NCERT Textbook - Agriculture Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

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Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - Agriculture Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


India is an agriculturally important country.
Two-thirds of its population is engaged in
agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary
activity, which produces most of the food that
we consume. Besides food grains, it also
produces raw material for various industries.
Can you name some industries based on
agricultural raw material?
Moreover, some agricultural products like
tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported.
TYPES OF FARMING
Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in
our country. Over these years, cultivation
methods have changed significantly depending
upon the characteristics of physical
environment, technological know-how and
socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from
subsistence to commercial type. At present, in
different parts of India, the following farming
systems are practised.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is still practised in few
pockets of India. Primitive subsistence
agriculture is practised on small patches of
land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
dao and digging sticks, and family/community
labour. This type of farming depends upon
monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and
suitability of other environmental conditions
to the crops grown.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
Farmers clear a patch of land and produce
cereals and other food crops to sustain their
family. When the soil fertility decreases, the
farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land
for cultivation. This type of shifting allows
Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil
through natural processes; land productivity
in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer
does not use fertilisers or other modern
inputs. It is known by different names in
different parts of the country.
Can you name  some such types of farmings?
It is jhumming in north-eastern states like
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland;
Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district of
Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and Nicobar
Islands.
Jhumming: The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central
America, ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela, ‘Roca’ in
Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’
in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.
In India, this primitive form of cultivation
is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya
Pradesh, ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh,
‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha,
‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’
in South-eastern Rajasthan, ‘Khil’ in the
Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand, and
‘Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.
Fig. 4.1
2015-16
Page 2


India is an agriculturally important country.
Two-thirds of its population is engaged in
agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary
activity, which produces most of the food that
we consume. Besides food grains, it also
produces raw material for various industries.
Can you name some industries based on
agricultural raw material?
Moreover, some agricultural products like
tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported.
TYPES OF FARMING
Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in
our country. Over these years, cultivation
methods have changed significantly depending
upon the characteristics of physical
environment, technological know-how and
socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from
subsistence to commercial type. At present, in
different parts of India, the following farming
systems are practised.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is still practised in few
pockets of India. Primitive subsistence
agriculture is practised on small patches of
land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
dao and digging sticks, and family/community
labour. This type of farming depends upon
monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and
suitability of other environmental conditions
to the crops grown.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
Farmers clear a patch of land and produce
cereals and other food crops to sustain their
family. When the soil fertility decreases, the
farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land
for cultivation. This type of shifting allows
Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil
through natural processes; land productivity
in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer
does not use fertilisers or other modern
inputs. It is known by different names in
different parts of the country.
Can you name  some such types of farmings?
It is jhumming in north-eastern states like
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland;
Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district of
Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and Nicobar
Islands.
Jhumming: The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central
America, ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela, ‘Roca’ in
Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’
in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.
In India, this primitive form of cultivation
is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya
Pradesh, ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh,
‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha,
‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’
in South-eastern Rajasthan, ‘Khil’ in the
Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand, and
‘Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.
Fig. 4.1
2015-16
Fig. 4.2:  Banana plantation in Southern
part of India
Fig. 4.3:  Bamboo plantation in North-east
Can you name the type of farming Rinjha’s
family is engaged in?
Can you enlist some crops which are grown
in such farming?
Intensive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is practised in areas of
high population pressure on land. It is labour-
intensive farming, where high doses of
biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for
obtaining higher production.
Can you name some of the states of India
where such farming is practised?
Though the ‘right of inheritance’ leading to
the division of land among successive
generations has rendered land-holding size
uneconomical, the farmers continue to take
maximum output from the limited land in the
absence of alternative source of livelihood.
Thus, there is enormous pressure on
agricultural land.
Commercial Farming
The main characteristic of this type of farming
is the use of higher doses of modern inputs,
e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical
fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order
to obtain higher productivity. The degree of
commercialisation of agriculture varies from
one region to another. For example, rice is a
commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but
in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.
Can you give some more examples of crops
which may be commercial in one region and
may provide subsistence in another region?
Plantation is also a type of commercial
farming. In this type of farming, a single crop
is grown on a large area. The plantation has
an interface of agriculture and industry.
Plantations cover large tracts of land, using
capital intensive inputs, with the help of
migrant labourers. All the produce is used as
raw material in respective industries.
In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane,
banana, etc.. are important plantation crops.
Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in
Rinjha lived with her family in a small village
at the outskirts of Diphu in Assam. She enjoys
watching her family members clearing,
slashing and burning a patch of land for
cultivation. She often helps them in irrigating
the fields with water running through a
bamboo canal from the nearby spring. She
loves the surroundings and wants to stay
here as long as she can, but this little girl
has no idea about the declining fertility of
the soil and her family’s search for fresh a
patch of land in the next season.
Karnataka are some of the important plantation
crops grown in these states. Since the
production is mainly for market, a well-
developed network of transport and
communication connecting the plantation
areas, processing industries and markets plays
an important role in the development of
plantations.
35 AGRICULTURE
2015-16
Page 3


India is an agriculturally important country.
Two-thirds of its population is engaged in
agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary
activity, which produces most of the food that
we consume. Besides food grains, it also
produces raw material for various industries.
Can you name some industries based on
agricultural raw material?
Moreover, some agricultural products like
tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported.
TYPES OF FARMING
Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in
our country. Over these years, cultivation
methods have changed significantly depending
upon the characteristics of physical
environment, technological know-how and
socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from
subsistence to commercial type. At present, in
different parts of India, the following farming
systems are practised.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is still practised in few
pockets of India. Primitive subsistence
agriculture is practised on small patches of
land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
dao and digging sticks, and family/community
labour. This type of farming depends upon
monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and
suitability of other environmental conditions
to the crops grown.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
Farmers clear a patch of land and produce
cereals and other food crops to sustain their
family. When the soil fertility decreases, the
farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land
for cultivation. This type of shifting allows
Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil
through natural processes; land productivity
in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer
does not use fertilisers or other modern
inputs. It is known by different names in
different parts of the country.
Can you name  some such types of farmings?
It is jhumming in north-eastern states like
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland;
Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district of
Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and Nicobar
Islands.
Jhumming: The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central
America, ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela, ‘Roca’ in
Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’
in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.
In India, this primitive form of cultivation
is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya
Pradesh, ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh,
‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha,
‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’
in South-eastern Rajasthan, ‘Khil’ in the
Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand, and
‘Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.
Fig. 4.1
2015-16
Fig. 4.2:  Banana plantation in Southern
part of India
Fig. 4.3:  Bamboo plantation in North-east
Can you name the type of farming Rinjha’s
family is engaged in?
Can you enlist some crops which are grown
in such farming?
Intensive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is practised in areas of
high population pressure on land. It is labour-
intensive farming, where high doses of
biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for
obtaining higher production.
Can you name some of the states of India
where such farming is practised?
Though the ‘right of inheritance’ leading to
the division of land among successive
generations has rendered land-holding size
uneconomical, the farmers continue to take
maximum output from the limited land in the
absence of alternative source of livelihood.
Thus, there is enormous pressure on
agricultural land.
Commercial Farming
The main characteristic of this type of farming
is the use of higher doses of modern inputs,
e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical
fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order
to obtain higher productivity. The degree of
commercialisation of agriculture varies from
one region to another. For example, rice is a
commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but
in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.
Can you give some more examples of crops
which may be commercial in one region and
may provide subsistence in another region?
Plantation is also a type of commercial
farming. In this type of farming, a single crop
is grown on a large area. The plantation has
an interface of agriculture and industry.
Plantations cover large tracts of land, using
capital intensive inputs, with the help of
migrant labourers. All the produce is used as
raw material in respective industries.
In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane,
banana, etc.. are important plantation crops.
Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in
Rinjha lived with her family in a small village
at the outskirts of Diphu in Assam. She enjoys
watching her family members clearing,
slashing and burning a patch of land for
cultivation. She often helps them in irrigating
the fields with water running through a
bamboo canal from the nearby spring. She
loves the surroundings and wants to stay
here as long as she can, but this little girl
has no idea about the declining fertility of
the soil and her family’s search for fresh a
patch of land in the next season.
Karnataka are some of the important plantation
crops grown in these states. Since the
production is mainly for market, a well-
developed network of transport and
communication connecting the plantation
areas, processing industries and markets plays
an important role in the development of
plantations.
35 AGRICULTURE
2015-16
36 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
CROPPING PATTERN
You have studied the physical diversities and
plurality of cultures in India. These are also
reflected in agricultural practices and
cropping patterns in the country. Various
types of food and fibre crops, vegetables and
fruits, spices and condiments, etc. constitute
some of the important crops grown in the
country. India has three cropping seasons —
rabi, kharif and zaid.
Rabi crops are sown in winter from October
to December and harvested in summer from
April to June. Some of the important rabi crops
are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.
Though, these crops are grown in large parts
of India, states from the north and north-
western parts such as Punjab, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir,
Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are important
for the production of wheat and other rabi
crops. Availability of precipitation during
winter months due to the western temperate
cyclones helps in the success of these crops.
However, the success of the green revolution
in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh
and parts of Rajasthan has also been an
important factor in the growth of the above-
mentioned rabi crops.
Kharif crops are grown with the onset of
monsoon in different parts of the country and
these are harvested in September-October.
Important crops grown during this season are
paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong,
urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean.
Some of the most important rice-growing
regions are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions
of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil
Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra,  particularly
the (Konkan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar. Recently, paddy has also become
an important crop of Punjab and Haryana. In
states like Assam, West Bengal and Odisha,
three crops of paddy are grown in a year . These
are Aus, Aman and Boro.
In between the rabi and the kharif seasons,
there is a short season during the summer
months known as the Zaid season. Some of
the crops produced during ‘zaid’ are
watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber,
vegetables and fodder crops. Sugarcane takes
almost a year to grow.
Major Crops
A variety of food and non food crops are grown
in different parts of the country depending
upon the variations in soil, climate and
cultivation practices. Major crops grown in
India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee,
sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton and jute, etc.
Rice: It is the staple food crop of a majority of
the people in India. Our country is the second
largest producer of rice in the world after China.
It is a kharif crop which requires high
temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity
with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas
of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation.
Rice is grown in the plains of north and
north-eastern India, coastal areas and the
deltaic regions. Development of dense network
Fig. 4.4 (b):  Rice is ready to be harvested in the field
Fig. 4.4 (a):  Rice Cultivation
2015-16
Page 4


India is an agriculturally important country.
Two-thirds of its population is engaged in
agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary
activity, which produces most of the food that
we consume. Besides food grains, it also
produces raw material for various industries.
Can you name some industries based on
agricultural raw material?
Moreover, some agricultural products like
tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported.
TYPES OF FARMING
Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in
our country. Over these years, cultivation
methods have changed significantly depending
upon the characteristics of physical
environment, technological know-how and
socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from
subsistence to commercial type. At present, in
different parts of India, the following farming
systems are practised.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is still practised in few
pockets of India. Primitive subsistence
agriculture is practised on small patches of
land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
dao and digging sticks, and family/community
labour. This type of farming depends upon
monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and
suitability of other environmental conditions
to the crops grown.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
Farmers clear a patch of land and produce
cereals and other food crops to sustain their
family. When the soil fertility decreases, the
farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land
for cultivation. This type of shifting allows
Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil
through natural processes; land productivity
in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer
does not use fertilisers or other modern
inputs. It is known by different names in
different parts of the country.
Can you name  some such types of farmings?
It is jhumming in north-eastern states like
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland;
Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district of
Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and Nicobar
Islands.
Jhumming: The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central
America, ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela, ‘Roca’ in
Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’
in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.
In India, this primitive form of cultivation
is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya
Pradesh, ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh,
‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha,
‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’
in South-eastern Rajasthan, ‘Khil’ in the
Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand, and
‘Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.
Fig. 4.1
2015-16
Fig. 4.2:  Banana plantation in Southern
part of India
Fig. 4.3:  Bamboo plantation in North-east
Can you name the type of farming Rinjha’s
family is engaged in?
Can you enlist some crops which are grown
in such farming?
Intensive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is practised in areas of
high population pressure on land. It is labour-
intensive farming, where high doses of
biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for
obtaining higher production.
Can you name some of the states of India
where such farming is practised?
Though the ‘right of inheritance’ leading to
the division of land among successive
generations has rendered land-holding size
uneconomical, the farmers continue to take
maximum output from the limited land in the
absence of alternative source of livelihood.
Thus, there is enormous pressure on
agricultural land.
Commercial Farming
The main characteristic of this type of farming
is the use of higher doses of modern inputs,
e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical
fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order
to obtain higher productivity. The degree of
commercialisation of agriculture varies from
one region to another. For example, rice is a
commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but
in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.
Can you give some more examples of crops
which may be commercial in one region and
may provide subsistence in another region?
Plantation is also a type of commercial
farming. In this type of farming, a single crop
is grown on a large area. The plantation has
an interface of agriculture and industry.
Plantations cover large tracts of land, using
capital intensive inputs, with the help of
migrant labourers. All the produce is used as
raw material in respective industries.
In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane,
banana, etc.. are important plantation crops.
Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in
Rinjha lived with her family in a small village
at the outskirts of Diphu in Assam. She enjoys
watching her family members clearing,
slashing and burning a patch of land for
cultivation. She often helps them in irrigating
the fields with water running through a
bamboo canal from the nearby spring. She
loves the surroundings and wants to stay
here as long as she can, but this little girl
has no idea about the declining fertility of
the soil and her family’s search for fresh a
patch of land in the next season.
Karnataka are some of the important plantation
crops grown in these states. Since the
production is mainly for market, a well-
developed network of transport and
communication connecting the plantation
areas, processing industries and markets plays
an important role in the development of
plantations.
35 AGRICULTURE
2015-16
36 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
CROPPING PATTERN
You have studied the physical diversities and
plurality of cultures in India. These are also
reflected in agricultural practices and
cropping patterns in the country. Various
types of food and fibre crops, vegetables and
fruits, spices and condiments, etc. constitute
some of the important crops grown in the
country. India has three cropping seasons —
rabi, kharif and zaid.
Rabi crops are sown in winter from October
to December and harvested in summer from
April to June. Some of the important rabi crops
are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.
Though, these crops are grown in large parts
of India, states from the north and north-
western parts such as Punjab, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir,
Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are important
for the production of wheat and other rabi
crops. Availability of precipitation during
winter months due to the western temperate
cyclones helps in the success of these crops.
However, the success of the green revolution
in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh
and parts of Rajasthan has also been an
important factor in the growth of the above-
mentioned rabi crops.
Kharif crops are grown with the onset of
monsoon in different parts of the country and
these are harvested in September-October.
Important crops grown during this season are
paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong,
urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean.
Some of the most important rice-growing
regions are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions
of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil
Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra,  particularly
the (Konkan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar. Recently, paddy has also become
an important crop of Punjab and Haryana. In
states like Assam, West Bengal and Odisha,
three crops of paddy are grown in a year . These
are Aus, Aman and Boro.
In between the rabi and the kharif seasons,
there is a short season during the summer
months known as the Zaid season. Some of
the crops produced during ‘zaid’ are
watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber,
vegetables and fodder crops. Sugarcane takes
almost a year to grow.
Major Crops
A variety of food and non food crops are grown
in different parts of the country depending
upon the variations in soil, climate and
cultivation practices. Major crops grown in
India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee,
sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton and jute, etc.
Rice: It is the staple food crop of a majority of
the people in India. Our country is the second
largest producer of rice in the world after China.
It is a kharif crop which requires high
temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity
with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas
of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation.
Rice is grown in the plains of north and
north-eastern India, coastal areas and the
deltaic regions. Development of dense network
Fig. 4.4 (b):  Rice is ready to be harvested in the field
Fig. 4.4 (a):  Rice Cultivation
2015-16
37 AGRICULTURE
India:  Distribution of Rice
2015-16
Page 5


India is an agriculturally important country.
Two-thirds of its population is engaged in
agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary
activity, which produces most of the food that
we consume. Besides food grains, it also
produces raw material for various industries.
Can you name some industries based on
agricultural raw material?
Moreover, some agricultural products like
tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported.
TYPES OF FARMING
Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in
our country. Over these years, cultivation
methods have changed significantly depending
upon the characteristics of physical
environment, technological know-how and
socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from
subsistence to commercial type. At present, in
different parts of India, the following farming
systems are practised.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is still practised in few
pockets of India. Primitive subsistence
agriculture is practised on small patches of
land with the help of primitive tools like hoe,
dao and digging sticks, and family/community
labour. This type of farming depends upon
monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and
suitability of other environmental conditions
to the crops grown.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
Farmers clear a patch of land and produce
cereals and other food crops to sustain their
family. When the soil fertility decreases, the
farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land
for cultivation. This type of shifting allows
Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil
through natural processes; land productivity
in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer
does not use fertilisers or other modern
inputs. It is known by different names in
different parts of the country.
Can you name  some such types of farmings?
It is jhumming in north-eastern states like
Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland;
Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district of
Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and Nicobar
Islands.
Jhumming: The ‘slash and burn’ agriculture
is known as ‘Milpa’ in Mexico and Central
America, ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela, ‘Roca’ in
Brazil, ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Ladang’
in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam.
In India, this primitive form of cultivation
is called ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya
Pradesh, ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh,
‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Odisha,
‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats, ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’
in South-eastern Rajasthan, ‘Khil’ in the
Himalayan belt, ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand, and
‘Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region.
Fig. 4.1
2015-16
Fig. 4.2:  Banana plantation in Southern
part of India
Fig. 4.3:  Bamboo plantation in North-east
Can you name the type of farming Rinjha’s
family is engaged in?
Can you enlist some crops which are grown
in such farming?
Intensive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is practised in areas of
high population pressure on land. It is labour-
intensive farming, where high doses of
biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for
obtaining higher production.
Can you name some of the states of India
where such farming is practised?
Though the ‘right of inheritance’ leading to
the division of land among successive
generations has rendered land-holding size
uneconomical, the farmers continue to take
maximum output from the limited land in the
absence of alternative source of livelihood.
Thus, there is enormous pressure on
agricultural land.
Commercial Farming
The main characteristic of this type of farming
is the use of higher doses of modern inputs,
e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical
fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order
to obtain higher productivity. The degree of
commercialisation of agriculture varies from
one region to another. For example, rice is a
commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but
in Odisha, it is a subsistence crop.
Can you give some more examples of crops
which may be commercial in one region and
may provide subsistence in another region?
Plantation is also a type of commercial
farming. In this type of farming, a single crop
is grown on a large area. The plantation has
an interface of agriculture and industry.
Plantations cover large tracts of land, using
capital intensive inputs, with the help of
migrant labourers. All the produce is used as
raw material in respective industries.
In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane,
banana, etc.. are important plantation crops.
Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in
Rinjha lived with her family in a small village
at the outskirts of Diphu in Assam. She enjoys
watching her family members clearing,
slashing and burning a patch of land for
cultivation. She often helps them in irrigating
the fields with water running through a
bamboo canal from the nearby spring. She
loves the surroundings and wants to stay
here as long as she can, but this little girl
has no idea about the declining fertility of
the soil and her family’s search for fresh a
patch of land in the next season.
Karnataka are some of the important plantation
crops grown in these states. Since the
production is mainly for market, a well-
developed network of transport and
communication connecting the plantation
areas, processing industries and markets plays
an important role in the development of
plantations.
35 AGRICULTURE
2015-16
36 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
CROPPING PATTERN
You have studied the physical diversities and
plurality of cultures in India. These are also
reflected in agricultural practices and
cropping patterns in the country. Various
types of food and fibre crops, vegetables and
fruits, spices and condiments, etc. constitute
some of the important crops grown in the
country. India has three cropping seasons —
rabi, kharif and zaid.
Rabi crops are sown in winter from October
to December and harvested in summer from
April to June. Some of the important rabi crops
are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.
Though, these crops are grown in large parts
of India, states from the north and north-
western parts such as Punjab, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir,
Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are important
for the production of wheat and other rabi
crops. Availability of precipitation during
winter months due to the western temperate
cyclones helps in the success of these crops.
However, the success of the green revolution
in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh
and parts of Rajasthan has also been an
important factor in the growth of the above-
mentioned rabi crops.
Kharif crops are grown with the onset of
monsoon in different parts of the country and
these are harvested in September-October.
Important crops grown during this season are
paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong,
urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean.
Some of the most important rice-growing
regions are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions
of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil
Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra,  particularly
the (Konkan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar. Recently, paddy has also become
an important crop of Punjab and Haryana. In
states like Assam, West Bengal and Odisha,
three crops of paddy are grown in a year . These
are Aus, Aman and Boro.
In between the rabi and the kharif seasons,
there is a short season during the summer
months known as the Zaid season. Some of
the crops produced during ‘zaid’ are
watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber,
vegetables and fodder crops. Sugarcane takes
almost a year to grow.
Major Crops
A variety of food and non food crops are grown
in different parts of the country depending
upon the variations in soil, climate and
cultivation practices. Major crops grown in
India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee,
sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton and jute, etc.
Rice: It is the staple food crop of a majority of
the people in India. Our country is the second
largest producer of rice in the world after China.
It is a kharif crop which requires high
temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity
with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas
of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation.
Rice is grown in the plains of north and
north-eastern India, coastal areas and the
deltaic regions. Development of dense network
Fig. 4.4 (b):  Rice is ready to be harvested in the field
Fig. 4.4 (a):  Rice Cultivation
2015-16
37 AGRICULTURE
India:  Distribution of Rice
2015-16
38 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
of canal irrigation and tubewells have made it
possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall
such as Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar
Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
Wheat: This is the second most important
cereal crop. It is the main food crop, in north
and north-western part of the country. This
rabi crop requires a cool growing season and
a bright sunshine at the time of ripening. It
requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly-
distributed over the growing season. There are
two important wheat-growing zones in the
country – the Ganga-Satluj plains in the north-
west and black soil region of the Deccan. The
major wheat-producing states are Punjab,
Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and
parts of Madhya Pradesh.
Fig. 4.5:  Wheat Cultivation
Millets: Jowar, bajra and ragi are the
important millets grown in India. Though,
these are known as coarse grains, they have
very high nutritional value. For example, ragi
is very rich in iron, calcium, other micro
nutrients and roughage. Jowar is the third
most important food crop with respect to area
and production. It is a rain-fed crop mostly
grown in the moist areas which hardly needs
irrigation. Major Jowar producing States were
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and
Madhya Pradesh in 2011-12.
Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow
black soil. Major Bajra producing States were:
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Gujarat and Haryana in 2011-12. Ragi is a
Fig. 4.6:  Bajra Cultivation
crop of dry regions and grows well on red,
black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils.
Major ragi producing states are: Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand,
Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.
Maize: It is a crop which is used both as food
and fodder. It is a kharif crop which requires
temperature between 21°C to 27°C and grows
well in old alluvial soil. In some states like Bihar
Fig. 4.7:  Maize Cultivation
maize is grown in rabi season also. Use of modern
inputs such as HYV seeds, fertilisers and irrigation
have contributed to the increasing production of
maize. Major maize-producing states are
Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra
Pradesh, Telangana and Madhya Pradesh.
Pulses: India is the largest producer as well
as the consumer of pulses in the world. These
are the major source of protein in a vegetarian
diet. Major pulses that are grown in India are
tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and
2015-16
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