NCERT Textbook - Life Lines of National Economy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

Created by: C K Academy

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - Life Lines of National Economy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are pre-requisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air. Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other.
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, water ways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as life lines of our nation and its modern
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a pre-requisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
2015-16
Page 2


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are pre-requisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air. Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other.
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, water ways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as life lines of our nation and its modern
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a pre-requisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
2015-16
82 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world, aggregating to about 2.3 million km
at present. In India, roadways have preceded
railways. They still have an edge over railways
in view of the ease with which they can be built
and maintained. The growing importance of
road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted
in the following reasons; (a) construction cost of
roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
(b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as
such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much lower,
(f) road transport is also used as a feeder to other
modes of transport such as they provide a link
between railway stations, air and sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the following
six classes according to their capacity. Look at
the map of the National Highways and find out
about the significant role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major road
development project linking Delhi-Kolkata-
Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane
Super Highways. The North-South corridors
linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and
Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West
Corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and
Porbander (Gujarat) are part of this project.
The major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance between
the mega cities of India. These highway
projects are being implemented by the
National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These are
the primary road systems and are laid and
maintained by the Central Public Works
Department (CPWD). A number of major
National Highways run in North-South and
East-West directions. The historical Sher-
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These roads
are constructed and maintained by the State
Public Works Department (PWD) in State
and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places of the
district. These roads are maintained by the
Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every village
in the country is linked to a major town in the
country by an all season motorable road.
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expr essway
Find out places linked by the National
Highway 2 and 3.
Do you know that National Highway-7
is the longest and traverses 2, 369 km
between Varanasi and Kanyakumari
via Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hyderabad,
Bangalore and Madurai. Delhi and
Mumbai are connected by National
Highway-8, while National Highway-15
covers most of Rajasthan.
Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway
No.1, between Delhi and Amritsar.
2015-16
Page 3


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are pre-requisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air. Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other.
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, water ways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as life lines of our nation and its modern
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a pre-requisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
2015-16
82 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world, aggregating to about 2.3 million km
at present. In India, roadways have preceded
railways. They still have an edge over railways
in view of the ease with which they can be built
and maintained. The growing importance of
road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted
in the following reasons; (a) construction cost of
roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
(b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as
such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much lower,
(f) road transport is also used as a feeder to other
modes of transport such as they provide a link
between railway stations, air and sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the following
six classes according to their capacity. Look at
the map of the National Highways and find out
about the significant role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major road
development project linking Delhi-Kolkata-
Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane
Super Highways. The North-South corridors
linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and
Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West
Corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and
Porbander (Gujarat) are part of this project.
The major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance between
the mega cities of India. These highway
projects are being implemented by the
National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These are
the primary road systems and are laid and
maintained by the Central Public Works
Department (CPWD). A number of major
National Highways run in North-South and
East-West directions. The historical Sher-
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These roads
are constructed and maintained by the State
Public Works Department (PWD) in State
and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places of the
district. These roads are maintained by the
Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every village
in the country is linked to a major town in the
country by an all season motorable road.
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expr essway
Find out places linked by the National
Highway 2 and 3.
Do you know that National Highway-7
is the longest and traverses 2, 369 km
between Varanasi and Kanyakumari
via Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hyderabad,
Bangalore and Madurai. Delhi and
Mumbai are connected by National
Highway-8, while National Highway-15
covers most of Rajasthan.
Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway
No.1, between Delhi and Amritsar.
2015-16
83 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
India:  National Highways
2015-16
Page 4


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are pre-requisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air. Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other.
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, water ways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as life lines of our nation and its modern
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a pre-requisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
2015-16
82 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world, aggregating to about 2.3 million km
at present. In India, roadways have preceded
railways. They still have an edge over railways
in view of the ease with which they can be built
and maintained. The growing importance of
road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted
in the following reasons; (a) construction cost of
roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
(b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as
such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much lower,
(f) road transport is also used as a feeder to other
modes of transport such as they provide a link
between railway stations, air and sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the following
six classes according to their capacity. Look at
the map of the National Highways and find out
about the significant role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major road
development project linking Delhi-Kolkata-
Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane
Super Highways. The North-South corridors
linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and
Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West
Corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and
Porbander (Gujarat) are part of this project.
The major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance between
the mega cities of India. These highway
projects are being implemented by the
National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These are
the primary road systems and are laid and
maintained by the Central Public Works
Department (CPWD). A number of major
National Highways run in North-South and
East-West directions. The historical Sher-
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These roads
are constructed and maintained by the State
Public Works Department (PWD) in State
and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places of the
district. These roads are maintained by the
Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every village
in the country is linked to a major town in the
country by an all season motorable road.
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expr essway
Find out places linked by the National
Highway 2 and 3.
Do you know that National Highway-7
is the longest and traverses 2, 369 km
between Varanasi and Kanyakumari
via Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hyderabad,
Bangalore and Madurai. Delhi and
Mumbai are connected by National
Highway-8, while National Highway-15
covers most of Rajasthan.
Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway
No.1, between Delhi and Amritsar.
2015-16
83 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
India:  National Highways
2015-16
84 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
• Border Roads: Apart from these, Border
Roads Organisation a Government of India
undertaking constructs and maintains
roads in the bordering areas of the country.
This organisation was established in 1960
for the development of the roads of strategic
importance in the northern and north-
eastern border areas. These roads have
improved accessibility in areas of difficult
terrain and have helped in the economic
development of these area.
The Indian Railways is the largest public
sector undertaking in the country. The first
train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane in
1853, covering a distance of 34 km.
these are all weather roads. Unmetalled roads
go out of use in the rainy season.
Road Density
The length of road per 100 sq. km of area
is known as density of roads. Distribution
of road is not uniform in the country. Density
of all roads varies from only 12.14 km in
Jammu and Kashmir to 517.77 km in Kerala
(as on 31 March 2011) with the national
average of 142.68 km (31 March 2011). Road
transportation in India faces a number of
problems. Keeping in view the volume of
traffic and passengers, the road network is
inadequate. About half of the roads are
unmetalled and this limits their usage
during the rainy season. The National
Highways are inadequate too. Moreover, the
roadways are highly congested in cities and
most of the bridges and culverts are old
and narrow. However, in recent years fast
development of road network has taken place
in different parts of the country
Railways
Railways are the principal mode of
transportation for freight and passengers in
India. Railways also make it possible to
conduct multifarious activities like business,
sightseeing, pilgrimage along with
transportation of goods over longer
distances. Apart from an important means
of transport the Indian Railways have been
a great integrating force for more than 150
years. Railways in India bind the economic
life of the country as well as accelerate the
development of the industry and agriculture.
The Indian Railway have a network of 7,133
stations spread over a route length of 64,460
km with a fleet of 9,213 locomotives, 53,220
passenger service vehicles, 6,493 other coach
vehicles and 2,29,381 wagons as on March
2011.
Fig. 7.3:  Hilly Tracts
Fig. 7.4:  Traffic on north-eastern border road
(Arunachal Pradesh)
Roads can also be classified on the basis of
the type of material used for their construction
such as metalled and unmetalled roads.
Metalled roads may be made of cement,
concrete or even bitumen of coal, therefore,
2015-16
Page 5


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are pre-requisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air. Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other.
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, water ways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as life lines of our nation and its modern
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a pre-requisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
2015-16
82 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world, aggregating to about 2.3 million km
at present. In India, roadways have preceded
railways. They still have an edge over railways
in view of the ease with which they can be built
and maintained. The growing importance of
road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted
in the following reasons; (a) construction cost of
roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
(b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as
such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much lower,
(f) road transport is also used as a feeder to other
modes of transport such as they provide a link
between railway stations, air and sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the following
six classes according to their capacity. Look at
the map of the National Highways and find out
about the significant role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major road
development project linking Delhi-Kolkata-
Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane
Super Highways. The North-South corridors
linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and
Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West
Corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and
Porbander (Gujarat) are part of this project.
The major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance between
the mega cities of India. These highway
projects are being implemented by the
National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These are
the primary road systems and are laid and
maintained by the Central Public Works
Department (CPWD). A number of major
National Highways run in North-South and
East-West directions. The historical Sher-
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These roads
are constructed and maintained by the State
Public Works Department (PWD) in State
and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places of the
district. These roads are maintained by the
Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every village
in the country is linked to a major town in the
country by an all season motorable road.
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expr essway
Find out places linked by the National
Highway 2 and 3.
Do you know that National Highway-7
is the longest and traverses 2, 369 km
between Varanasi and Kanyakumari
via Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hyderabad,
Bangalore and Madurai. Delhi and
Mumbai are connected by National
Highway-8, while National Highway-15
covers most of Rajasthan.
Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway
No.1, between Delhi and Amritsar.
2015-16
83 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
India:  National Highways
2015-16
84 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
• Border Roads: Apart from these, Border
Roads Organisation a Government of India
undertaking constructs and maintains
roads in the bordering areas of the country.
This organisation was established in 1960
for the development of the roads of strategic
importance in the northern and north-
eastern border areas. These roads have
improved accessibility in areas of difficult
terrain and have helped in the economic
development of these area.
The Indian Railways is the largest public
sector undertaking in the country. The first
train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane in
1853, covering a distance of 34 km.
these are all weather roads. Unmetalled roads
go out of use in the rainy season.
Road Density
The length of road per 100 sq. km of area
is known as density of roads. Distribution
of road is not uniform in the country. Density
of all roads varies from only 12.14 km in
Jammu and Kashmir to 517.77 km in Kerala
(as on 31 March 2011) with the national
average of 142.68 km (31 March 2011). Road
transportation in India faces a number of
problems. Keeping in view the volume of
traffic and passengers, the road network is
inadequate. About half of the roads are
unmetalled and this limits their usage
during the rainy season. The National
Highways are inadequate too. Moreover, the
roadways are highly congested in cities and
most of the bridges and culverts are old
and narrow. However, in recent years fast
development of road network has taken place
in different parts of the country
Railways
Railways are the principal mode of
transportation for freight and passengers in
India. Railways also make it possible to
conduct multifarious activities like business,
sightseeing, pilgrimage along with
transportation of goods over longer
distances. Apart from an important means
of transport the Indian Railways have been
a great integrating force for more than 150
years. Railways in India bind the economic
life of the country as well as accelerate the
development of the industry and agriculture.
The Indian Railway have a network of 7,133
stations spread over a route length of 64,460
km with a fleet of 9,213 locomotives, 53,220
passenger service vehicles, 6,493 other coach
vehicles and 2,29,381 wagons as on March
2011.
Fig. 7.3:  Hilly Tracts
Fig. 7.4:  Traffic on north-eastern border road
(Arunachal Pradesh)
Roads can also be classified on the basis of
the type of material used for their construction
such as metalled and unmetalled roads.
Metalled roads may be made of cement,
concrete or even bitumen of coal, therefore,
2015-16
85 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
Find out the current Railway zones and their
headquarters. Also locate the headquarters
of Railway zones on the map of India.
Source: Railway year book 2010-11, Ministry of Railways, Govt. of India.
The Indian Railway is now reorganised into
16 zones.
The distribution pattern of the Railway
network in the country has been largely
influenced by physiographic, economic and
administrative factors.  The northern plains with
their vast level land, high population density
and rich agricultural resources provided the
most favourable condition for their growth.
However, a large number of rivers requiring
construction of bridges across their wide beds
posed some obstacles.  In the hilly terrains of
the peninsular region, railway tracts are laid
through low hills, gaps or tunnels. The
Himalayan mountainous regions too are
unfavourable for the construction of railway
lines due to high relief, sparse population and
lack of economic opportunities. Likewise, it was
difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain
of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat,
forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand.  The
contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed
only through gaps or passes (Ghats). In recent
times, the development of the Konkan railway
along the west coast has facilitated the
movement of passengers and goods in this most
important economic region of India. It has also
faced a number of problem such as sinking of
track in some stretches and land slides.
Today, the railways have become more
important in our national economy than all
other means of transport put together. However,
rail transport suffers from certain problems as
well. Many passengers travel without tickets.
Thefts and damaging of railway property has
not yet stopped completely.  People stop the
trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this
causes heavy damage to the railway. Think
over it, how we can help our railway in running
as per the scheduled time?
Pipelines
Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on
the transportation map of India.  In the past,
these were used to transport water to cities and
industries. Now, these are used for
transporting crude oil, petroleum products and
natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to
refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal
power plants. Solids can also be transported
through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
The far inland locations of refineries like
Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based
fertilizer plants could be thought of only
because of pipelines.  Initial cost of laying
pipelines is high but subsequent running
costs are minimal.  It rules out trans-shipment
losses or delays.
There are three important networks of
pipeline transportation in the country.
• From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur
(Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and
Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to
Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to
Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
Gauge in metres Route (Km) Running Track (Km) Total Track (Km.)
Broad Gauge (1.676) 55,188 77,347 102,680
Metre Gauge (1.000) 6,809 7219 8561
Narrow Gauge (0.762  and 0.610) 2,463 2474 2753
Total 64460 87040 113994
Table 7.1: India: Railway Track
The Indian Railway network runs on multiple gauge operations
extending over 64460 km (Provisional) (excluding Metro Kolkata)
2015-16
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