NCERT Textbook - Major Landforms of the Earth Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

Created by: Rohini Seth

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - Major Landforms of the Earth Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


6
6
MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
You must have seen some of the landform features as
shown in the Figure 6.1 below. You will notice that the
surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. The
earth has an infinite variety of landforms. Some parts
of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat.
These landforms are a result of two processes. You
will be amazed to know that the ground you are
standing on is slowly moving. Within the earth, a
continuous movement is taking place. The first, or the
internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking
of the earth’s surface at several places.
Do you know?
A hill is a land
surface that
rises higher than
the surrounding area.
Generally, a steep hill with
an elevation of more than 600
metres is termed as a
mountain. Name some
mountains with a height of
more than 8,000 metres.
Figure 6.1 : Landforms
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


6
6
MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
You must have seen some of the landform features as
shown in the Figure 6.1 below. You will notice that the
surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. The
earth has an infinite variety of landforms. Some parts
of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat.
These landforms are a result of two processes. You
will be amazed to know that the ground you are
standing on is slowly moving. Within the earth, a
continuous movement is taking place. The first, or the
internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking
of the earth’s surface at several places.
Do you know?
A hill is a land
surface that
rises higher than
the surrounding area.
Generally, a steep hill with
an elevation of more than 600
metres is termed as a
mountain. Name some
mountains with a height of
more than 8,000 metres.
Figure 6.1 : Landforms
© NCERT
not to be republished
40
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The second, or the external process is the continuous
wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface. The
wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion.
The surface is being lowered by the process of erosion
and rebuilt by the process of deposition. These two
processes are carried out by running water, ice and
wind. Broadly, we can group different landforms
depending on elevation and slope as mountains,
plateaus and plains.
MOUNTAINS
A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth
surface. The mountains may have a small summit and
a broad base. It is considerably higher than the
surrounding area. Some mountains are even higher
than the clouds. As you go higher, the climate becomes
colder.
In some mountains, there are permanently frozen
rivers of ice. They are called glaciers. There are some
mountains you cannot see as they are under the sea.
Because of harsh climate, less people live in the
mountain areas. Since the slopes are steep, less land
is available for farming.
Figure 6.2 : Fold Mountains (Himalayas)
Let’s Do
Making of a
Mountain :
1. All you require is a
pile of paper.
2. Put the papers on
your table.
3. Push the papers
from both sides by
your hands.
4. The sheet will be
folded and rise into
a peak.
5. You have made a
mountain!
In the same process
our Himalayas and
the Alps were
formed!
A Fold Mountain
Crust
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


6
6
MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
You must have seen some of the landform features as
shown in the Figure 6.1 below. You will notice that the
surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. The
earth has an infinite variety of landforms. Some parts
of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat.
These landforms are a result of two processes. You
will be amazed to know that the ground you are
standing on is slowly moving. Within the earth, a
continuous movement is taking place. The first, or the
internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking
of the earth’s surface at several places.
Do you know?
A hill is a land
surface that
rises higher than
the surrounding area.
Generally, a steep hill with
an elevation of more than 600
metres is termed as a
mountain. Name some
mountains with a height of
more than 8,000 metres.
Figure 6.1 : Landforms
© NCERT
not to be republished
40
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The second, or the external process is the continuous
wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface. The
wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion.
The surface is being lowered by the process of erosion
and rebuilt by the process of deposition. These two
processes are carried out by running water, ice and
wind. Broadly, we can group different landforms
depending on elevation and slope as mountains,
plateaus and plains.
MOUNTAINS
A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth
surface. The mountains may have a small summit and
a broad base. It is considerably higher than the
surrounding area. Some mountains are even higher
than the clouds. As you go higher, the climate becomes
colder.
In some mountains, there are permanently frozen
rivers of ice. They are called glaciers. There are some
mountains you cannot see as they are under the sea.
Because of harsh climate, less people live in the
mountain areas. Since the slopes are steep, less land
is available for farming.
Figure 6.2 : Fold Mountains (Himalayas)
Let’s Do
Making of a
Mountain :
1. All you require is a
pile of paper.
2. Put the papers on
your table.
3. Push the papers
from both sides by
your hands.
4. The sheet will be
folded and rise into
a peak.
5. You have made a
mountain!
In the same process
our Himalayas and
the Alps were
formed!
A Fold Mountain
Crust
© NCERT
not to be republished
41 MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
Mountains may be arranged in a line known as
range. Many mountain systems consist of a series of
parallel ranges extending over hundreds of kilometres.
The Himalayas, the Alps and the Andes are mountain
ranges of Asia, Europe and South America, respectively
(Figure 5.1). Mountains vary in their heights and
shape.
There are three types of mountains- Fold
Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic
Mountains. The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps
are young fold mountains with rugged relief and high
conical peaks. The Aravali range in India is one of the
oldest fold mountain systems in the world. The range
has considerably worn down due to the processes of
erosion. The Appalachians in North America and the
Ural mountains in Russia (Figure 5.1) have rounded
features and low elevation. They are very old fold
mountains.
Block Mountains are
created when large areas are
broken and displaced
vertically. The uplifted blocks
are termed as horsts and the
lowered blocks are called
graben. The Rhine valley
and the Vosges mountain in
Europe are examples of such
mountain systems. Locate
them on the world map in
the atlas and find out some
more examples of this type
of landforms.
Volcanic mountains are
formed due to volcanic
activity. Mt.Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt.Fujiyama
in Japan are examples of such mountains.
Mountains are very useful. The mountains are a
storehouse of water. Many rivers have their source in
the glaciers in the mountains. Reservoirs are made
and the water is harnessed for the use of people. Water
from the mountains is also used for irrigation and
generation of hydro-electricity. The river valleys and
terraces are ideal for cultivation of crops. Mountains
have a rich variety of flora and fauna. The forests
provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like
Do you know?
Mauna Kea
(Hawaii)  in the
Pacific Ocean is
an undersea mountain. It
is higher than Mount
Everest being 10,205
metres high.
Figure 6.3 : A Block Mountain
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


6
6
MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
You must have seen some of the landform features as
shown in the Figure 6.1 below. You will notice that the
surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. The
earth has an infinite variety of landforms. Some parts
of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat.
These landforms are a result of two processes. You
will be amazed to know that the ground you are
standing on is slowly moving. Within the earth, a
continuous movement is taking place. The first, or the
internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking
of the earth’s surface at several places.
Do you know?
A hill is a land
surface that
rises higher than
the surrounding area.
Generally, a steep hill with
an elevation of more than 600
metres is termed as a
mountain. Name some
mountains with a height of
more than 8,000 metres.
Figure 6.1 : Landforms
© NCERT
not to be republished
40
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The second, or the external process is the continuous
wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface. The
wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion.
The surface is being lowered by the process of erosion
and rebuilt by the process of deposition. These two
processes are carried out by running water, ice and
wind. Broadly, we can group different landforms
depending on elevation and slope as mountains,
plateaus and plains.
MOUNTAINS
A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth
surface. The mountains may have a small summit and
a broad base. It is considerably higher than the
surrounding area. Some mountains are even higher
than the clouds. As you go higher, the climate becomes
colder.
In some mountains, there are permanently frozen
rivers of ice. They are called glaciers. There are some
mountains you cannot see as they are under the sea.
Because of harsh climate, less people live in the
mountain areas. Since the slopes are steep, less land
is available for farming.
Figure 6.2 : Fold Mountains (Himalayas)
Let’s Do
Making of a
Mountain :
1. All you require is a
pile of paper.
2. Put the papers on
your table.
3. Push the papers
from both sides by
your hands.
4. The sheet will be
folded and rise into
a peak.
5. You have made a
mountain!
In the same process
our Himalayas and
the Alps were
formed!
A Fold Mountain
Crust
© NCERT
not to be republished
41 MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
Mountains may be arranged in a line known as
range. Many mountain systems consist of a series of
parallel ranges extending over hundreds of kilometres.
The Himalayas, the Alps and the Andes are mountain
ranges of Asia, Europe and South America, respectively
(Figure 5.1). Mountains vary in their heights and
shape.
There are three types of mountains- Fold
Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic
Mountains. The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps
are young fold mountains with rugged relief and high
conical peaks. The Aravali range in India is one of the
oldest fold mountain systems in the world. The range
has considerably worn down due to the processes of
erosion. The Appalachians in North America and the
Ural mountains in Russia (Figure 5.1) have rounded
features and low elevation. They are very old fold
mountains.
Block Mountains are
created when large areas are
broken and displaced
vertically. The uplifted blocks
are termed as horsts and the
lowered blocks are called
graben. The Rhine valley
and the Vosges mountain in
Europe are examples of such
mountain systems. Locate
them on the world map in
the atlas and find out some
more examples of this type
of landforms.
Volcanic mountains are
formed due to volcanic
activity. Mt.Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt.Fujiyama
in Japan are examples of such mountains.
Mountains are very useful. The mountains are a
storehouse of water. Many rivers have their source in
the glaciers in the mountains. Reservoirs are made
and the water is harnessed for the use of people. Water
from the mountains is also used for irrigation and
generation of hydro-electricity. The river valleys and
terraces are ideal for cultivation of crops. Mountains
have a rich variety of flora and fauna. The forests
provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like
Do you know?
Mauna Kea
(Hawaii)  in the
Pacific Ocean is
an undersea mountain. It
is higher than Mount
Everest being 10,205
metres high.
Figure 6.3 : A Block Mountain
© NCERT
not to be republished
42
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
gum, raisins, etc. Mountains provide an idyllic site
for tourists. They visit the mountains for their scenic
beauty. Several sports like paragliding, hang gliding,
river rafting and skiing are popular in the mountains.
Can you name some places in the Himalayas
associated with these sports?
PLATEAUS
A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is
a flat-topped table land standing
above the surrounding area. A
plateau may have one or more sides
with steep slopes. The height of
plateaus often varies from few
hundred metres to several thousand
metres. Plateaus, like mountains may
be young or old. The Deccan plateau
in India is one of the oldest plateaus.
The East African Plateau in Kenya,
Tanzania and Uganda and the
Western plateau of Australia are other
examples. The Tibet plateau (Figure 5.1, p.31) is the
highest plateau in the world with a height of 4,000 to
6,000 metres above the mean sea level.
Plateaus are very useful because they are rich in
mineral deposits. As a result, many of the mining areas
in the world are located in the plateau areas. The
Figure 6.4 : A Volcanic Mountain
Can you name this sport?
Figure 6.5 : Plateau
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


6
6
MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
You must have seen some of the landform features as
shown in the Figure 6.1 below. You will notice that the
surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. The
earth has an infinite variety of landforms. Some parts
of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat.
These landforms are a result of two processes. You
will be amazed to know that the ground you are
standing on is slowly moving. Within the earth, a
continuous movement is taking place. The first, or the
internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking
of the earth’s surface at several places.
Do you know?
A hill is a land
surface that
rises higher than
the surrounding area.
Generally, a steep hill with
an elevation of more than 600
metres is termed as a
mountain. Name some
mountains with a height of
more than 8,000 metres.
Figure 6.1 : Landforms
© NCERT
not to be republished
40
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The second, or the external process is the continuous
wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface. The
wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion.
The surface is being lowered by the process of erosion
and rebuilt by the process of deposition. These two
processes are carried out by running water, ice and
wind. Broadly, we can group different landforms
depending on elevation and slope as mountains,
plateaus and plains.
MOUNTAINS
A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth
surface. The mountains may have a small summit and
a broad base. It is considerably higher than the
surrounding area. Some mountains are even higher
than the clouds. As you go higher, the climate becomes
colder.
In some mountains, there are permanently frozen
rivers of ice. They are called glaciers. There are some
mountains you cannot see as they are under the sea.
Because of harsh climate, less people live in the
mountain areas. Since the slopes are steep, less land
is available for farming.
Figure 6.2 : Fold Mountains (Himalayas)
Let’s Do
Making of a
Mountain :
1. All you require is a
pile of paper.
2. Put the papers on
your table.
3. Push the papers
from both sides by
your hands.
4. The sheet will be
folded and rise into
a peak.
5. You have made a
mountain!
In the same process
our Himalayas and
the Alps were
formed!
A Fold Mountain
Crust
© NCERT
not to be republished
41 MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
Mountains may be arranged in a line known as
range. Many mountain systems consist of a series of
parallel ranges extending over hundreds of kilometres.
The Himalayas, the Alps and the Andes are mountain
ranges of Asia, Europe and South America, respectively
(Figure 5.1). Mountains vary in their heights and
shape.
There are three types of mountains- Fold
Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic
Mountains. The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps
are young fold mountains with rugged relief and high
conical peaks. The Aravali range in India is one of the
oldest fold mountain systems in the world. The range
has considerably worn down due to the processes of
erosion. The Appalachians in North America and the
Ural mountains in Russia (Figure 5.1) have rounded
features and low elevation. They are very old fold
mountains.
Block Mountains are
created when large areas are
broken and displaced
vertically. The uplifted blocks
are termed as horsts and the
lowered blocks are called
graben. The Rhine valley
and the Vosges mountain in
Europe are examples of such
mountain systems. Locate
them on the world map in
the atlas and find out some
more examples of this type
of landforms.
Volcanic mountains are
formed due to volcanic
activity. Mt.Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt.Fujiyama
in Japan are examples of such mountains.
Mountains are very useful. The mountains are a
storehouse of water. Many rivers have their source in
the glaciers in the mountains. Reservoirs are made
and the water is harnessed for the use of people. Water
from the mountains is also used for irrigation and
generation of hydro-electricity. The river valleys and
terraces are ideal for cultivation of crops. Mountains
have a rich variety of flora and fauna. The forests
provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like
Do you know?
Mauna Kea
(Hawaii)  in the
Pacific Ocean is
an undersea mountain. It
is higher than Mount
Everest being 10,205
metres high.
Figure 6.3 : A Block Mountain
© NCERT
not to be republished
42
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
gum, raisins, etc. Mountains provide an idyllic site
for tourists. They visit the mountains for their scenic
beauty. Several sports like paragliding, hang gliding,
river rafting and skiing are popular in the mountains.
Can you name some places in the Himalayas
associated with these sports?
PLATEAUS
A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is
a flat-topped table land standing
above the surrounding area. A
plateau may have one or more sides
with steep slopes. The height of
plateaus often varies from few
hundred metres to several thousand
metres. Plateaus, like mountains may
be young or old. The Deccan plateau
in India is one of the oldest plateaus.
The East African Plateau in Kenya,
Tanzania and Uganda and the
Western plateau of Australia are other
examples. The Tibet plateau (Figure 5.1, p.31) is the
highest plateau in the world with a height of 4,000 to
6,000 metres above the mean sea level.
Plateaus are very useful because they are rich in
mineral deposits. As a result, many of the mining areas
in the world are located in the plateau areas. The
Figure 6.4 : A Volcanic Mountain
Can you name this sport?
Figure 6.5 : Plateau
© NCERT
not to be republished
43 MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining. In India huge reserves of
iron, coal and manganese are found in the Chhotanagpur plateau.
In the plateau areas, there may be several waterfalls as the river falls from a
great height. In India, the Hundru falls in the Chhotanagpur plateau on the river
Subarnarekha and the Jog falls in Karnataka are examples of such waterfalls.
The lava plateaus are rich in black soil that are fertile and good for cultivation.
Many plateaus have scenic spots and are of great attraction to tourists.
PLAINS
Plains are large stretches of flat land. They are, generally, not more than 200
metres above mean sea level. Some plains are extremely level. Others may be
slightly rolling and undulating. Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their
tributaries. The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them. They
carry forward the eroded material. Then they deposit their load consisting of stones,
sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys. It is from these deposits that
plains are formed.
Generally, plains are very fertile. Construction of transport network is easy.
Thus, these plains are very thickly-populated regions of the world. Some of the
largest plains made by the rivers are found in Asia and North America. For example,
in Asia, these plains are formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra in India and
the Yangtze in China.
Plains are the most useful areas for human habitation. There is great concentration
of people as more flat land is available for building houses, as well as for cultivation.
Figure 6.6 : Plains
© NCERT
not to be republished
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