by disease-causing
microorganisms.
Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Total coliform count levels in the Ganga
Source: Central Pollution Control Board, 2012
2020-21
Science
268
We need not feel powerless or overwhelmed by the scale of the
problems because there are many things we can do to make a difference.
You must have come across the five R’s to save the environment: Refuse,
Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle. What do they refer to?
Refuse: This means to say No to things people offer you that you
don’t need. Refuse to buy products that can harm you and
the environment, say No to single-use plastic carry bags.
Reduce: This means that you use less. You save electricity by
switching off unnecessary lights and fans. You save water
by repairing leaky taps. Do not waste food. Can you think
of other things that you can reduce the usage of ?
Reuse: This is actually even better than recycling because the
process of recycling uses some energy. In the ‘reuse’
strategy, you simply use things again and again. Instead
of throwing away used envelopes, you can reverse it and
use it again. The plastic bottles in which you buy various
food-items like jam or pickle can be used for storing things
in the kitchen. What other items can we reuse?
Do You Know?
Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3
Pollution of the Ganga
The Ganga runs its course of over 2500 km from Gangotri in the Himalayas to Ganga
Sagar in the Bay of Bengal. It is being turned into a drain by more than a hundred
towns and cities in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal that pour their garbage
and excreta into it. Largely untreated sewage is dumped into the Ganges every
day. In addition, think of the pollution caused by other human activities like
bathing, washing of clothes and immersion of ashes or unburnt corpses. And then,
industries contribute chemical effluents to the Ganga’s pollution load and the
toxicity kills fish in large sections of the river. Namami Gange Programme is an
Integrated Conservation Mission approved as a Flagship Programme by the Union
Government in June, 2014. It was launched to accomplish the twin objectives of effective
abatement of pollution conservation and rejuvenation of River Ganga. The National
Mission for Clean Ganga is the implementation wing set up in October, 2016.
n Check the pH of the water supplied to your house using universal
indicator or litmus paper.
n Also check the pH of the water in the local waterbody (pond, river,
lake, stream).
n Can you say whether the water is polluted or not on the basis of
your observations?
As you can see, there are some measurable factors which are used
to quantify pollution or the quality of the water that we use for various
activities. Some of the pollutants are harmful even when present in very
small quantities and we require sophisticated equipment to measure
them. But as we learnt in Chapter 2, the pH of water is something that
can easily be checked using universal indicator.
2020-21
Page 4


Science
266
Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1
Sustainable
Management of
Natural Resources
16 CHAPTER
‘Living in harmony with nature’ is not new to us.  Sustainable living has
always been an integral part of India’s tradition and culture. It has been
integrated with our long-lasting traditions and practices, customs, art
and crafts, festivals, food, beliefs, rituals and folklore. Ingrained within us
is the philosophy that ‘entire natural world be in harmony’ which is
reflected in the famous phrase in Sanskrit ‘Vasudhaiv kutumbakam’ that
means “the entire earth is one family”. The phrase is mentioned in
‘Mahaupanishad’, that is probably a part of the ancient Indian text,
Atharva Veda.
In Class IX we have already learnt about some natural resources
like soil, air and water and how various components are cycled over and
over again in nature. Also, we learnt in the previous chapter about the
pollution of these resources because of some of our activities. In this
chapter, we shall look at some of our resources and how we are using
them. Maybe we should also think about how we ought to be using our
resources so as to sustain them and conserve our environment. We shall
be looking at our natural resources like forests, wildlife, water, coal and
petroleum and see what are the issues at stake in deciding how these
resources are to be managed for sustainable development along with
the input from our traditional practices.
We often hear or read about environmental problems. These are often
global-level problems and we feel helpless to bring any change. There
are international laws and regulations, and then there are our own
national laws and acts for environmental protection. There are also
national and international organisations working towards protecting our
environment.
n Find out about the international norms to regulate the emission
of carbon dioxide.
n Have a discussion in class about how we can contribute towards
meeting those norms.
2020-21
Sustainable Management of Natural Resources 267
Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2
n There are a number of organisations that seek to spread awareness
about our environment and promote activities and attitudes that
lead to the conservation of our environment and natural resources.
Find out about the organisation(s) active in your neighbourhood/
village/town/city.
n Find out how you can contribute towards the same cause.
Awareness about the problems caused by unthinkingly exploiting
our resources has been a fairly recent phenomenon in our society. And
once this awareness rises, some action is usually taken. You must have
heard about the Ganga Action Plan. This multi-crore project came about
in 1985 because the quality of the water in the Ganga was very poor.
Coliform is a group of bacteria, found in human intestines, whose
presence in water indicates contamination by disease-causing
microorganisms.
Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Total coliform count levels in the Ganga
Source: Central Pollution Control Board, 2012
2020-21
Science
268
We need not feel powerless or overwhelmed by the scale of the
problems because there are many things we can do to make a difference.
You must have come across the five R’s to save the environment: Refuse,
Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle. What do they refer to?
Refuse: This means to say No to things people offer you that you
don’t need. Refuse to buy products that can harm you and
the environment, say No to single-use plastic carry bags.
Reduce: This means that you use less. You save electricity by
switching off unnecessary lights and fans. You save water
by repairing leaky taps. Do not waste food. Can you think
of other things that you can reduce the usage of ?
Reuse: This is actually even better than recycling because the
process of recycling uses some energy. In the ‘reuse’
strategy, you simply use things again and again. Instead
of throwing away used envelopes, you can reverse it and
use it again. The plastic bottles in which you buy various
food-items like jam or pickle can be used for storing things
in the kitchen. What other items can we reuse?
Do You Know?
Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3
Pollution of the Ganga
The Ganga runs its course of over 2500 km from Gangotri in the Himalayas to Ganga
Sagar in the Bay of Bengal. It is being turned into a drain by more than a hundred
towns and cities in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal that pour their garbage
and excreta into it. Largely untreated sewage is dumped into the Ganges every
day. In addition, think of the pollution caused by other human activities like
bathing, washing of clothes and immersion of ashes or unburnt corpses. And then,
industries contribute chemical effluents to the Ganga’s pollution load and the
toxicity kills fish in large sections of the river. Namami Gange Programme is an
Integrated Conservation Mission approved as a Flagship Programme by the Union
Government in June, 2014. It was launched to accomplish the twin objectives of effective
abatement of pollution conservation and rejuvenation of River Ganga. The National
Mission for Clean Ganga is the implementation wing set up in October, 2016.
n Check the pH of the water supplied to your house using universal
indicator or litmus paper.
n Also check the pH of the water in the local waterbody (pond, river,
lake, stream).
n Can you say whether the water is polluted or not on the basis of
your observations?
As you can see, there are some measurable factors which are used
to quantify pollution or the quality of the water that we use for various
activities. Some of the pollutants are harmful even when present in very
small quantities and we require sophisticated equipment to measure
them. But as we learnt in Chapter 2, the pH of water is something that
can easily be checked using universal indicator.
2020-21
Sustainable Management of Natural Resources 269
16.1 WHY DO WE NEED TO MANAGE OUR RESOURCES? 16.1 WHY DO WE NEED TO MANAGE OUR RESOURCES? 16.1 WHY DO WE NEED TO MANAGE OUR RESOURCES? 16.1 WHY DO WE NEED TO MANAGE OUR RESOURCES? 16.1 WHY DO WE NEED TO MANAGE OUR RESOURCES?
Not just roads and buildings, but all the things we use or consume–
food, clothes, books, toys, furniture, tools and vehicles – are obtained
from resources on this earth. The only thing we get from outside is energy
which we receive from the Sun. Even this energy is processed by living
organisms and various physical and chemical processes on the earth
before we make use of it.
Why do we need to use our resources carefully? Because these are
not unlimited and with the human population increasing at a
tremendous rate due to improvement in health-care, the demand for all
resources is increasing at an exponential rate. The management of
natural resources requires a long-term perspective so that these will
last for the generations to come and will not merely be exploited to the
Repurpose: This means when a product can no more be used for the
original purpose, think carefully and use it for some other
useful purpose. For example, cracked crockery, or cups
with broken handles can be used to grow small plants
and as feeding vessels for birds.
Recycle: This means that you collect plastic, paper, glass and metal
items and recycle these materials to make required things
instead of synthesising or extracting fresh plastic, paper,
glass or metal. In order to recycle, we first need to segregate
our wastes so that the material that can be recycled is not
dumped along with other wastes. Does your village/town/
city have a mechanism in place for recycling these materials?
Even while making everyday choices, we can make environment-
friendly decisions. For doing this, we need to know more about how our
choices affect the environment, these effects may be immediate or long-
term or long-ranging. The concept of sustainable development
encourages forms of growth that meet current basic human needs, while
preserving the resources for the needs of future generations. Economic
development is linked to environmental conservation. Thus sustainable
development implies a change in all aspects of life. It depends upon the
willingness of the people to change their perceptions of the socio-economic
and environmental conditions around them, and the readiness of each
individual to alter their present use of natural resources.
Activity 16.4 Activity 16.4 Activity 16.4 Activity 16.4 Activity 16.4
n Have you ever visited a town or village after a few years of absence?
If so, have you noticed new roads and houses that have come up
since you were there last? Where do you think the materials for
making these roads and buildings have come from?
n Try and make a list of the materials and their probable sources.
n Discuss the list you have prepared with your classmates. Can
you think of ways in which the use of these materials be reduced?
2020-21
Page 5


Science
266
Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1 Activity 16.1
Sustainable
Management of
Natural Resources
16 CHAPTER
‘Living in harmony with nature’ is not new to us.  Sustainable living has
always been an integral part of India’s tradition and culture. It has been
integrated with our long-lasting traditions and practices, customs, art
and crafts, festivals, food, beliefs, rituals and folklore. Ingrained within us
is the philosophy that ‘entire natural world be in harmony’ which is
reflected in the famous phrase in Sanskrit ‘Vasudhaiv kutumbakam’ that
means “the entire earth is one family”. The phrase is mentioned in
‘Mahaupanishad’, that is probably a part of the ancient Indian text,
Atharva Veda.
In Class IX we have already learnt about some natural resources
like soil, air and water and how various components are cycled over and
over again in nature. Also, we learnt in the previous chapter about the
pollution of these resources because of some of our activities. In this
chapter, we shall look at some of our resources and how we are using
them. Maybe we should also think about how we ought to be using our
resources so as to sustain them and conserve our environment. We shall
be looking at our natural resources like forests, wildlife, water, coal and
petroleum and see what are the issues at stake in deciding how these
resources are to be managed for sustainable development along with
the input from our traditional practices.
We often hear or read about environmental problems. These are often
global-level problems and we feel helpless to bring any change. There
are international laws and regulations, and then there are our own
national laws and acts for environmental protection. There are also
national and international organisations working towards protecting our
environment.
n Find out about the international norms to regulate the emission
of carbon dioxide.
n Have a discussion in class about how we can contribute towards
meeting those norms.
2020-21
Sustainable Management of Natural Resources 267
Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2 Activity 16.2
n There are a number of organisations that seek to spread awareness
about our environment and promote activities and attitudes that
lead to the conservation of our environment and natural resources.
Find out about the organisation(s) active in your neighbourhood/
village/town/city.
n Find out how you can contribute towards the same cause.
Awareness about the problems caused by unthinkingly exploiting
our resources has been a fairly recent phenomenon in our society. And
once this awareness rises, some action is usually taken. You must have
heard about the Ganga Action Plan. This multi-crore project came about
in 1985 because the quality of the water in the Ganga was very poor.
Coliform is a group of bacteria, found in human intestines, whose
presence in water indicates contamination by disease-causing
microorganisms.
Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Figure 16.1 Total coliform count levels in the Ganga
Source: Central Pollution Control Board, 2012
2020-21
Science
268
We need not feel powerless or overwhelmed by the scale of the
problems because there are many things we can do to make a difference.
You must have come across the five R’s to save the environment: Refuse,
Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle. What do they refer to?
Refuse: This means to say No to things people offer you that you
don’t need. Refuse to buy products that can harm you and
the environment, say No to single-use plastic carry bags.
Reduce: This means that you use less. You save electricity by
switching off unnecessary lights and fans. You save water
by repairing leaky taps. Do not waste food. Can you think
of other things that you can reduce the usage of ?
Reuse: This is actually even better than recycling because the
process of recycling uses some energy. In the ‘reuse’
strategy, you simply use things again and again. Instead
of throwing away used envelopes, you can reverse it and
use it again. The plastic bottles in which you buy various
food-items like jam or pickle can be used for storing things
in the kitchen. What other items can we reuse?
Do You Know?
Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3 Activity 16.3
Pollution of the Ganga
The Ganga runs its course of over 2500 km from Gangotri in the Himalayas to Ganga
Sagar in the Bay of Bengal. It is being turned into a drain by more than a hundred
towns and cities in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal that pour their garbage
and excreta into it. Largely untreated sewage is dumped into the Ganges every
day. In addition, think of the pollution caused by other human activities like
bathing, washing of clothes and immersion of ashes or unburnt corpses. And then,
industries contribute chemical effluents to the Ganga’s pollution load and the
toxicity kills fish in large sections of the river. Namami Gange Programme is an
Integrated Conservation Mission approved as a Flagship Programme by the Union
Government in June, 2014. It was launched to accomplish the twin objectives of effective
abatement of pollution conservation and rejuvenation of River Ganga. The National
Mission for Clean Ganga is the implementation wing set up in October, 2016.
n Check the pH of the water supplied to your house using universal
indicator or litmus paper.
n Also check the pH of the water in the local waterbody (pond, river,
lake, stream).
n Can you say whether the water is polluted or not on the basis of
your observations?
As you can see, there are some measurable factors which are used
to quantify pollution or the quality of the water that we use for various
activities. Some of the pollutants are harmful even when present in very
small quantities and we require sophisticated equipment to measure
them. But as we learnt in Chapter 2, the pH of water is something that
can easily be checked using universal indicator.
2020-21
Sustainable Management of Natural Resources 269
16.1 WHY DO WE NEED TO MANAGE OUR RESOURCES? 16.1 WHY DO WE NEED TO MANAGE OUR RESOURCES? 16.1 WHY DO WE NEED TO MANAGE OUR RESOURCES? 16.1 WHY DO WE NEED TO MANAGE OUR RESOURCES? 16.1 WHY DO WE NEED TO MANAGE OUR RESOURCES?
Not just roads and buildings, but all the things we use or consume–
food, clothes, books, toys, furniture, tools and vehicles – are obtained
from resources on this earth. The only thing we get from outside is energy
which we receive from the Sun. Even this energy is processed by living
organisms and various physical and chemical processes on the earth
before we make use of it.
Why do we need to use our resources carefully? Because these are
not unlimited and with the human population increasing at a
tremendous rate due to improvement in health-care, the demand for all
resources is increasing at an exponential rate. The management of
natural resources requires a long-term perspective so that these will
last for the generations to come and will not merely be exploited to the
Repurpose: This means when a product can no more be used for the
original purpose, think carefully and use it for some other
useful purpose. For example, cracked crockery, or cups
with broken handles can be used to grow small plants
and as feeding vessels for birds.
Recycle: This means that you collect plastic, paper, glass and metal
items and recycle these materials to make required things
instead of synthesising or extracting fresh plastic, paper,
glass or metal. In order to recycle, we first need to segregate
our wastes so that the material that can be recycled is not
dumped along with other wastes. Does your village/town/
city have a mechanism in place for recycling these materials?
Even while making everyday choices, we can make environment-
friendly decisions. For doing this, we need to know more about how our
choices affect the environment, these effects may be immediate or long-
term or long-ranging. The concept of sustainable development
encourages forms of growth that meet current basic human needs, while
preserving the resources for the needs of future generations. Economic
development is linked to environmental conservation. Thus sustainable
development implies a change in all aspects of life. It depends upon the
willingness of the people to change their perceptions of the socio-economic
and environmental conditions around them, and the readiness of each
individual to alter their present use of natural resources.
Activity 16.4 Activity 16.4 Activity 16.4 Activity 16.4 Activity 16.4
n Have you ever visited a town or village after a few years of absence?
If so, have you noticed new roads and houses that have come up
since you were there last? Where do you think the materials for
making these roads and buildings have come from?
n Try and make a list of the materials and their probable sources.
n Discuss the list you have prepared with your classmates. Can
you think of ways in which the use of these materials be reduced?
2020-21
Science
270
hilt for short-term gains. This management should also ensure equitable
distribution of resources so that all, and not just a handful of rich and
powerful people, benefit from the development of these resources.
Another factor to be considered while we exploit these natural
resources is the damage we cause to the environment while these
resources are either extracted or used. For example, mining causes
pollution because of the large amount of slag which is discarded for
every tonne of metal extracted. Hence, sustainable natural resource
management demands that we plan for the safe disposal of these
wastes too.
The present day global concerns for sustainable development and
conservation of natural resources are of recent origin as compared to
the long tradition and culture of nature conservation in our country.
Principles of conservation and sustainable management were well
established in the pre-historic India.
Our ancient literature is full of such examples where values and
sensitivity of humans towards nature was glorified and the principle of
sustainability was established at its best.
Activity 16.5 Activity 16.5 Activity 16.5 Activity 16.5 Activity 16.5
n Observe various traditional practices for conservation of nature
in your day-to-day life. Share within the peer group. Make a report
and submit.
Indian texts such as Upanishads and Smritis contain many descriptions on the
uses and management of forests, and highlight sustainability as an implicit theme.
One hymn from Atharva Veda | |12.1.11| |, later translated into English in the book
Atharva Veda — the Sanskrit Text with English Translation, written by  Devi Chand
in 1997, reads:
“O Earth! Pleasant be thy hills, snow-clad mountains and forests; O numerous
coloured, firm and protected earth! On this earth I stand, undefeated, unslain,
unhurt.”
Another hymn that reveals utilisation and regeneration principles from
Atharva Veda | |12.1.35| | reads:
“Whatever I dig out of you, O Earth! May that have quick regeneration again;
may we not damage thy vital habitat and heart.”
During the Vedic period, both productive as well as protective aspect
of forest vegetation were emphasised. Agriculture emerged as a dominant
economic activity during the later Vedic period. This was the time when
2020-21
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