NCERT Textbook - Rulers and Buildings Class 7 Notes | EduRev

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Class 7 : NCERT Textbook - Rulers and Buildings Class 7 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


60 OUR PASTS – II
F
igure 1 shows the first balcony of the Qutb Minar.
Qutbuddin Aybak had this constructed around
1199. Notice the pattern created under the balcony
by the small arches and geometrical designs. Can you
see two bands of inscriptions under the balcony?
These are in Arabic. Notice that the surface of the minar
is curved and angular. Placing an inscription on such
a surface required great precision. Only the most
skilled craftsperson could perform this task. Remember
that very few buildings were made of stone or brick
800 years ago. What would have been the impact of a
building like the Qutb Minar on observers in the
thirteenth century?
Between the eighth and the eighteenth centuries
kings and their officers built two kinds of structures:
5
RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS
Fig. 1
The Qutb Minar is five
storeys high. The band
of inscriptions you
see are under its
first balcony.
The first floor was
constructed by
Qutbuddin Aybak and
the rest by Iltutmish
around 1229. Over the
years it was damaged
by lightning and
earthquakes and
repaired by Alauddin
Khalji, Muhammad
Tughluq, Firuz Shah
Tughluq and
Ibrahim Lodi.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 2


60 OUR PASTS – II
F
igure 1 shows the first balcony of the Qutb Minar.
Qutbuddin Aybak had this constructed around
1199. Notice the pattern created under the balcony
by the small arches and geometrical designs. Can you
see two bands of inscriptions under the balcony?
These are in Arabic. Notice that the surface of the minar
is curved and angular. Placing an inscription on such
a surface required great precision. Only the most
skilled craftsperson could perform this task. Remember
that very few buildings were made of stone or brick
800 years ago. What would have been the impact of a
building like the Qutb Minar on observers in the
thirteenth century?
Between the eighth and the eighteenth centuries
kings and their officers built two kinds of structures:
5
RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS
Fig. 1
The Qutb Minar is five
storeys high. The band
of inscriptions you
see are under its
first balcony.
The first floor was
constructed by
Qutbuddin Aybak and
the rest by Iltutmish
around 1229. Over the
years it was damaged
by lightning and
earthquakes and
repaired by Alauddin
Khalji, Muhammad
Tughluq, Firuz Shah
Tughluq and
Ibrahim Lodi.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
61
the first were forts, palaces, garden residences and
tombs – safe, protected and grandiose places of rest in
this world and the next; the second were structures
meant for public activity including temples, mosques,
tanks, wells, caravanserais and bazaars. Kings were
expected to care for their subjects, and by making
structures for their use and comfort, rulers hoped to
win their praise. Construction activity was also carried
out by others, including merchants. They built temples,
mosques and wells. However, domestic architecture –
large mansions (havelis) of merchants – has survived
only from the eighteenth century.
Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction
Monuments provide an insight into the technologies
used for construction. Take something like a roof for
example. We can make this by placing wooden beams
or a slab of stone across four walls. But the task
becomes difficult if we want to make a large room with
an elaborate superstructure. This requires more
sophisticated skills.
Between the seventh and tenth centuries architects
started adding more rooms, doors and windows to
buildings. Roofs, doors and windows were still made
by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical
columns, a style of architecture called “trabeate” or
“corbelled”. Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries
the trabeate style was used in the construction of
temples, mosques, tombs and in buildings attached to
large stepped-wells (baolis).
Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the
Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort
Built by Akbar, the
Agra Fort required
2,000 stone-cutters,
2,000 cement and
lime-makers and
8,000 labourers.
Fig. 2a
Screen in the Quwwat
al-Islam mosque, Delhi
(late twelfth century).
Fig. 2b
Corbelled technique
used in the
construction of the
screen.
Superstructure
The part of a
building above the
ground floor .
RULERS AND BUILDINGS
Fig. 2a Fig. 2b
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 3


60 OUR PASTS – II
F
igure 1 shows the first balcony of the Qutb Minar.
Qutbuddin Aybak had this constructed around
1199. Notice the pattern created under the balcony
by the small arches and geometrical designs. Can you
see two bands of inscriptions under the balcony?
These are in Arabic. Notice that the surface of the minar
is curved and angular. Placing an inscription on such
a surface required great precision. Only the most
skilled craftsperson could perform this task. Remember
that very few buildings were made of stone or brick
800 years ago. What would have been the impact of a
building like the Qutb Minar on observers in the
thirteenth century?
Between the eighth and the eighteenth centuries
kings and their officers built two kinds of structures:
5
RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS
Fig. 1
The Qutb Minar is five
storeys high. The band
of inscriptions you
see are under its
first balcony.
The first floor was
constructed by
Qutbuddin Aybak and
the rest by Iltutmish
around 1229. Over the
years it was damaged
by lightning and
earthquakes and
repaired by Alauddin
Khalji, Muhammad
Tughluq, Firuz Shah
Tughluq and
Ibrahim Lodi.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
61
the first were forts, palaces, garden residences and
tombs – safe, protected and grandiose places of rest in
this world and the next; the second were structures
meant for public activity including temples, mosques,
tanks, wells, caravanserais and bazaars. Kings were
expected to care for their subjects, and by making
structures for their use and comfort, rulers hoped to
win their praise. Construction activity was also carried
out by others, including merchants. They built temples,
mosques and wells. However, domestic architecture –
large mansions (havelis) of merchants – has survived
only from the eighteenth century.
Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction
Monuments provide an insight into the technologies
used for construction. Take something like a roof for
example. We can make this by placing wooden beams
or a slab of stone across four walls. But the task
becomes difficult if we want to make a large room with
an elaborate superstructure. This requires more
sophisticated skills.
Between the seventh and tenth centuries architects
started adding more rooms, doors and windows to
buildings. Roofs, doors and windows were still made
by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical
columns, a style of architecture called “trabeate” or
“corbelled”. Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries
the trabeate style was used in the construction of
temples, mosques, tombs and in buildings attached to
large stepped-wells (baolis).
Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the
Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort
Built by Akbar, the
Agra Fort required
2,000 stone-cutters,
2,000 cement and
lime-makers and
8,000 labourers.
Fig. 2a
Screen in the Quwwat
al-Islam mosque, Delhi
(late twelfth century).
Fig. 2b
Corbelled technique
used in the
construction of the
screen.
Superstructure
The part of a
building above the
ground floor .
RULERS AND BUILDINGS
Fig. 2a Fig. 2b
2015-16 (12-01-15)
62 OUR PASTS – II
?
What differences
do you notice
between the
shikharas of the
two temples? Can
you make out that
the shikhara of the
Rajarajeshvara
temple is twice as
high as that of the
Kandariya
Mahadeva?
Fig. 4
The Rajarajeshvara temple at Thanjavur had the tallest shikhara
amongst temples of its time. Constructing it was not easy because
there were no cranes in those days and the 90 tonne stone for the top
of the shikhara was too heavy to lift manually. So the architects
built an inclined path to the top of the temple,
placed the boulder on rollers and rolled it all
the way to the top. The path started more than
4 km away so that it would not be too steep.
This was dismantled after the temple was
constructed. But the residents of the area
remembered the experience of the
construction of the temple for a long
time. Even now a village near the
temple is called Charupallam, the
“Village of the Incline”.
Temple Construction in the Early Eleventh Century
Fig. 3a
Fig. 3b
The Kandariya Mahadeva temple
dedicated to Shiva was constructed
in 999 by the king
Dhangadeva
of the Chandela dynasty.
Fig. 3b is the plan of the
temple. An ornamented
gateway led to an
entrance, and the main
hall (mahamandapa)
where dances were
performed. The image
of the chief deity
was kept in the
main shrine
(garbhagriha). This was
the place for ritual
worship where only the
king, his immediate
family and priests
gathered. The
Khajuraho complex
contained royal temples where commoners were not allowed entry.
The temples were decorated with elaborately carved sculptures.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 4


60 OUR PASTS – II
F
igure 1 shows the first balcony of the Qutb Minar.
Qutbuddin Aybak had this constructed around
1199. Notice the pattern created under the balcony
by the small arches and geometrical designs. Can you
see two bands of inscriptions under the balcony?
These are in Arabic. Notice that the surface of the minar
is curved and angular. Placing an inscription on such
a surface required great precision. Only the most
skilled craftsperson could perform this task. Remember
that very few buildings were made of stone or brick
800 years ago. What would have been the impact of a
building like the Qutb Minar on observers in the
thirteenth century?
Between the eighth and the eighteenth centuries
kings and their officers built two kinds of structures:
5
RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS
Fig. 1
The Qutb Minar is five
storeys high. The band
of inscriptions you
see are under its
first balcony.
The first floor was
constructed by
Qutbuddin Aybak and
the rest by Iltutmish
around 1229. Over the
years it was damaged
by lightning and
earthquakes and
repaired by Alauddin
Khalji, Muhammad
Tughluq, Firuz Shah
Tughluq and
Ibrahim Lodi.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
61
the first were forts, palaces, garden residences and
tombs – safe, protected and grandiose places of rest in
this world and the next; the second were structures
meant for public activity including temples, mosques,
tanks, wells, caravanserais and bazaars. Kings were
expected to care for their subjects, and by making
structures for their use and comfort, rulers hoped to
win their praise. Construction activity was also carried
out by others, including merchants. They built temples,
mosques and wells. However, domestic architecture –
large mansions (havelis) of merchants – has survived
only from the eighteenth century.
Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction
Monuments provide an insight into the technologies
used for construction. Take something like a roof for
example. We can make this by placing wooden beams
or a slab of stone across four walls. But the task
becomes difficult if we want to make a large room with
an elaborate superstructure. This requires more
sophisticated skills.
Between the seventh and tenth centuries architects
started adding more rooms, doors and windows to
buildings. Roofs, doors and windows were still made
by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical
columns, a style of architecture called “trabeate” or
“corbelled”. Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries
the trabeate style was used in the construction of
temples, mosques, tombs and in buildings attached to
large stepped-wells (baolis).
Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the
Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort
Built by Akbar, the
Agra Fort required
2,000 stone-cutters,
2,000 cement and
lime-makers and
8,000 labourers.
Fig. 2a
Screen in the Quwwat
al-Islam mosque, Delhi
(late twelfth century).
Fig. 2b
Corbelled technique
used in the
construction of the
screen.
Superstructure
The part of a
building above the
ground floor .
RULERS AND BUILDINGS
Fig. 2a Fig. 2b
2015-16 (12-01-15)
62 OUR PASTS – II
?
What differences
do you notice
between the
shikharas of the
two temples? Can
you make out that
the shikhara of the
Rajarajeshvara
temple is twice as
high as that of the
Kandariya
Mahadeva?
Fig. 4
The Rajarajeshvara temple at Thanjavur had the tallest shikhara
amongst temples of its time. Constructing it was not easy because
there were no cranes in those days and the 90 tonne stone for the top
of the shikhara was too heavy to lift manually. So the architects
built an inclined path to the top of the temple,
placed the boulder on rollers and rolled it all
the way to the top. The path started more than
4 km away so that it would not be too steep.
This was dismantled after the temple was
constructed. But the residents of the area
remembered the experience of the
construction of the temple for a long
time. Even now a village near the
temple is called Charupallam, the
“Village of the Incline”.
Temple Construction in the Early Eleventh Century
Fig. 3a
Fig. 3b
The Kandariya Mahadeva temple
dedicated to Shiva was constructed
in 999 by the king
Dhangadeva
of the Chandela dynasty.
Fig. 3b is the plan of the
temple. An ornamented
gateway led to an
entrance, and the main
hall (mahamandapa)
where dances were
performed. The image
of the chief deity
was kept in the
main shrine
(garbhagriha). This was
the place for ritual
worship where only the
king, his immediate
family and priests
gathered. The
Khajuraho complex
contained royal temples where commoners were not allowed entry.
The temples were decorated with elaborately carved sculptures.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
63
?
Two technological and
stylistic developments are
noticeable from the twelfth
century. (1) The weight of
the superstructure above
the doors and windows
was sometimes carried by
arches. This architectural
form was called “arcuate”.
Compare Figures 2a and
2b with Figures 5a and 5b.
(2) Limestone cement
was increasingly used in
construction. This was
very high-quality cement,
which, when mixed with
stone  chips hardened
into concrete. This made
construction of large
structures easier and
faster. Take a look at the
construction site in Figure 6.
Describe what the
labourers are doing, the
tools shown, and the
means of carrying stones.
Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks
Temples and mosques were beautifully constructed
because they were places of worship. They were also
meant to demonstrate the power, wealth and
devotion of the patron.  Take the example of the
Rajarajeshvara temple. An inscription mentions that
it was built by King Rajarajadeva for the worship of
his god, Rajarajeshvaram. Notice how the names
Fig. 5b
True arch; detail from
the Alai Darwaza
(early fourteenth
century). Quwwat al-
Islam mosque, Delhi.
Fig. 6
A painting from the
Akbar Nama (dated
1590-1595), showing
the construction
of the water-gate
at the Agra Fort.
RULERS AND BUILDINGS
Fig. 5a
A “true” arch. The “keystone” at
the centre of the arch transferred
the weight of the superstructure
to the base of the arch.
KEYSTONE
2015-16 (12-01-15)
Page 5


60 OUR PASTS – II
F
igure 1 shows the first balcony of the Qutb Minar.
Qutbuddin Aybak had this constructed around
1199. Notice the pattern created under the balcony
by the small arches and geometrical designs. Can you
see two bands of inscriptions under the balcony?
These are in Arabic. Notice that the surface of the minar
is curved and angular. Placing an inscription on such
a surface required great precision. Only the most
skilled craftsperson could perform this task. Remember
that very few buildings were made of stone or brick
800 years ago. What would have been the impact of a
building like the Qutb Minar on observers in the
thirteenth century?
Between the eighth and the eighteenth centuries
kings and their officers built two kinds of structures:
5
RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS RULERS AND BUILDINGS
Fig. 1
The Qutb Minar is five
storeys high. The band
of inscriptions you
see are under its
first balcony.
The first floor was
constructed by
Qutbuddin Aybak and
the rest by Iltutmish
around 1229. Over the
years it was damaged
by lightning and
earthquakes and
repaired by Alauddin
Khalji, Muhammad
Tughluq, Firuz Shah
Tughluq and
Ibrahim Lodi.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
61
the first were forts, palaces, garden residences and
tombs – safe, protected and grandiose places of rest in
this world and the next; the second were structures
meant for public activity including temples, mosques,
tanks, wells, caravanserais and bazaars. Kings were
expected to care for their subjects, and by making
structures for their use and comfort, rulers hoped to
win their praise. Construction activity was also carried
out by others, including merchants. They built temples,
mosques and wells. However, domestic architecture –
large mansions (havelis) of merchants – has survived
only from the eighteenth century.
Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction Engineering Skills and Construction
Monuments provide an insight into the technologies
used for construction. Take something like a roof for
example. We can make this by placing wooden beams
or a slab of stone across four walls. But the task
becomes difficult if we want to make a large room with
an elaborate superstructure. This requires more
sophisticated skills.
Between the seventh and tenth centuries architects
started adding more rooms, doors and windows to
buildings. Roofs, doors and windows were still made
by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical
columns, a style of architecture called “trabeate” or
“corbelled”. Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries
the trabeate style was used in the construction of
temples, mosques, tombs and in buildings attached to
large stepped-wells (baolis).
Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the Labour for the
Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort Agra Fort
Built by Akbar, the
Agra Fort required
2,000 stone-cutters,
2,000 cement and
lime-makers and
8,000 labourers.
Fig. 2a
Screen in the Quwwat
al-Islam mosque, Delhi
(late twelfth century).
Fig. 2b
Corbelled technique
used in the
construction of the
screen.
Superstructure
The part of a
building above the
ground floor .
RULERS AND BUILDINGS
Fig. 2a Fig. 2b
2015-16 (12-01-15)
62 OUR PASTS – II
?
What differences
do you notice
between the
shikharas of the
two temples? Can
you make out that
the shikhara of the
Rajarajeshvara
temple is twice as
high as that of the
Kandariya
Mahadeva?
Fig. 4
The Rajarajeshvara temple at Thanjavur had the tallest shikhara
amongst temples of its time. Constructing it was not easy because
there were no cranes in those days and the 90 tonne stone for the top
of the shikhara was too heavy to lift manually. So the architects
built an inclined path to the top of the temple,
placed the boulder on rollers and rolled it all
the way to the top. The path started more than
4 km away so that it would not be too steep.
This was dismantled after the temple was
constructed. But the residents of the area
remembered the experience of the
construction of the temple for a long
time. Even now a village near the
temple is called Charupallam, the
“Village of the Incline”.
Temple Construction in the Early Eleventh Century
Fig. 3a
Fig. 3b
The Kandariya Mahadeva temple
dedicated to Shiva was constructed
in 999 by the king
Dhangadeva
of the Chandela dynasty.
Fig. 3b is the plan of the
temple. An ornamented
gateway led to an
entrance, and the main
hall (mahamandapa)
where dances were
performed. The image
of the chief deity
was kept in the
main shrine
(garbhagriha). This was
the place for ritual
worship where only the
king, his immediate
family and priests
gathered. The
Khajuraho complex
contained royal temples where commoners were not allowed entry.
The temples were decorated with elaborately carved sculptures.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
63
?
Two technological and
stylistic developments are
noticeable from the twelfth
century. (1) The weight of
the superstructure above
the doors and windows
was sometimes carried by
arches. This architectural
form was called “arcuate”.
Compare Figures 2a and
2b with Figures 5a and 5b.
(2) Limestone cement
was increasingly used in
construction. This was
very high-quality cement,
which, when mixed with
stone  chips hardened
into concrete. This made
construction of large
structures easier and
faster. Take a look at the
construction site in Figure 6.
Describe what the
labourers are doing, the
tools shown, and the
means of carrying stones.
Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks Building Temples, Mosques and Tanks
Temples and mosques were beautifully constructed
because they were places of worship. They were also
meant to demonstrate the power, wealth and
devotion of the patron.  Take the example of the
Rajarajeshvara temple. An inscription mentions that
it was built by King Rajarajadeva for the worship of
his god, Rajarajeshvaram. Notice how the names
Fig. 5b
True arch; detail from
the Alai Darwaza
(early fourteenth
century). Quwwat al-
Islam mosque, Delhi.
Fig. 6
A painting from the
Akbar Nama (dated
1590-1595), showing
the construction
of the water-gate
at the Agra Fort.
RULERS AND BUILDINGS
Fig. 5a
A “true” arch. The “keystone” at
the centre of the arch transferred
the weight of the superstructure
to the base of the arch.
KEYSTONE
2015-16 (12-01-15)
64 OUR PASTS – II
A royal A royal A royal A royal A royal
architect architect architect architect architect
The Mughal emperor
Shah Jahan’s chro-
nicler declared that
the ruler was the
“architect of the
workshop of empire
and religion”.
Fig. 7
Plan of the Jami Masjid
built by Shah Jahan in
his new capital at
Shahjahanabad,
1650-1656.
Qibla
(Direction towards Mecca)
W
of the ruler and the god are very similar. The king
took the god’s name because it was auspicious and
he wanted to appear like a god. Through the rituals
of worship in the temple one god (Rajarajadeva)
honoured another (Rajarajeshvaram).
The largest temples were all constructed by kings.
The other, lesser deities in the temple were gods and
goddesses of the allies and subordinates of the ruler.
The temple was a miniature model of the world ruled
by the king and his allies. As they worshipped their
deities together in the royal temples, it seemed as if
they brought the just rule of the gods on earth.
Muslim Sultans and Padshahs did not claim to be
incarnations of god but Persian court chronicles
described the Sultan as the “Shadow of God”. An
inscription in the Quwwat al-Islam mosque explained
that God chose Alauddin as a king because he had the
qualities of Moses and Solomon, the great lawgivers of
the past. The greatest lawgiver and architect was God
Himself. He created the world out of chaos and
introduced order and symmetry.
2015-16 (12-01-15)
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