NCERT Textbook - Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes | EduRev

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78 DEMOCRATIC POLITICS
OVERVIEW
Democracy is not just about people electing their rulers. In a democracy
the rulers have to follow some rules and procedures. They have to work
with and within institutions. This chapter is about the working of such
institutions in a democracy. We try to understand this by looking at the
manner in which major decisions are taken and implemented in our
country. We also look at how disputes regarding these decisions are
resolved. In this process we come across three institutions that play a key
role in major decisions – legislature, executive and judiciary.
You have already read something about these institutions in earlier
classes. Here we shall quickly summarise those and move on to asking
larger questions. In the case of each institution we ask: What does this
institution do? How is this institution connected to other institutions?
What makes its functioning more or less democratic? The basic objective
here is to understand how all these institutions together carry on the
work of government. Sometimes we compare these with similar institutions
in other democracies. In this chapter we take our examples from the
working of the national level government called Central Government, Union
Government, or just Government of India. While reading this chapter, you
can think of and discuss examples from the working of the government in
your state.
CHAPTER 5
Working of
Institutions
2015-16(19/01/2015)
Page 2


78 DEMOCRATIC POLITICS
OVERVIEW
Democracy is not just about people electing their rulers. In a democracy
the rulers have to follow some rules and procedures. They have to work
with and within institutions. This chapter is about the working of such
institutions in a democracy. We try to understand this by looking at the
manner in which major decisions are taken and implemented in our
country. We also look at how disputes regarding these decisions are
resolved. In this process we come across three institutions that play a key
role in major decisions – legislature, executive and judiciary.
You have already read something about these institutions in earlier
classes. Here we shall quickly summarise those and move on to asking
larger questions. In the case of each institution we ask: What does this
institution do? How is this institution connected to other institutions?
What makes its functioning more or less democratic? The basic objective
here is to understand how all these institutions together carry on the
work of government. Sometimes we compare these with similar institutions
in other democracies. In this chapter we take our examples from the
working of the national level government called Central Government, Union
Government, or just Government of India. While reading this chapter, you
can think of and discuss examples from the working of the government in
your state.
CHAPTER 5
Working of
Institutions
2015-16(19/01/2015)
79
5.1 HOW IS A MAJOR POLICY DECISION TAKEN?
Pensions, signed the Order. It was
quite short, barely one page. It
looked like any ordinary circular or
notice that you may have seen in
school. The government issues hun-
dreds of orders every day on differ-
ent matters. But this one was very
important and became a source of
controversy for several years. Let us
see how the decision was taken and
what happened later.
A G A G A G A G A Go o o o ov v v v ver er er er ernmen nmen nmen nmen nment Or t Or t Or t Or t Order der der der der
On August 13, 1990, the Government
of India issued an Order. It was
called an Office Memorandum. Like
all government orders, it had a num-
ber and is known by that: O. M. No.
36012/31/90-Est (SCT), dated
13.8.1990. The Joint Secretary, an
officer in the Department of Person-
nel and Training in the Ministry of
Personnel, Public Grievances and
WORKING OF INSTITUTIONS
2015-16(19/01/2015)
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