NCERT Textbook - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 7 Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

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Class 7 : NCERT Textbook - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 7 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


6
Natural Vegetation
and Wild Life
Salima was excited about the summer camp she was
attending. She had gone to visit Manali  in Himachal
Pradesh along with her class mates. She recalled how
surprised she was to see the changes in the landform
and natural vegetation as the bus climbed higher and
higher. The deep jungles of the foothills comprising sal
and teak slowly disappeared. She could see tall trees
with thin pointed leaves and cone shaped canopies on
the mountain slopes. She learnt that those were coniferous
trees. She noticed blooms of bright flowers on tall trees.
These were the rhododendrons. From Manali as she was
travelling up to Rohtang pass she saw that the land was
covered with short grass and snow in some  places.
From Salima’s
observations, we surmise
that there is a close
relationship between
height of land and the
character of vegetations.
With the change in height,
the climate changes and
that changes natural
vegetation. The growth of
vegetation depends on
temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors
like slope and thickness of soil.
The type and thickness of natural vegetation varies
from place to place because of the variation in these factors.
Natural vegetation is generally classified in to three
broad categories as follows:
(a) Forests: Which grow where temperature and rainfall
are plentiful to support a tree cover. Depending upon
these factors, dense and open forests are grown.
Let’s do
Now can you tell why
Salima saw changes
in the natural
vegetation as she
climbed higher and
higher? What types of
vegetations did she
see in the Himalayas
starting with the
foothills and going to
the higher altitudes?
Let’s do
• Like Salima, when
you go to visit any
new place, notice
the type of natural
vegetation occurring
there and try to
think of factors
responsible for the
growth of such
vegetation in that
habitat.
• Note down if any
human interference
has taken place in
that area in terms
of deforestation,
grazing, cultivation
of cash crops,
constructional
activities etc.
Fig. 6.1: Rhododendron
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


6
Natural Vegetation
and Wild Life
Salima was excited about the summer camp she was
attending. She had gone to visit Manali  in Himachal
Pradesh along with her class mates. She recalled how
surprised she was to see the changes in the landform
and natural vegetation as the bus climbed higher and
higher. The deep jungles of the foothills comprising sal
and teak slowly disappeared. She could see tall trees
with thin pointed leaves and cone shaped canopies on
the mountain slopes. She learnt that those were coniferous
trees. She noticed blooms of bright flowers on tall trees.
These were the rhododendrons. From Manali as she was
travelling up to Rohtang pass she saw that the land was
covered with short grass and snow in some  places.
From Salima’s
observations, we surmise
that there is a close
relationship between
height of land and the
character of vegetations.
With the change in height,
the climate changes and
that changes natural
vegetation. The growth of
vegetation depends on
temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors
like slope and thickness of soil.
The type and thickness of natural vegetation varies
from place to place because of the variation in these factors.
Natural vegetation is generally classified in to three
broad categories as follows:
(a) Forests: Which grow where temperature and rainfall
are plentiful to support a tree cover. Depending upon
these factors, dense and open forests are grown.
Let’s do
Now can you tell why
Salima saw changes
in the natural
vegetation as she
climbed higher and
higher? What types of
vegetations did she
see in the Himalayas
starting with the
foothills and going to
the higher altitudes?
Let’s do
• Like Salima, when
you go to visit any
new place, notice
the type of natural
vegetation occurring
there and try to
think of factors
responsible for the
growth of such
vegetation in that
habitat.
• Note down if any
human interference
has taken place in
that area in terms
of deforestation,
grazing, cultivation
of cash crops,
constructional
activities etc.
Fig. 6.1: Rhododendron
© NCERT
not to be republished
40 OUR ENVIRONMENT
(b) Grasslands: Which grow in the region of moderate rain.
(c) Shrubs: Thorny shrurbs and scrubs grow in the dry
region (Fig. 6.2).
Salima was sharing her experience of Himalayan trip
with her father. Her father visited various places in the
world. He told Salima about his observations of the variety
of vegetation in different parts of  different continents.He
mentioned about coniferous forests in the sub polar
regions, thorny bushes in the deserts, thick tropical
hardwood forest in the humid regions and many more.
Salima realised the Himalayas have almost all variety of
vegetation which one can see while moving from the
equator to the polar region.
The changes in the type of natural vegetation occur
mainly because of the changes of climatic condition. Let
us get to know the different types of natural vegetation
of the world with their characteristic features and wildlife
inhabiting there.
FORESTS
Tropical Evergreen Forests
These forests are also called  tropical rainforests
(Fig. 6.3). These thick forests occur in the regions near
the equator and close to the tropics. These regions are
hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year. As
there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed
their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are
called evergreen. The thick canopies of the closely
spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate
inside the forest even in the day time. Hardwood trees
like rosewood, ebony, mahogany are common here.
Do you know?
The tropical evergreen
forest in Brazil is so
enormous that it is
like the lungs of the
earth: Can you tell
why?
Do you know?
Anaconda, one of the
world’s largest snakes
is found in the
tropical rainforest. It
can kill and eat a
large animal such as
a crocodile.
Fig. 6.3: A Tropical Evergreen Forest
Fig. 6.2: Thorny shrubs
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


6
Natural Vegetation
and Wild Life
Salima was excited about the summer camp she was
attending. She had gone to visit Manali  in Himachal
Pradesh along with her class mates. She recalled how
surprised she was to see the changes in the landform
and natural vegetation as the bus climbed higher and
higher. The deep jungles of the foothills comprising sal
and teak slowly disappeared. She could see tall trees
with thin pointed leaves and cone shaped canopies on
the mountain slopes. She learnt that those were coniferous
trees. She noticed blooms of bright flowers on tall trees.
These were the rhododendrons. From Manali as she was
travelling up to Rohtang pass she saw that the land was
covered with short grass and snow in some  places.
From Salima’s
observations, we surmise
that there is a close
relationship between
height of land and the
character of vegetations.
With the change in height,
the climate changes and
that changes natural
vegetation. The growth of
vegetation depends on
temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors
like slope and thickness of soil.
The type and thickness of natural vegetation varies
from place to place because of the variation in these factors.
Natural vegetation is generally classified in to three
broad categories as follows:
(a) Forests: Which grow where temperature and rainfall
are plentiful to support a tree cover. Depending upon
these factors, dense and open forests are grown.
Let’s do
Now can you tell why
Salima saw changes
in the natural
vegetation as she
climbed higher and
higher? What types of
vegetations did she
see in the Himalayas
starting with the
foothills and going to
the higher altitudes?
Let’s do
• Like Salima, when
you go to visit any
new place, notice
the type of natural
vegetation occurring
there and try to
think of factors
responsible for the
growth of such
vegetation in that
habitat.
• Note down if any
human interference
has taken place in
that area in terms
of deforestation,
grazing, cultivation
of cash crops,
constructional
activities etc.
Fig. 6.1: Rhododendron
© NCERT
not to be republished
40 OUR ENVIRONMENT
(b) Grasslands: Which grow in the region of moderate rain.
(c) Shrubs: Thorny shrurbs and scrubs grow in the dry
region (Fig. 6.2).
Salima was sharing her experience of Himalayan trip
with her father. Her father visited various places in the
world. He told Salima about his observations of the variety
of vegetation in different parts of  different continents.He
mentioned about coniferous forests in the sub polar
regions, thorny bushes in the deserts, thick tropical
hardwood forest in the humid regions and many more.
Salima realised the Himalayas have almost all variety of
vegetation which one can see while moving from the
equator to the polar region.
The changes in the type of natural vegetation occur
mainly because of the changes of climatic condition. Let
us get to know the different types of natural vegetation
of the world with their characteristic features and wildlife
inhabiting there.
FORESTS
Tropical Evergreen Forests
These forests are also called  tropical rainforests
(Fig. 6.3). These thick forests occur in the regions near
the equator and close to the tropics. These regions are
hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year. As
there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed
their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are
called evergreen. The thick canopies of the closely
spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate
inside the forest even in the day time. Hardwood trees
like rosewood, ebony, mahogany are common here.
Do you know?
The tropical evergreen
forest in Brazil is so
enormous that it is
like the lungs of the
earth: Can you tell
why?
Do you know?
Anaconda, one of the
world’s largest snakes
is found in the
tropical rainforest. It
can kill and eat a
large animal such as
a crocodile.
Fig. 6.3: A Tropical Evergreen Forest
Fig. 6.2: Thorny shrubs
© NCERT
not to be republished
NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILD LIFE 41
Tropical Deciduous Forests
Tropical deciduous are the monsoon forests  found in
the large part of India,northern Australia and in central
America (Fig. 6.4).These regions experience  seasonal
changes. Trees shed their leaves in the dry  season  to
conserve water. The hardwood trees found in these
forests are sal, teak, neem and shisham. Hardwood trees
are extremely useful for making furniture, transport
and constructional materials. Tigers, lions, elephants,
langoors and monkeys are the common animals of these
regions (Fig. 6.5, 6.6 and 6.8).
Fig. 6.4: A Tropical Deciduous Forest
Fig. 6.5: A Tiger
Fig. 6.6: A Golden Langoor
Let’s do
• Where in India do
tropical evergreen
and tropical
deciduous forests
occur? Name the
states.
• Which type of forest
dominates most
part of India?
Fig. 6.7: A Temperate Evergreen Forest
Temperate Evergreen Forests
The temperate evergreen forests are located in the mid-
latitudinal coastal region (Fig. 6.7). They are commonly
found along the eastern margin of the continents, e.g., In
south east USA, South China and in South East Brazil.
They comprise both hard and soft wood trees like oak,
pine, eucalyptus, etc.
Fig. 6.8: Elephants
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


6
Natural Vegetation
and Wild Life
Salima was excited about the summer camp she was
attending. She had gone to visit Manali  in Himachal
Pradesh along with her class mates. She recalled how
surprised she was to see the changes in the landform
and natural vegetation as the bus climbed higher and
higher. The deep jungles of the foothills comprising sal
and teak slowly disappeared. She could see tall trees
with thin pointed leaves and cone shaped canopies on
the mountain slopes. She learnt that those were coniferous
trees. She noticed blooms of bright flowers on tall trees.
These were the rhododendrons. From Manali as she was
travelling up to Rohtang pass she saw that the land was
covered with short grass and snow in some  places.
From Salima’s
observations, we surmise
that there is a close
relationship between
height of land and the
character of vegetations.
With the change in height,
the climate changes and
that changes natural
vegetation. The growth of
vegetation depends on
temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors
like slope and thickness of soil.
The type and thickness of natural vegetation varies
from place to place because of the variation in these factors.
Natural vegetation is generally classified in to three
broad categories as follows:
(a) Forests: Which grow where temperature and rainfall
are plentiful to support a tree cover. Depending upon
these factors, dense and open forests are grown.
Let’s do
Now can you tell why
Salima saw changes
in the natural
vegetation as she
climbed higher and
higher? What types of
vegetations did she
see in the Himalayas
starting with the
foothills and going to
the higher altitudes?
Let’s do
• Like Salima, when
you go to visit any
new place, notice
the type of natural
vegetation occurring
there and try to
think of factors
responsible for the
growth of such
vegetation in that
habitat.
• Note down if any
human interference
has taken place in
that area in terms
of deforestation,
grazing, cultivation
of cash crops,
constructional
activities etc.
Fig. 6.1: Rhododendron
© NCERT
not to be republished
40 OUR ENVIRONMENT
(b) Grasslands: Which grow in the region of moderate rain.
(c) Shrubs: Thorny shrurbs and scrubs grow in the dry
region (Fig. 6.2).
Salima was sharing her experience of Himalayan trip
with her father. Her father visited various places in the
world. He told Salima about his observations of the variety
of vegetation in different parts of  different continents.He
mentioned about coniferous forests in the sub polar
regions, thorny bushes in the deserts, thick tropical
hardwood forest in the humid regions and many more.
Salima realised the Himalayas have almost all variety of
vegetation which one can see while moving from the
equator to the polar region.
The changes in the type of natural vegetation occur
mainly because of the changes of climatic condition. Let
us get to know the different types of natural vegetation
of the world with their characteristic features and wildlife
inhabiting there.
FORESTS
Tropical Evergreen Forests
These forests are also called  tropical rainforests
(Fig. 6.3). These thick forests occur in the regions near
the equator and close to the tropics. These regions are
hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year. As
there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed
their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are
called evergreen. The thick canopies of the closely
spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate
inside the forest even in the day time. Hardwood trees
like rosewood, ebony, mahogany are common here.
Do you know?
The tropical evergreen
forest in Brazil is so
enormous that it is
like the lungs of the
earth: Can you tell
why?
Do you know?
Anaconda, one of the
world’s largest snakes
is found in the
tropical rainforest. It
can kill and eat a
large animal such as
a crocodile.
Fig. 6.3: A Tropical Evergreen Forest
Fig. 6.2: Thorny shrubs
© NCERT
not to be republished
NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILD LIFE 41
Tropical Deciduous Forests
Tropical deciduous are the monsoon forests  found in
the large part of India,northern Australia and in central
America (Fig. 6.4).These regions experience  seasonal
changes. Trees shed their leaves in the dry  season  to
conserve water. The hardwood trees found in these
forests are sal, teak, neem and shisham. Hardwood trees
are extremely useful for making furniture, transport
and constructional materials. Tigers, lions, elephants,
langoors and monkeys are the common animals of these
regions (Fig. 6.5, 6.6 and 6.8).
Fig. 6.4: A Tropical Deciduous Forest
Fig. 6.5: A Tiger
Fig. 6.6: A Golden Langoor
Let’s do
• Where in India do
tropical evergreen
and tropical
deciduous forests
occur? Name the
states.
• Which type of forest
dominates most
part of India?
Fig. 6.7: A Temperate Evergreen Forest
Temperate Evergreen Forests
The temperate evergreen forests are located in the mid-
latitudinal coastal region (Fig. 6.7). They are commonly
found along the eastern margin of the continents, e.g., In
south east USA, South China and in South East Brazil.
They comprise both hard and soft wood trees like oak,
pine, eucalyptus, etc.
Fig. 6.8: Elephants
© NCERT
not to be republished
42 OUR ENVIRONMENT
Temperate Deciduous Forests
As we go towards higher latitudes, there are more
temperate deciduous forests (Fig. 6.11). These are found
in the north eastern part of USA, China, New Zealand,
Chile and also found in the coastal regions of Western
Europe. They shed their leaves in the dry season. The
common trees are oak, ash, beech, etc. Deer, foxes, wolves
are the animals commonly found. Birds like pheasants,
monals are also found here (Fig. 6.9 and 6.10).
Do you know?
• Mediterranean trees
adapt themselves to
dry summers with
the help of their
thick barks and wax
coated leaves which
help them reduce
transpiration.
• Mediterranean
regions are known
as ‘Orchards of the
world’ for their fruit
cultivation.
Fig. 6.12: A vineyard in the Mediterranean Region
Fig. 6.9: A Pheasant
Fig. 6.10: A Monal
Fig. 6.11: A Temperate Deciduous Forest
Mediterranean Vegetation
You have learnt that most  of the east and north east
margins of the continents are covered by temperate
evergreen and deciduous trees. The west and south west
margins of the continents are different. They have
Mediterranean vegetation (Fig. 6.12). It is mostly found
in the areas around the Mediterranean sea in Europe,
Africa and Asia, hence the name. This kind of vegetation
is also found outside the actual Mediterranean region in
California in the USA, south west Africa, south western
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


6
Natural Vegetation
and Wild Life
Salima was excited about the summer camp she was
attending. She had gone to visit Manali  in Himachal
Pradesh along with her class mates. She recalled how
surprised she was to see the changes in the landform
and natural vegetation as the bus climbed higher and
higher. The deep jungles of the foothills comprising sal
and teak slowly disappeared. She could see tall trees
with thin pointed leaves and cone shaped canopies on
the mountain slopes. She learnt that those were coniferous
trees. She noticed blooms of bright flowers on tall trees.
These were the rhododendrons. From Manali as she was
travelling up to Rohtang pass she saw that the land was
covered with short grass and snow in some  places.
From Salima’s
observations, we surmise
that there is a close
relationship between
height of land and the
character of vegetations.
With the change in height,
the climate changes and
that changes natural
vegetation. The growth of
vegetation depends on
temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors
like slope and thickness of soil.
The type and thickness of natural vegetation varies
from place to place because of the variation in these factors.
Natural vegetation is generally classified in to three
broad categories as follows:
(a) Forests: Which grow where temperature and rainfall
are plentiful to support a tree cover. Depending upon
these factors, dense and open forests are grown.
Let’s do
Now can you tell why
Salima saw changes
in the natural
vegetation as she
climbed higher and
higher? What types of
vegetations did she
see in the Himalayas
starting with the
foothills and going to
the higher altitudes?
Let’s do
• Like Salima, when
you go to visit any
new place, notice
the type of natural
vegetation occurring
there and try to
think of factors
responsible for the
growth of such
vegetation in that
habitat.
• Note down if any
human interference
has taken place in
that area in terms
of deforestation,
grazing, cultivation
of cash crops,
constructional
activities etc.
Fig. 6.1: Rhododendron
© NCERT
not to be republished
40 OUR ENVIRONMENT
(b) Grasslands: Which grow in the region of moderate rain.
(c) Shrubs: Thorny shrurbs and scrubs grow in the dry
region (Fig. 6.2).
Salima was sharing her experience of Himalayan trip
with her father. Her father visited various places in the
world. He told Salima about his observations of the variety
of vegetation in different parts of  different continents.He
mentioned about coniferous forests in the sub polar
regions, thorny bushes in the deserts, thick tropical
hardwood forest in the humid regions and many more.
Salima realised the Himalayas have almost all variety of
vegetation which one can see while moving from the
equator to the polar region.
The changes in the type of natural vegetation occur
mainly because of the changes of climatic condition. Let
us get to know the different types of natural vegetation
of the world with their characteristic features and wildlife
inhabiting there.
FORESTS
Tropical Evergreen Forests
These forests are also called  tropical rainforests
(Fig. 6.3). These thick forests occur in the regions near
the equator and close to the tropics. These regions are
hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year. As
there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed
their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are
called evergreen. The thick canopies of the closely
spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate
inside the forest even in the day time. Hardwood trees
like rosewood, ebony, mahogany are common here.
Do you know?
The tropical evergreen
forest in Brazil is so
enormous that it is
like the lungs of the
earth: Can you tell
why?
Do you know?
Anaconda, one of the
world’s largest snakes
is found in the
tropical rainforest. It
can kill and eat a
large animal such as
a crocodile.
Fig. 6.3: A Tropical Evergreen Forest
Fig. 6.2: Thorny shrubs
© NCERT
not to be republished
NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILD LIFE 41
Tropical Deciduous Forests
Tropical deciduous are the monsoon forests  found in
the large part of India,northern Australia and in central
America (Fig. 6.4).These regions experience  seasonal
changes. Trees shed their leaves in the dry  season  to
conserve water. The hardwood trees found in these
forests are sal, teak, neem and shisham. Hardwood trees
are extremely useful for making furniture, transport
and constructional materials. Tigers, lions, elephants,
langoors and monkeys are the common animals of these
regions (Fig. 6.5, 6.6 and 6.8).
Fig. 6.4: A Tropical Deciduous Forest
Fig. 6.5: A Tiger
Fig. 6.6: A Golden Langoor
Let’s do
• Where in India do
tropical evergreen
and tropical
deciduous forests
occur? Name the
states.
• Which type of forest
dominates most
part of India?
Fig. 6.7: A Temperate Evergreen Forest
Temperate Evergreen Forests
The temperate evergreen forests are located in the mid-
latitudinal coastal region (Fig. 6.7). They are commonly
found along the eastern margin of the continents, e.g., In
south east USA, South China and in South East Brazil.
They comprise both hard and soft wood trees like oak,
pine, eucalyptus, etc.
Fig. 6.8: Elephants
© NCERT
not to be republished
42 OUR ENVIRONMENT
Temperate Deciduous Forests
As we go towards higher latitudes, there are more
temperate deciduous forests (Fig. 6.11). These are found
in the north eastern part of USA, China, New Zealand,
Chile and also found in the coastal regions of Western
Europe. They shed their leaves in the dry season. The
common trees are oak, ash, beech, etc. Deer, foxes, wolves
are the animals commonly found. Birds like pheasants,
monals are also found here (Fig. 6.9 and 6.10).
Do you know?
• Mediterranean trees
adapt themselves to
dry summers with
the help of their
thick barks and wax
coated leaves which
help them reduce
transpiration.
• Mediterranean
regions are known
as ‘Orchards of the
world’ for their fruit
cultivation.
Fig. 6.12: A vineyard in the Mediterranean Region
Fig. 6.9: A Pheasant
Fig. 6.10: A Monal
Fig. 6.11: A Temperate Deciduous Forest
Mediterranean Vegetation
You have learnt that most  of the east and north east
margins of the continents are covered by temperate
evergreen and deciduous trees. The west and south west
margins of the continents are different. They have
Mediterranean vegetation (Fig. 6.12). It is mostly found
in the areas around the Mediterranean sea in Europe,
Africa and Asia, hence the name. This kind of vegetation
is also found outside the actual Mediterranean region in
California in the USA, south west Africa, south western
© NCERT
not to be republished
NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILD LIFE 43
Let’s do South America and South west Australia. These regions
are marked for hot dry summers and mild rainy winters.
Citrus fruits such as oranges, figs, olives and grapes are
commonly cultivated here because people have removed
the natural vegetation in order to cultivate what they
want to. There isn’t much wildlife here.
Coniferous Forests
In the higher latitudes (50° – 70°) of Northern
hemisphere the spectacular Coniferous forests are found
(Fig. 6.13 a and b). These are also called as Taiga. These
forests are also seen in the higher altitudes. These  are
the trees which Salima found in the Himalayas in
abundance. They are tall, softwood evergreen trees. The
woods of these trees are very useful for making pulp,
which is used for manufacturing paper and newsprint.
Match boxes and packing boxes are also made from
softwood. Chir, pine, cedar are the important variety of
trees in these forests. Silver fox, mink, polar bear are
the common animals found here.
• Look around in your
surroundings and
find out the articles
made of hard wood
and soft wood.
• Find out and learn
the names of few
trees of your locality.
Fig. 6.13 (b): Snow covered Coniferous Forest Fig. 6.13 (a): A Coniferous Forest
GRASSLANDS
Tropical grasslands: These occur on
either side of the equator and extend till the
tropics (Fig. 6.14). This vegetation grows in
the areas of moderate to low amount of
rainfall. The grass can grow very tall, about
3 to 4 metres in height. Savannah grasslands
of Africa are of this type. Elephants, zebras,
giraffes, deer, leopards are common in
tropical grasslands (Fig. 6.15).
Do you know?
Taiga means  pure or
untouched in the
Russian language
Fig. 6.14: Tropical Grassland
© NCERT
not to be republished
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