Page 1 7.1 INTRODUCTION We have so far considered direct current (dc) sources and circuits with dc sources. These currents do not change direction with time. But voltages and currents that vary with time are very common. The electric mains supply in our homes and offices is a voltage that varies like a sine function with time. Such a voltage is called alternating voltage (ac voltage) and the current driven by it in a circuit is called the alternating current (ac current)*. Today, most of the electrical devices we use require ac voltage. This is mainly because most of the electrical energy sold by power companies is transmitted and distributed as alternating current. The main reason for preferring use of ac voltage over dc voltage is that ac voltages can be easily and efficiently converted from one voltage to the other by means of transformers. Further, electrical energy can also be transmitted economically over long distances. AC circuits exhibit characteristics which are exploited in many devices of daily use. For example, whenever we tune our radio to a favourite station, we are taking advantage of a special property of ac circuits – one of many that you will study in this chapter. Chapter Seven ALTERNATING CURRENT * The phrases ac voltage and ac current are contradictory and redundant, respectively, since they mean, literally, alternating current voltage and alternating current current. Still, the abbreviation ac to designate an electrical quantity displaying simple harmonic time dependance has become so universally accepted that we follow others in its use. Further, voltage – another phrase commonly used means potential difference between two points. 2020-21 Page 2 7.1 INTRODUCTION We have so far considered direct current (dc) sources and circuits with dc sources. These currents do not change direction with time. But voltages and currents that vary with time are very common. The electric mains supply in our homes and offices is a voltage that varies like a sine function with time. Such a voltage is called alternating voltage (ac voltage) and the current driven by it in a circuit is called the alternating current (ac current)*. Today, most of the electrical devices we use require ac voltage. This is mainly because most of the electrical energy sold by power companies is transmitted and distributed as alternating current. The main reason for preferring use of ac voltage over dc voltage is that ac voltages can be easily and efficiently converted from one voltage to the other by means of transformers. Further, electrical energy can also be transmitted economically over long distances. AC circuits exhibit characteristics which are exploited in many devices of daily use. For example, whenever we tune our radio to a favourite station, we are taking advantage of a special property of ac circuits – one of many that you will study in this chapter. Chapter Seven ALTERNATING CURRENT * The phrases ac voltage and ac current are contradictory and redundant, respectively, since they mean, literally, alternating current voltage and alternating current current. Still, the abbreviation ac to designate an electrical quantity displaying simple harmonic time dependance has become so universally accepted that we follow others in its use. Further, voltage – another phrase commonly used means potential difference between two points. 2020-21 Physics 234 NICOLA TESLA (1856 – 1943) Nicola Tesla (1856 – 1943) Serbian-American scientist, inventor and genius. He conceived the idea of the rotating magnetic field, which is the basis of practically all alternating current machinery, and which helped usher in the age of electric power. He also invented among other things the induction motor, the polyphase system of ac power, and the high frequency induction coil (the Tesla coil) used in radio and television sets and other electronic equipment. The SI unit of magnetic field is named in his honour. 7.2 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A RESISTOR Figure 7.1 shows a resistor connected to a source e of ac voltage. The symbol for an ac source in a circuit diagram is . We consider a source which produces sinusoidally varying potential difference across its terminals. Let this potential difference, also called ac voltage, be given by sin m v v t ? = (7.1) where v m is the amplitude of the oscillating potential difference and ? is its angular frequency. To find the value of current through the resistor, we apply Kirchhoff’s loop rule e( ) t = ? 0(refer to Section 3.13), to the circuit shown in Fig. 7.1 to get = sin m v t i R ? or sin m v i t R ? = Since R is a constant, we can write this equation as sin m i i t ? = (7.2) where the current amplitude i m is given by m m v i R = (7.3) Equation (7.3) is Ohm’s law, which for resistors, works equally well for both ac and dc voltages. The voltage across a pure resistor and the current through it, given by Eqs. (7.1) and (7.2) are plotted as a function of time in Fig. 7.2. Note, in particular that both v and i reach zero, minimum and maximum values at the same time. Clearly, the voltage and current are in phase with each other. We see that, like the applied voltage, the current varies sinusoidally and has corresponding positive and negative values during each cycle. Thus, the sum of the instantaneous current values over one complete cycle is zero, and the average current is zero. The fact that the average current is zero, however, does FIGURE 7.1 AC voltage applied to a resistor. FIGURE 7.2 In a pure resistor, the voltage and current are in phase. The minima, zero and maxima occur at the same respective times. 2020-21 Page 3 7.1 INTRODUCTION We have so far considered direct current (dc) sources and circuits with dc sources. These currents do not change direction with time. But voltages and currents that vary with time are very common. The electric mains supply in our homes and offices is a voltage that varies like a sine function with time. Such a voltage is called alternating voltage (ac voltage) and the current driven by it in a circuit is called the alternating current (ac current)*. Today, most of the electrical devices we use require ac voltage. This is mainly because most of the electrical energy sold by power companies is transmitted and distributed as alternating current. The main reason for preferring use of ac voltage over dc voltage is that ac voltages can be easily and efficiently converted from one voltage to the other by means of transformers. Further, electrical energy can also be transmitted economically over long distances. AC circuits exhibit characteristics which are exploited in many devices of daily use. For example, whenever we tune our radio to a favourite station, we are taking advantage of a special property of ac circuits – one of many that you will study in this chapter. Chapter Seven ALTERNATING CURRENT * The phrases ac voltage and ac current are contradictory and redundant, respectively, since they mean, literally, alternating current voltage and alternating current current. Still, the abbreviation ac to designate an electrical quantity displaying simple harmonic time dependance has become so universally accepted that we follow others in its use. Further, voltage – another phrase commonly used means potential difference between two points. 2020-21 Physics 234 NICOLA TESLA (1856 – 1943) Nicola Tesla (1856 – 1943) Serbian-American scientist, inventor and genius. He conceived the idea of the rotating magnetic field, which is the basis of practically all alternating current machinery, and which helped usher in the age of electric power. He also invented among other things the induction motor, the polyphase system of ac power, and the high frequency induction coil (the Tesla coil) used in radio and television sets and other electronic equipment. The SI unit of magnetic field is named in his honour. 7.2 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A RESISTOR Figure 7.1 shows a resistor connected to a source e of ac voltage. The symbol for an ac source in a circuit diagram is . We consider a source which produces sinusoidally varying potential difference across its terminals. Let this potential difference, also called ac voltage, be given by sin m v v t ? = (7.1) where v m is the amplitude of the oscillating potential difference and ? is its angular frequency. To find the value of current through the resistor, we apply Kirchhoff’s loop rule e( ) t = ? 0(refer to Section 3.13), to the circuit shown in Fig. 7.1 to get = sin m v t i R ? or sin m v i t R ? = Since R is a constant, we can write this equation as sin m i i t ? = (7.2) where the current amplitude i m is given by m m v i R = (7.3) Equation (7.3) is Ohm’s law, which for resistors, works equally well for both ac and dc voltages. The voltage across a pure resistor and the current through it, given by Eqs. (7.1) and (7.2) are plotted as a function of time in Fig. 7.2. Note, in particular that both v and i reach zero, minimum and maximum values at the same time. Clearly, the voltage and current are in phase with each other. We see that, like the applied voltage, the current varies sinusoidally and has corresponding positive and negative values during each cycle. Thus, the sum of the instantaneous current values over one complete cycle is zero, and the average current is zero. The fact that the average current is zero, however, does FIGURE 7.1 AC voltage applied to a resistor. FIGURE 7.2 In a pure resistor, the voltage and current are in phase. The minima, zero and maxima occur at the same respective times. 2020-21 235 Alternating Current GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE (1846 – 1914) George Westinghouse (1846 – 1914) A leading proponent of the use of alternating current over direct current. Thus, he came into conflict with Thomas Alva Edison, an advocate of direct current. Westinghouse was convinced that the technology of alternating current was the key to the electrical future. He founded the famous Company named after him and enlisted the services of Nicola Tesla and other inventors in the development of alternating current motors and apparatus for the transmission of high tension current, pioneering in large scale lighting. not mean that the average power consumed is zero and that there is no dissipation of electrical energy. As you know, Joule heating is given by i 2 R and depends on i 2 (which is always positive whether i is positive or negative) and not on i. Thus, there is Joule heating and dissipation of electrical energy when an ac current passes through a resistor. The instantaneous power dissipated in the resistor is 2 2 2 sin m p i R i R t ? = = (7.4) The average value of p over a cycle is* 2 2 2 sin m p i R i R t ? =< >=< > [7.5(a)] where the bar over a letter (here, p) denotes its average value and <......> denotes taking average of the quantity inside the bracket. Since, i 2 m and R are constants, 2 2 sin m p i R t ? = < > [7.5(b)] Using the trigonometric identity, sin 2 ?t = 1/2 (1– cos 2?t ), we have < sin 2 ?t > = (1/2) (1– < cos 2?t >) and since < cos2?t > = 0**, we have, 2 1 sin 2 t ? < > = Thus, 2 1 2 m p i R = [7.5(c)] To express ac power in the same form as dc power (P = I 2 R), a special value of current is defined and used. It is called, root mean square (rms) or effective current (Fig. 7.3) and is denoted by I rms or I. * The average value of a function F (t) over a period T is given by F t T F t t T ( ) ( ) = ? 1 0 d ** < >= ? = ? ? ? ? ? ? = - [ ] = cos cos sin sin 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? t T t dt T t T T T T FIGURE 7.3 The rms current I is related to the peak current i m by I = / 2 m i = 0.707 i m . 2020-21 Page 4 7.1 INTRODUCTION We have so far considered direct current (dc) sources and circuits with dc sources. These currents do not change direction with time. But voltages and currents that vary with time are very common. The electric mains supply in our homes and offices is a voltage that varies like a sine function with time. Such a voltage is called alternating voltage (ac voltage) and the current driven by it in a circuit is called the alternating current (ac current)*. Today, most of the electrical devices we use require ac voltage. This is mainly because most of the electrical energy sold by power companies is transmitted and distributed as alternating current. The main reason for preferring use of ac voltage over dc voltage is that ac voltages can be easily and efficiently converted from one voltage to the other by means of transformers. Further, electrical energy can also be transmitted economically over long distances. AC circuits exhibit characteristics which are exploited in many devices of daily use. For example, whenever we tune our radio to a favourite station, we are taking advantage of a special property of ac circuits – one of many that you will study in this chapter. Chapter Seven ALTERNATING CURRENT * The phrases ac voltage and ac current are contradictory and redundant, respectively, since they mean, literally, alternating current voltage and alternating current current. Still, the abbreviation ac to designate an electrical quantity displaying simple harmonic time dependance has become so universally accepted that we follow others in its use. Further, voltage – another phrase commonly used means potential difference between two points. 2020-21 Physics 234 NICOLA TESLA (1856 – 1943) Nicola Tesla (1856 – 1943) Serbian-American scientist, inventor and genius. He conceived the idea of the rotating magnetic field, which is the basis of practically all alternating current machinery, and which helped usher in the age of electric power. He also invented among other things the induction motor, the polyphase system of ac power, and the high frequency induction coil (the Tesla coil) used in radio and television sets and other electronic equipment. The SI unit of magnetic field is named in his honour. 7.2 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A RESISTOR Figure 7.1 shows a resistor connected to a source e of ac voltage. The symbol for an ac source in a circuit diagram is . We consider a source which produces sinusoidally varying potential difference across its terminals. Let this potential difference, also called ac voltage, be given by sin m v v t ? = (7.1) where v m is the amplitude of the oscillating potential difference and ? is its angular frequency. To find the value of current through the resistor, we apply Kirchhoff’s loop rule e( ) t = ? 0(refer to Section 3.13), to the circuit shown in Fig. 7.1 to get = sin m v t i R ? or sin m v i t R ? = Since R is a constant, we can write this equation as sin m i i t ? = (7.2) where the current amplitude i m is given by m m v i R = (7.3) Equation (7.3) is Ohm’s law, which for resistors, works equally well for both ac and dc voltages. The voltage across a pure resistor and the current through it, given by Eqs. (7.1) and (7.2) are plotted as a function of time in Fig. 7.2. Note, in particular that both v and i reach zero, minimum and maximum values at the same time. Clearly, the voltage and current are in phase with each other. We see that, like the applied voltage, the current varies sinusoidally and has corresponding positive and negative values during each cycle. Thus, the sum of the instantaneous current values over one complete cycle is zero, and the average current is zero. The fact that the average current is zero, however, does FIGURE 7.1 AC voltage applied to a resistor. FIGURE 7.2 In a pure resistor, the voltage and current are in phase. The minima, zero and maxima occur at the same respective times. 2020-21 235 Alternating Current GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE (1846 – 1914) George Westinghouse (1846 – 1914) A leading proponent of the use of alternating current over direct current. Thus, he came into conflict with Thomas Alva Edison, an advocate of direct current. Westinghouse was convinced that the technology of alternating current was the key to the electrical future. He founded the famous Company named after him and enlisted the services of Nicola Tesla and other inventors in the development of alternating current motors and apparatus for the transmission of high tension current, pioneering in large scale lighting. not mean that the average power consumed is zero and that there is no dissipation of electrical energy. As you know, Joule heating is given by i 2 R and depends on i 2 (which is always positive whether i is positive or negative) and not on i. Thus, there is Joule heating and dissipation of electrical energy when an ac current passes through a resistor. The instantaneous power dissipated in the resistor is 2 2 2 sin m p i R i R t ? = = (7.4) The average value of p over a cycle is* 2 2 2 sin m p i R i R t ? =< >=< > [7.5(a)] where the bar over a letter (here, p) denotes its average value and <......> denotes taking average of the quantity inside the bracket. Since, i 2 m and R are constants, 2 2 sin m p i R t ? = < > [7.5(b)] Using the trigonometric identity, sin 2 ?t = 1/2 (1– cos 2?t ), we have < sin 2 ?t > = (1/2) (1– < cos 2?t >) and since < cos2?t > = 0**, we have, 2 1 sin 2 t ? < > = Thus, 2 1 2 m p i R = [7.5(c)] To express ac power in the same form as dc power (P = I 2 R), a special value of current is defined and used. It is called, root mean square (rms) or effective current (Fig. 7.3) and is denoted by I rms or I. * The average value of a function F (t) over a period T is given by F t T F t t T ( ) ( ) = ? 1 0 d ** < >= ? = ? ? ? ? ? ? = - [ ] = cos cos sin sin 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? t T t dt T t T T T T FIGURE 7.3 The rms current I is related to the peak current i m by I = / 2 m i = 0.707 i m . 2020-21 Physics 236 It is defined by 2 2 1 2 2 m m i I i i = = = = 0.707 i m (7.6) In terms of I, the average power, denoted by P is 2 2 1 2 m p P i R I R = = = (7.7) Similarly, we define the rms voltage or effective voltage by V = 2 m v = 0.707 v m (7.8) From Eq. (7.3), we have v m = i m R or, 2 2 m m v i R = or, V = IR (7.9) Equation (7.9) gives the relation between ac current and ac voltage and is similar to that in the dc case. This shows the advantage of introducing the concept of rms values. In terms of rms values, the equation for power [Eq. (7.7)] and relation between current and voltage in ac circuits are essentially the same as those for the dc case. It is customary to measure and specify rms values for ac quantities. For example, the household line voltage of 220 V is an rms value with a peak voltage of v m = 2 V = (1.414)(220 V) = 311 V In fact, the I or rms current is the equivalent dc current that would produce the same average power loss as the alternating current. Equation (7.7) can also be written as P = V 2 / R = I V (since V = I R) Example 7.1 A light bulb is rated at 100W for a 220 V supply. Find (a) the resistance of the bulb; (b) the peak voltage of the source; and (c) the rms current through the bulb. Solution (a) We are given P = 100 W and V = 220 V. The resistance of the bulb is ( ) 2 2 220 V 484 100 W V R P = = = O (b) The peak voltage of the source is V 2 311 m v V = = (c) Since, P = I V 100 W 0.454A 220 V = = = P I V EXAMPLE 7.1 2020-21 Page 5 7.1 INTRODUCTION We have so far considered direct current (dc) sources and circuits with dc sources. These currents do not change direction with time. But voltages and currents that vary with time are very common. The electric mains supply in our homes and offices is a voltage that varies like a sine function with time. Such a voltage is called alternating voltage (ac voltage) and the current driven by it in a circuit is called the alternating current (ac current)*. Today, most of the electrical devices we use require ac voltage. This is mainly because most of the electrical energy sold by power companies is transmitted and distributed as alternating current. The main reason for preferring use of ac voltage over dc voltage is that ac voltages can be easily and efficiently converted from one voltage to the other by means of transformers. Further, electrical energy can also be transmitted economically over long distances. AC circuits exhibit characteristics which are exploited in many devices of daily use. For example, whenever we tune our radio to a favourite station, we are taking advantage of a special property of ac circuits – one of many that you will study in this chapter. Chapter Seven ALTERNATING CURRENT * The phrases ac voltage and ac current are contradictory and redundant, respectively, since they mean, literally, alternating current voltage and alternating current current. Still, the abbreviation ac to designate an electrical quantity displaying simple harmonic time dependance has become so universally accepted that we follow others in its use. Further, voltage – another phrase commonly used means potential difference between two points. 2020-21 Physics 234 NICOLA TESLA (1856 – 1943) Nicola Tesla (1856 – 1943) Serbian-American scientist, inventor and genius. He conceived the idea of the rotating magnetic field, which is the basis of practically all alternating current machinery, and which helped usher in the age of electric power. He also invented among other things the induction motor, the polyphase system of ac power, and the high frequency induction coil (the Tesla coil) used in radio and television sets and other electronic equipment. The SI unit of magnetic field is named in his honour. 7.2 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A RESISTOR Figure 7.1 shows a resistor connected to a source e of ac voltage. The symbol for an ac source in a circuit diagram is . We consider a source which produces sinusoidally varying potential difference across its terminals. Let this potential difference, also called ac voltage, be given by sin m v v t ? = (7.1) where v m is the amplitude of the oscillating potential difference and ? is its angular frequency. To find the value of current through the resistor, we apply Kirchhoff’s loop rule e( ) t = ? 0(refer to Section 3.13), to the circuit shown in Fig. 7.1 to get = sin m v t i R ? or sin m v i t R ? = Since R is a constant, we can write this equation as sin m i i t ? = (7.2) where the current amplitude i m is given by m m v i R = (7.3) Equation (7.3) is Ohm’s law, which for resistors, works equally well for both ac and dc voltages. The voltage across a pure resistor and the current through it, given by Eqs. (7.1) and (7.2) are plotted as a function of time in Fig. 7.2. Note, in particular that both v and i reach zero, minimum and maximum values at the same time. Clearly, the voltage and current are in phase with each other. We see that, like the applied voltage, the current varies sinusoidally and has corresponding positive and negative values during each cycle. Thus, the sum of the instantaneous current values over one complete cycle is zero, and the average current is zero. The fact that the average current is zero, however, does FIGURE 7.1 AC voltage applied to a resistor. FIGURE 7.2 In a pure resistor, the voltage and current are in phase. The minima, zero and maxima occur at the same respective times. 2020-21 235 Alternating Current GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE (1846 – 1914) George Westinghouse (1846 – 1914) A leading proponent of the use of alternating current over direct current. Thus, he came into conflict with Thomas Alva Edison, an advocate of direct current. Westinghouse was convinced that the technology of alternating current was the key to the electrical future. He founded the famous Company named after him and enlisted the services of Nicola Tesla and other inventors in the development of alternating current motors and apparatus for the transmission of high tension current, pioneering in large scale lighting. not mean that the average power consumed is zero and that there is no dissipation of electrical energy. As you know, Joule heating is given by i 2 R and depends on i 2 (which is always positive whether i is positive or negative) and not on i. Thus, there is Joule heating and dissipation of electrical energy when an ac current passes through a resistor. The instantaneous power dissipated in the resistor is 2 2 2 sin m p i R i R t ? = = (7.4) The average value of p over a cycle is* 2 2 2 sin m p i R i R t ? =< >=< > [7.5(a)] where the bar over a letter (here, p) denotes its average value and <......> denotes taking average of the quantity inside the bracket. Since, i 2 m and R are constants, 2 2 sin m p i R t ? = < > [7.5(b)] Using the trigonometric identity, sin 2 ?t = 1/2 (1– cos 2?t ), we have < sin 2 ?t > = (1/2) (1– < cos 2?t >) and since < cos2?t > = 0**, we have, 2 1 sin 2 t ? < > = Thus, 2 1 2 m p i R = [7.5(c)] To express ac power in the same form as dc power (P = I 2 R), a special value of current is defined and used. It is called, root mean square (rms) or effective current (Fig. 7.3) and is denoted by I rms or I. * The average value of a function F (t) over a period T is given by F t T F t t T ( ) ( ) = ? 1 0 d ** < >= ? = ? ? ? ? ? ? = - [ ] = cos cos sin sin 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? t T t dt T t T T T T FIGURE 7.3 The rms current I is related to the peak current i m by I = / 2 m i = 0.707 i m . 2020-21 Physics 236 It is defined by 2 2 1 2 2 m m i I i i = = = = 0.707 i m (7.6) In terms of I, the average power, denoted by P is 2 2 1 2 m p P i R I R = = = (7.7) Similarly, we define the rms voltage or effective voltage by V = 2 m v = 0.707 v m (7.8) From Eq. (7.3), we have v m = i m R or, 2 2 m m v i R = or, V = IR (7.9) Equation (7.9) gives the relation between ac current and ac voltage and is similar to that in the dc case. This shows the advantage of introducing the concept of rms values. In terms of rms values, the equation for power [Eq. (7.7)] and relation between current and voltage in ac circuits are essentially the same as those for the dc case. It is customary to measure and specify rms values for ac quantities. For example, the household line voltage of 220 V is an rms value with a peak voltage of v m = 2 V = (1.414)(220 V) = 311 V In fact, the I or rms current is the equivalent dc current that would produce the same average power loss as the alternating current. Equation (7.7) can also be written as P = V 2 / R = I V (since V = I R) Example 7.1 A light bulb is rated at 100W for a 220 V supply. Find (a) the resistance of the bulb; (b) the peak voltage of the source; and (c) the rms current through the bulb. Solution (a) We are given P = 100 W and V = 220 V. The resistance of the bulb is ( ) 2 2 220 V 484 100 W V R P = = = O (b) The peak voltage of the source is V 2 311 m v V = = (c) Since, P = I V 100 W 0.454A 220 V = = = P I V EXAMPLE 7.1 2020-21 237 Alternating Current 7.3 REPRESENTATION OF AC CURRENT AND VOLTAGE BY ROTATING VECTORS — PHASORS In the previous section, we learnt that the current through a resistor is in phase with the ac voltage. But this is not so in the case of an inductor, a capacitor or a combination of these circuit elements. In order to show phase relationship between voltage and current in an ac circuit, we use the notion of phasors. The analysis of an ac circuit is facilitated by the use of a phasor diagram. A phasor* is a vector which rotates about the origin with angular speed ?, as shown in Fig. 7.4. The vertical components of phasors V and I represent the sinusoidally varying quantities v and i. The magnitudes of phasors V and I represent the amplitudes or the peak values v m and i m of these oscillating quantities. Figure 7.4(a) shows the voltage and current phasors and their relationship at time t 1 for the case of an ac source connected to a resistor i.e., corresponding to the circuit shown in Fig. 7.1. The projection of voltage and current phasors on vertical axis, i.e., v m sin? t and i m sin? t, respectively represent the value of voltage and current at that instant. As they rotate with frequency ?, curves in Fig. 7.4(b) are generated. From Fig. 7.4(a) we see that phasors V and I for the case of a resistor are in the same direction. This is so for all times. This means that the phase angle between the voltage and the current is zero. 7.4 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO AN INDUCTOR Figure 7.5 shows an ac source connected to an inductor. Usually, inductors have appreciable resistance in their windings, but we shall assume that this inductor has negligible resistance. Thus, the circuit is a purely inductive ac circuit. Let the voltage across the source be v = v m sin? t. Using the Kirchhoff’s loop rule, e ( ) t = ? 0 , and since there is no resistor in the circuit, d 0 d i v L t - = (7.10) where the second term is the self-induced Faraday emf in the inductor; and L is the self-inductance of FIGURE 7.4 (a) A phasor diagram for the circuit in Fig 7.1. (b) Graph of v and i versus ?t. FIGURE 7.5 An ac source connected to an inductor. * Though voltage and current in ac circuit are represented by phasors – rotating vectors, they are not vectors themselves. They are scalar quantities. It so happens that the amplitudes and phases of harmonically varying scalars combine mathematically in the same way as do the projections of rotating vectors of corresponding magnitudes and directions. The rotating vectors that represent harmonically varying scalar quantities are introduced only to provide us with a simple way of adding these quantities using a rule that we already know. 2020-21Read More

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