NCERT Textbook - The Nationalist Movement in Indo : China Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - The Nationalist Movement in Indo : China Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


29
The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Vietnam gained formal independence in 1945, before India, but
it took another three decades of fighting before the Republic
of Vietnam was formed. This chapter on Indo-China will
introduce you to one of the important states of the peninsula, namely ,
Vietnam.  Nationalism in Indo-China developed in a colonial context.
The knitting together of a modern Vietnamese nation that brought
the different communities together was in part the result of
colonisation but, as importantly , it was shaped by the struggle against
colonial domination.
If you see the historical experience of Indo-China in relation to that
of India, you will discover important differences in the way colonial
empires functioned and the anti-imperial movement developed. By
looking at such differences and similarities you can  understand  the
variety of ways in which nationalism has developed and shaped the
contemporary world.
The  Nationalist  Movement  in  Indo-China
Chapter II
The Nationalist Movement in
Indo-China
Fig.1 – Map of Indo-China.
Page 2


29
The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Vietnam gained formal independence in 1945, before India, but
it took another three decades of fighting before the Republic
of Vietnam was formed. This chapter on Indo-China will
introduce you to one of the important states of the peninsula, namely ,
Vietnam.  Nationalism in Indo-China developed in a colonial context.
The knitting together of a modern Vietnamese nation that brought
the different communities together was in part the result of
colonisation but, as importantly , it was shaped by the struggle against
colonial domination.
If you see the historical experience of Indo-China in relation to that
of India, you will discover important differences in the way colonial
empires functioned and the anti-imperial movement developed. By
looking at such differences and similarities you can  understand  the
variety of ways in which nationalism has developed and shaped the
contemporary world.
The  Nationalist  Movement  in  Indo-China
Chapter II
The Nationalist Movement in
Indo-China
Fig.1 – Map of Indo-China.
India and the Contemporary World
30
1  Emerging from the Shadow of China
Indo-China comprises the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and
Cambodia (see Fig. 1). Its early history shows many different groups
of people living in this area under the shadow of the powerful
empire of China. Even when an independent country was established
in what is now northern and central Vietnam, its rulers continued
to maintain the Chinese system of government as well as
Chinese culture.
Vietnam was also linked to what has been called the maritime silk
route that brought in goods, people and ideas. Other networks of
trade connected it to the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people
such as the Khmer Cambodians lived.
Fig. 2 – The port of Faifo.
This port was founded by Portuguese merchants. It was one of
the ports used by European trading companies much before the
nineteenth century.
1.1 Colonial Domination and Resistance
The colonisation of Vietnam by the French brought the people of
the country into conflict with the colonisers in all areas of life. The
most visible form of French control was military and economic
domination but the French also built a system that tried to reshape
the culture of the Vietnamese. Nationalism in Vietnam emerged
through the efforts of different sections of society to fight against
the French and all they represented.
Page 3


29
The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Vietnam gained formal independence in 1945, before India, but
it took another three decades of fighting before the Republic
of Vietnam was formed. This chapter on Indo-China will
introduce you to one of the important states of the peninsula, namely ,
Vietnam.  Nationalism in Indo-China developed in a colonial context.
The knitting together of a modern Vietnamese nation that brought
the different communities together was in part the result of
colonisation but, as importantly , it was shaped by the struggle against
colonial domination.
If you see the historical experience of Indo-China in relation to that
of India, you will discover important differences in the way colonial
empires functioned and the anti-imperial movement developed. By
looking at such differences and similarities you can  understand  the
variety of ways in which nationalism has developed and shaped the
contemporary world.
The  Nationalist  Movement  in  Indo-China
Chapter II
The Nationalist Movement in
Indo-China
Fig.1 – Map of Indo-China.
India and the Contemporary World
30
1  Emerging from the Shadow of China
Indo-China comprises the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and
Cambodia (see Fig. 1). Its early history shows many different groups
of people living in this area under the shadow of the powerful
empire of China. Even when an independent country was established
in what is now northern and central Vietnam, its rulers continued
to maintain the Chinese system of government as well as
Chinese culture.
Vietnam was also linked to what has been called the maritime silk
route that brought in goods, people and ideas. Other networks of
trade connected it to the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people
such as the Khmer Cambodians lived.
Fig. 2 – The port of Faifo.
This port was founded by Portuguese merchants. It was one of
the ports used by European trading companies much before the
nineteenth century.
1.1 Colonial Domination and Resistance
The colonisation of Vietnam by the French brought the people of
the country into conflict with the colonisers in all areas of life. The
most visible form of French control was military and economic
domination but the French also built a system that tried to reshape
the culture of the Vietnamese. Nationalism in Vietnam emerged
through the efforts of different sections of society to fight against
the French and all they represented.
31
The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Fig. 3 – Francis Garnier, a French officer who led
an attack against the ruling Nguyen dynasty,
being killed by soldiers of the court.
Garnier was part of the French team that explored
the Mekong river. In 1873 he was commissioned
by the French to try and establish a French
colony in Tonkin in the north. Garnier carried out
an attack on Hanoi, the capital of Tonkin, but was
killed in the fight.
French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858
and by the mid-1880s they had established
a firm grip over the northern region.
After the Franco-Chinese war the
French  assumed control of Tonkin and
Anaam and, in 1887, French Indo-China
was formed. In the following decades
the French sought to consolidate
their position, and people in Vietnam
began reflecting on the nature of the
loss that Vietnam was suffering. Nationalist
resistance developed out of this reflection.
Fig. 4 – The Mekong river, engraving by the French Exploratory Force, in which Garnier participated.
Exploring and mapping rivers was part of the colonial enterprise everywhere in the world. Colonisers wanted to know
the route of the rivers, their origin, and the terrain they passed through. The rivers could then be properly used for
trade and transport. During these explorations innumerable pictures and maps were produced.
Page 4


29
The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Vietnam gained formal independence in 1945, before India, but
it took another three decades of fighting before the Republic
of Vietnam was formed. This chapter on Indo-China will
introduce you to one of the important states of the peninsula, namely ,
Vietnam.  Nationalism in Indo-China developed in a colonial context.
The knitting together of a modern Vietnamese nation that brought
the different communities together was in part the result of
colonisation but, as importantly , it was shaped by the struggle against
colonial domination.
If you see the historical experience of Indo-China in relation to that
of India, you will discover important differences in the way colonial
empires functioned and the anti-imperial movement developed. By
looking at such differences and similarities you can  understand  the
variety of ways in which nationalism has developed and shaped the
contemporary world.
The  Nationalist  Movement  in  Indo-China
Chapter II
The Nationalist Movement in
Indo-China
Fig.1 – Map of Indo-China.
India and the Contemporary World
30
1  Emerging from the Shadow of China
Indo-China comprises the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and
Cambodia (see Fig. 1). Its early history shows many different groups
of people living in this area under the shadow of the powerful
empire of China. Even when an independent country was established
in what is now northern and central Vietnam, its rulers continued
to maintain the Chinese system of government as well as
Chinese culture.
Vietnam was also linked to what has been called the maritime silk
route that brought in goods, people and ideas. Other networks of
trade connected it to the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people
such as the Khmer Cambodians lived.
Fig. 2 – The port of Faifo.
This port was founded by Portuguese merchants. It was one of
the ports used by European trading companies much before the
nineteenth century.
1.1 Colonial Domination and Resistance
The colonisation of Vietnam by the French brought the people of
the country into conflict with the colonisers in all areas of life. The
most visible form of French control was military and economic
domination but the French also built a system that tried to reshape
the culture of the Vietnamese. Nationalism in Vietnam emerged
through the efforts of different sections of society to fight against
the French and all they represented.
31
The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Fig. 3 – Francis Garnier, a French officer who led
an attack against the ruling Nguyen dynasty,
being killed by soldiers of the court.
Garnier was part of the French team that explored
the Mekong river. In 1873 he was commissioned
by the French to try and establish a French
colony in Tonkin in the north. Garnier carried out
an attack on Hanoi, the capital of Tonkin, but was
killed in the fight.
French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858
and by the mid-1880s they had established
a firm grip over the northern region.
After the Franco-Chinese war the
French  assumed control of Tonkin and
Anaam and, in 1887, French Indo-China
was formed. In the following decades
the French sought to consolidate
their position, and people in Vietnam
began reflecting on the nature of the
loss that Vietnam was suffering. Nationalist
resistance developed out of this reflection.
Fig. 4 – The Mekong river, engraving by the French Exploratory Force, in which Garnier participated.
Exploring and mapping rivers was part of the colonial enterprise everywhere in the world. Colonisers wanted to know
the route of the rivers, their origin, and the terrain they passed through. The rivers could then be properly used for
trade and transport. During these explorations innumerable pictures and maps were produced.
India and the Contemporary World
32
The famous blind poet Ngyuyen Dinh Chieu (1822-88) bemoaned
what was happening to his country:
I would rather face eternal darkness
Than see the faces of traitors.
I would rather see no man
Than encounter one man’ s suffering.
I would rather see nothing
Than witness the dismembering of the country
in decline.
1.2 Why the French thought Colonies Necessary
Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and
other essential goods. Like other W estern nations, France also thought
it was the mission of the ‘advanced’ European countries to bring
the benefits of civilisation to backward peoples.
The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong
delta to increase cultivation. The vast system of irrigation works –
canals and earthworks – built mainly with forced labour, increased
rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international
market. The area under rice cultivation went up from 274,000
hectares in 1873 to 1.1 million hectares in 1900 and 2.2 million in
1930. Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by
1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
This was followed by infrastructure projects to help transport goods
for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region.
Construction of a trans-Indo-China rail network that would link
the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China was begun.
This final link with Yunan in China was completed by 1910. The
second line was also built, linking Vietnam to Siam (as Thailand was
then called), via the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh.
By the 1920s, to ensure higher levels of profit for their businesses,
French business interests were pressurising the government in Vietnam
to develop the infrastructure further.
1.3 Should Colonies be Developed?
Everyone agreed that colonies had to serve the interests of the mother
country. But the question was – how? Some like Paul Bernard, an
influential writer and policy-maker, strongly believed that the
Imagine a conversation between a French
coloniser and a Vietnamese labourer in the
canal project. The Frenchman believes he is
bringing civilization to backward people and
the Vietnamese labourer argues against it. In
pairs act out the conversation they may have
had, using evidence from the text.
Activity
Page 5


29
The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Vietnam gained formal independence in 1945, before India, but
it took another three decades of fighting before the Republic
of Vietnam was formed. This chapter on Indo-China will
introduce you to one of the important states of the peninsula, namely ,
Vietnam.  Nationalism in Indo-China developed in a colonial context.
The knitting together of a modern Vietnamese nation that brought
the different communities together was in part the result of
colonisation but, as importantly , it was shaped by the struggle against
colonial domination.
If you see the historical experience of Indo-China in relation to that
of India, you will discover important differences in the way colonial
empires functioned and the anti-imperial movement developed. By
looking at such differences and similarities you can  understand  the
variety of ways in which nationalism has developed and shaped the
contemporary world.
The  Nationalist  Movement  in  Indo-China
Chapter II
The Nationalist Movement in
Indo-China
Fig.1 – Map of Indo-China.
India and the Contemporary World
30
1  Emerging from the Shadow of China
Indo-China comprises the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and
Cambodia (see Fig. 1). Its early history shows many different groups
of people living in this area under the shadow of the powerful
empire of China. Even when an independent country was established
in what is now northern and central Vietnam, its rulers continued
to maintain the Chinese system of government as well as
Chinese culture.
Vietnam was also linked to what has been called the maritime silk
route that brought in goods, people and ideas. Other networks of
trade connected it to the hinterlands where non-Vietnamese people
such as the Khmer Cambodians lived.
Fig. 2 – The port of Faifo.
This port was founded by Portuguese merchants. It was one of
the ports used by European trading companies much before the
nineteenth century.
1.1 Colonial Domination and Resistance
The colonisation of Vietnam by the French brought the people of
the country into conflict with the colonisers in all areas of life. The
most visible form of French control was military and economic
domination but the French also built a system that tried to reshape
the culture of the Vietnamese. Nationalism in Vietnam emerged
through the efforts of different sections of society to fight against
the French and all they represented.
31
The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Fig. 3 – Francis Garnier, a French officer who led
an attack against the ruling Nguyen dynasty,
being killed by soldiers of the court.
Garnier was part of the French team that explored
the Mekong river. In 1873 he was commissioned
by the French to try and establish a French
colony in Tonkin in the north. Garnier carried out
an attack on Hanoi, the capital of Tonkin, but was
killed in the fight.
French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858
and by the mid-1880s they had established
a firm grip over the northern region.
After the Franco-Chinese war the
French  assumed control of Tonkin and
Anaam and, in 1887, French Indo-China
was formed. In the following decades
the French sought to consolidate
their position, and people in Vietnam
began reflecting on the nature of the
loss that Vietnam was suffering. Nationalist
resistance developed out of this reflection.
Fig. 4 – The Mekong river, engraving by the French Exploratory Force, in which Garnier participated.
Exploring and mapping rivers was part of the colonial enterprise everywhere in the world. Colonisers wanted to know
the route of the rivers, their origin, and the terrain they passed through. The rivers could then be properly used for
trade and transport. During these explorations innumerable pictures and maps were produced.
India and the Contemporary World
32
The famous blind poet Ngyuyen Dinh Chieu (1822-88) bemoaned
what was happening to his country:
I would rather face eternal darkness
Than see the faces of traitors.
I would rather see no man
Than encounter one man’ s suffering.
I would rather see nothing
Than witness the dismembering of the country
in decline.
1.2 Why the French thought Colonies Necessary
Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and
other essential goods. Like other W estern nations, France also thought
it was the mission of the ‘advanced’ European countries to bring
the benefits of civilisation to backward peoples.
The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong
delta to increase cultivation. The vast system of irrigation works –
canals and earthworks – built mainly with forced labour, increased
rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international
market. The area under rice cultivation went up from 274,000
hectares in 1873 to 1.1 million hectares in 1900 and 2.2 million in
1930. Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by
1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
This was followed by infrastructure projects to help transport goods
for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region.
Construction of a trans-Indo-China rail network that would link
the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China was begun.
This final link with Yunan in China was completed by 1910. The
second line was also built, linking Vietnam to Siam (as Thailand was
then called), via the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh.
By the 1920s, to ensure higher levels of profit for their businesses,
French business interests were pressurising the government in Vietnam
to develop the infrastructure further.
1.3 Should Colonies be Developed?
Everyone agreed that colonies had to serve the interests of the mother
country. But the question was – how? Some like Paul Bernard, an
influential writer and policy-maker, strongly believed that the
Imagine a conversation between a French
coloniser and a Vietnamese labourer in the
canal project. The Frenchman believes he is
bringing civilization to backward people and
the Vietnamese labourer argues against it. In
pairs act out the conversation they may have
had, using evidence from the text.
Activity
33
The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
economy of the colonies needed to be developed. He argued that
the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits. If the
economy was developed and the standard of living of the people
improved, they would buy more goods. The market would
consequently expand, leading to better profits for French business.
Bernard suggested that there were several barriers to economic
growth in Vietnam: high population levels, low agricultural
productivity and extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants. T o
reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity it was
necessary to carry out land reforms as the Japanese had done in the
1890s. However, this could not ensure sufficient employment. As
the experience of Japan showed, industrialisation would be essential
to create more jobs.
The colonial economy in Vietnam was, however, primarily based
on rice cultivation and rubber plantations owned by the French and
a small Vietnamese elite. Rail and port facilities were set up to service
this sector. Indentured Vietnamese labour was widely used in the
rubber plantations. The French, contrary to what Bernard would
have liked, did little to industrialise the economy. In the rural areas
landlordism spread and the standard of living declined.
New words
Indentured labour – A form of labour widely
used in the plantations from the mid-nineteenth
century. Labourers worked on the basis of
contracts that did not specify any rights of
labourers but gave immense power to
employers. Employers could bring criminal
charges against labourers and punish and jail
them for non-fulfilment of contracts.
Fig. 5 – A French weapons merchant, Jean Dupuis, in Vietnam in the late
nineteenth century.
Many like him explored the regions in the hope of making profits from trade. He was
one of those who persuaded the French to try and establish a base in Vietnam.
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