NCERT Textbook - Outcomes of Democracy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 10

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UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Outcomes of Democracy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Outcomes of Democracy
89
Chapter 7
Outcomes of
Democracy
Overview
As we begin to wind up our tour of democracy, it is time to move
beyond our discussion of specific themes and ask a general set of
questions: What does democracy do? Or, what outcomes can we
reasonably expect of democracy? Also, does democracy fulfil these
expectations in real life? We begin by thinking about how to assess
the outcomes of democracy. After some clarity on how to think on
this subject, we proceed to look at the expected and actual outcomes
of democracy in various respects: quality of government, economic
well-being, inequality, social differences and conflict and finally
freedom and dignity. Our final verdict – positive but qualified –
leads us to think about the challenges to democracy in the next
and final chapter.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Outcomes of Democracy
89
Chapter 7
Outcomes of
Democracy
Overview
As we begin to wind up our tour of democracy, it is time to move
beyond our discussion of specific themes and ask a general set of
questions: What does democracy do? Or, what outcomes can we
reasonably expect of democracy? Also, does democracy fulfil these
expectations in real life? We begin by thinking about how to assess
the outcomes of democracy. After some clarity on how to think on
this subject, we proceed to look at the expected and actual outcomes
of democracy in various respects: quality of government, economic
well-being, inequality, social differences and conflict and finally
freedom and dignity. Our final verdict – positive but qualified –
leads us to think about the challenges to democracy in the next
and final chapter.
© NCERT
not to be republished
90
Democratic Politics
How do we assess democracy’s outcomes?
Do you remember how students in
Madam Lyngdoh’s class argued about
democracy? This was in Chapter 2 of
Class IX textbook. It emerged from that
conversation that democracy is a better
form of government when compared
with dictatorship or any other alternative.
We felt that democracy was better
because it:
? Promotes equality among citizens;
? Enhances the dignity of the
individual;
? Improves the quality of decision-
making;
? Provides a method to resolve
conflicts; and
? Allows room to correct mistakes.
Are these expectations realised under
democracies? When we talk to people
around us, most of them support
democracy against other alternatives,
such as rule by a monarch or military or
religious leaders. But not so many of
them would be satisfied with the
democracy in practice. So we face a
dilemma: democracy is seen to be good
in principle, but felt to be not so good in
its practice. This dilemma invites us to
think hard about the outcomes of
democracy. Do we prefer democracy
only for moral reasons? Or are there
some prudential reasons to support
democracy too?
Over a hundred countries of the
world today claim and practice some
kind of democratic politics: they have
formal constitutions, they hold elections,
they have parties and they guarantee rights
of citizens. While these features are
common to most of them, these
democracies are very much different
from each other in terms of their social
situations, their economic achievements
and their cultures. Clearly, what may be
achieved or not achieved under each of
these democracies will be very different.
But is there something that we can expect
from every democracy , just because it is
democracy?
Our interest in and fascination for
democracy often pushes us into taking a
position that democracy can address all
socio-economic and political problems.
If some of our expectations are not met,
we start blaming the idea of democracy .
Or, we start doubting if we are living in
a democracy. The first step towards
thinking carefully about the outcomes
of democracy is to recognise that
democracy is just a form of government.
It can only create conditions for achieving
something. The citizens have to take
advantage of those conditions and
achieve those goals. Let us examine some
of the things we can reasonably expect
from democracy and examine the record
of democracy.
Did we reach
these
conclusions in
Madam Lyngdoh’s
class? I loved
that class
because
students were
not being
dictated any
conclusions.
© RK Laxman - Brushing up the years
Is democracy all about coping with multiple pressures and
accommodating diverse demands?
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Outcomes of Democracy
89
Chapter 7
Outcomes of
Democracy
Overview
As we begin to wind up our tour of democracy, it is time to move
beyond our discussion of specific themes and ask a general set of
questions: What does democracy do? Or, what outcomes can we
reasonably expect of democracy? Also, does democracy fulfil these
expectations in real life? We begin by thinking about how to assess
the outcomes of democracy. After some clarity on how to think on
this subject, we proceed to look at the expected and actual outcomes
of democracy in various respects: quality of government, economic
well-being, inequality, social differences and conflict and finally
freedom and dignity. Our final verdict – positive but qualified –
leads us to think about the challenges to democracy in the next
and final chapter.
© NCERT
not to be republished
90
Democratic Politics
How do we assess democracy’s outcomes?
Do you remember how students in
Madam Lyngdoh’s class argued about
democracy? This was in Chapter 2 of
Class IX textbook. It emerged from that
conversation that democracy is a better
form of government when compared
with dictatorship or any other alternative.
We felt that democracy was better
because it:
? Promotes equality among citizens;
? Enhances the dignity of the
individual;
? Improves the quality of decision-
making;
? Provides a method to resolve
conflicts; and
? Allows room to correct mistakes.
Are these expectations realised under
democracies? When we talk to people
around us, most of them support
democracy against other alternatives,
such as rule by a monarch or military or
religious leaders. But not so many of
them would be satisfied with the
democracy in practice. So we face a
dilemma: democracy is seen to be good
in principle, but felt to be not so good in
its practice. This dilemma invites us to
think hard about the outcomes of
democracy. Do we prefer democracy
only for moral reasons? Or are there
some prudential reasons to support
democracy too?
Over a hundred countries of the
world today claim and practice some
kind of democratic politics: they have
formal constitutions, they hold elections,
they have parties and they guarantee rights
of citizens. While these features are
common to most of them, these
democracies are very much different
from each other in terms of their social
situations, their economic achievements
and their cultures. Clearly, what may be
achieved or not achieved under each of
these democracies will be very different.
But is there something that we can expect
from every democracy , just because it is
democracy?
Our interest in and fascination for
democracy often pushes us into taking a
position that democracy can address all
socio-economic and political problems.
If some of our expectations are not met,
we start blaming the idea of democracy .
Or, we start doubting if we are living in
a democracy. The first step towards
thinking carefully about the outcomes
of democracy is to recognise that
democracy is just a form of government.
It can only create conditions for achieving
something. The citizens have to take
advantage of those conditions and
achieve those goals. Let us examine some
of the things we can reasonably expect
from democracy and examine the record
of democracy.
Did we reach
these
conclusions in
Madam Lyngdoh’s
class? I loved
that class
because
students were
not being
dictated any
conclusions.
© RK Laxman - Brushing up the years
Is democracy all about coping with multiple pressures and
accommodating diverse demands?
© NCERT
not to be republished
Outcomes of Democracy
91
Accountable, responsive and legitimate government
There are some things that democracy
must provide. In a democracy, we are
most concerned with ensuring that
people will have the right to choose their
rulers and people will have control over
the rulers. Whenever possible and
necessary, citizens should be able to
participate in decision making, that affects
them all. Therefore, the most basic
outcome of democracy should be that
it produces a government that is
accountable to the citizens, and
responsive to the needs and expectations
of the citizens.
Before we go into this question, we
face another common question: Is the
democratic government efficient? Is it
effective? Some people think that
democracy produces less effective
government. It is, of course, true that
non-democratic rulers do not have to
bother about deliberation in assemblies or
worry about majorities and public opinion.
So, they can be very quick and efficient in
decision making and implementation.
Democracy is based on the idea of
deliberation and negotiation. So , some delay
is bound to take place. Does that make
democratic government inefficient?
Let us think in terms of costs.
Imagine a government that may take
decisions very fast. But it may take
decisions that are not accepted by the
people and may therefore face problems.
In contrast, the democratic government
will take more time to follow
procedures before arriving at a decision.
But because it has followed procedures,
its decisions may be both more
acceptable to the people and more
effective. So, the cost of time that
democracy pays is perhaps worth it.
Now look at the other side –
democracy ensures that decision making
will be based on norms and procedures.
So, a citizen who wants to know if a
decision was taken through the correct
procedures can find this out. She has the
right and the means to examine the
process of decision making. This is
known as transparency. This factor is
often missing from a non-democratic
government. Therefore, when we are
trying to find out the outcomes of
democracy, it is right to expect
democracy to produce a government
that follows procedures and is
accountable to the people. We can also
expect that the democratic government
develops mechanisms for citizens to hold
the government accountable and
mechanisms for citizens to take part in
decision making whenever they think fit.
If you wanted to measure
democracies on the basis of this
expected outcome, you would look for
the following practices and institutions:
regular, free and fair elections; open
public debate on major policies and
© Mike Keefe  - Cagle Cartoons Inc.
Can you think of what
and how the
government knows
about you and your
family (for example
ration cards and
voter identity cards)?
What are the sources
of information for you
about the
government?
Governmental Secrecy
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Outcomes of Democracy
89
Chapter 7
Outcomes of
Democracy
Overview
As we begin to wind up our tour of democracy, it is time to move
beyond our discussion of specific themes and ask a general set of
questions: What does democracy do? Or, what outcomes can we
reasonably expect of democracy? Also, does democracy fulfil these
expectations in real life? We begin by thinking about how to assess
the outcomes of democracy. After some clarity on how to think on
this subject, we proceed to look at the expected and actual outcomes
of democracy in various respects: quality of government, economic
well-being, inequality, social differences and conflict and finally
freedom and dignity. Our final verdict – positive but qualified –
leads us to think about the challenges to democracy in the next
and final chapter.
© NCERT
not to be republished
90
Democratic Politics
How do we assess democracy’s outcomes?
Do you remember how students in
Madam Lyngdoh’s class argued about
democracy? This was in Chapter 2 of
Class IX textbook. It emerged from that
conversation that democracy is a better
form of government when compared
with dictatorship or any other alternative.
We felt that democracy was better
because it:
? Promotes equality among citizens;
? Enhances the dignity of the
individual;
? Improves the quality of decision-
making;
? Provides a method to resolve
conflicts; and
? Allows room to correct mistakes.
Are these expectations realised under
democracies? When we talk to people
around us, most of them support
democracy against other alternatives,
such as rule by a monarch or military or
religious leaders. But not so many of
them would be satisfied with the
democracy in practice. So we face a
dilemma: democracy is seen to be good
in principle, but felt to be not so good in
its practice. This dilemma invites us to
think hard about the outcomes of
democracy. Do we prefer democracy
only for moral reasons? Or are there
some prudential reasons to support
democracy too?
Over a hundred countries of the
world today claim and practice some
kind of democratic politics: they have
formal constitutions, they hold elections,
they have parties and they guarantee rights
of citizens. While these features are
common to most of them, these
democracies are very much different
from each other in terms of their social
situations, their economic achievements
and their cultures. Clearly, what may be
achieved or not achieved under each of
these democracies will be very different.
But is there something that we can expect
from every democracy , just because it is
democracy?
Our interest in and fascination for
democracy often pushes us into taking a
position that democracy can address all
socio-economic and political problems.
If some of our expectations are not met,
we start blaming the idea of democracy .
Or, we start doubting if we are living in
a democracy. The first step towards
thinking carefully about the outcomes
of democracy is to recognise that
democracy is just a form of government.
It can only create conditions for achieving
something. The citizens have to take
advantage of those conditions and
achieve those goals. Let us examine some
of the things we can reasonably expect
from democracy and examine the record
of democracy.
Did we reach
these
conclusions in
Madam Lyngdoh’s
class? I loved
that class
because
students were
not being
dictated any
conclusions.
© RK Laxman - Brushing up the years
Is democracy all about coping with multiple pressures and
accommodating diverse demands?
© NCERT
not to be republished
Outcomes of Democracy
91
Accountable, responsive and legitimate government
There are some things that democracy
must provide. In a democracy, we are
most concerned with ensuring that
people will have the right to choose their
rulers and people will have control over
the rulers. Whenever possible and
necessary, citizens should be able to
participate in decision making, that affects
them all. Therefore, the most basic
outcome of democracy should be that
it produces a government that is
accountable to the citizens, and
responsive to the needs and expectations
of the citizens.
Before we go into this question, we
face another common question: Is the
democratic government efficient? Is it
effective? Some people think that
democracy produces less effective
government. It is, of course, true that
non-democratic rulers do not have to
bother about deliberation in assemblies or
worry about majorities and public opinion.
So, they can be very quick and efficient in
decision making and implementation.
Democracy is based on the idea of
deliberation and negotiation. So , some delay
is bound to take place. Does that make
democratic government inefficient?
Let us think in terms of costs.
Imagine a government that may take
decisions very fast. But it may take
decisions that are not accepted by the
people and may therefore face problems.
In contrast, the democratic government
will take more time to follow
procedures before arriving at a decision.
But because it has followed procedures,
its decisions may be both more
acceptable to the people and more
effective. So, the cost of time that
democracy pays is perhaps worth it.
Now look at the other side –
democracy ensures that decision making
will be based on norms and procedures.
So, a citizen who wants to know if a
decision was taken through the correct
procedures can find this out. She has the
right and the means to examine the
process of decision making. This is
known as transparency. This factor is
often missing from a non-democratic
government. Therefore, when we are
trying to find out the outcomes of
democracy, it is right to expect
democracy to produce a government
that follows procedures and is
accountable to the people. We can also
expect that the democratic government
develops mechanisms for citizens to hold
the government accountable and
mechanisms for citizens to take part in
decision making whenever they think fit.
If you wanted to measure
democracies on the basis of this
expected outcome, you would look for
the following practices and institutions:
regular, free and fair elections; open
public debate on major policies and
© Mike Keefe  - Cagle Cartoons Inc.
Can you think of what
and how the
government knows
about you and your
family (for example
ration cards and
voter identity cards)?
What are the sources
of information for you
about the
government?
Governmental Secrecy
© NCERT
not to be republished
92
Democratic Politics
So, the best
outcome of
democracy is
that it is a
democracy! That
is what we have
discovered after
all this mental
gymnastics?
legislations; and citizens’ right to
information about the government and
its functioning. The actual performance
of democracies shows a mixed record
on this. Democracies have had greater
success in setting up regular and free
elections and in setting up conditions for
open public debate. But most
democracies fall short of elections that
provide a fair chance to everyone and in
subjecting every decision to public debate.
Democratic governments do not have a
very good record when it comes to
sharing information with citizens. All one
can say in favour of democratic regimes
is that they are much better than any
non-democratic regime in these respects.
In substantive terms it may be
reasonable to expect from democracy a
government that is attentive to the needs
and demands of the people and is largely
free of corruption. The record of
democracies is not impressive on these
two counts. Democracies often frustrate
the needs of the people and often ignore
the demands of a majority of its
population. The routine tales of
corruption are enough to convince us that
democracy is not free of this evil. At the
same time, there is nothing to show that
non-democracies are less corrupt or
more sensitive to the people.
There is one respect in which
democratic government is certainly
better than its alternatives: democratic
government is legitimate government.
It may be slow , less efficient, not always
very responsive or clean. But a
democratic government is people’ s own
government. That is why there is an
overwhelming support for the idea of
democracy all over the world. As the
accompanying evidence from South
Asia shows, the support exists in
countries with democratic regimes as
well as countries without democratic
regimes. People wish to be ruled by
representatives elected by them. They
also believe that democracy is suitable
for their country. Democracy’s ability
to generate its own support is itself an
outcome that cannot be ignored.
Source: SDSA Team, State of Democracy in South Asia, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007
Democracy is preferred
over dictatorship
everywhere except
Pakistan
South Asia
28
62
10
62
Bangladesh India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka
Democracy is
preferable 69 70 62 37 71
Sometimes dictatorship
is better 6 9 10 14 1 1
Doesn’t
matter to me 25 21 28 49 18
Those who agree with one of
the statements
Very few doubt the suitability of democracy
for their own country
How suitable is democracy for your country?
Very suitable Suitable
South Asia 88
Bangladesh 93
Sri Lanka 92
India 92
Pakistan 84
Nepal 79
0 50 100
Overwhelming support for democracy
Those who agree with the rule of leaders elected by the people
Strongly agree Agree
South Asia 94
Sri Lanka 98
Bangladesh 96
India 95
Nepal 94
Pakistan 81
0 50 100
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Outcomes of Democracy
89
Chapter 7
Outcomes of
Democracy
Overview
As we begin to wind up our tour of democracy, it is time to move
beyond our discussion of specific themes and ask a general set of
questions: What does democracy do? Or, what outcomes can we
reasonably expect of democracy? Also, does democracy fulfil these
expectations in real life? We begin by thinking about how to assess
the outcomes of democracy. After some clarity on how to think on
this subject, we proceed to look at the expected and actual outcomes
of democracy in various respects: quality of government, economic
well-being, inequality, social differences and conflict and finally
freedom and dignity. Our final verdict – positive but qualified –
leads us to think about the challenges to democracy in the next
and final chapter.
© NCERT
not to be republished
90
Democratic Politics
How do we assess democracy’s outcomes?
Do you remember how students in
Madam Lyngdoh’s class argued about
democracy? This was in Chapter 2 of
Class IX textbook. It emerged from that
conversation that democracy is a better
form of government when compared
with dictatorship or any other alternative.
We felt that democracy was better
because it:
? Promotes equality among citizens;
? Enhances the dignity of the
individual;
? Improves the quality of decision-
making;
? Provides a method to resolve
conflicts; and
? Allows room to correct mistakes.
Are these expectations realised under
democracies? When we talk to people
around us, most of them support
democracy against other alternatives,
such as rule by a monarch or military or
religious leaders. But not so many of
them would be satisfied with the
democracy in practice. So we face a
dilemma: democracy is seen to be good
in principle, but felt to be not so good in
its practice. This dilemma invites us to
think hard about the outcomes of
democracy. Do we prefer democracy
only for moral reasons? Or are there
some prudential reasons to support
democracy too?
Over a hundred countries of the
world today claim and practice some
kind of democratic politics: they have
formal constitutions, they hold elections,
they have parties and they guarantee rights
of citizens. While these features are
common to most of them, these
democracies are very much different
from each other in terms of their social
situations, their economic achievements
and their cultures. Clearly, what may be
achieved or not achieved under each of
these democracies will be very different.
But is there something that we can expect
from every democracy , just because it is
democracy?
Our interest in and fascination for
democracy often pushes us into taking a
position that democracy can address all
socio-economic and political problems.
If some of our expectations are not met,
we start blaming the idea of democracy .
Or, we start doubting if we are living in
a democracy. The first step towards
thinking carefully about the outcomes
of democracy is to recognise that
democracy is just a form of government.
It can only create conditions for achieving
something. The citizens have to take
advantage of those conditions and
achieve those goals. Let us examine some
of the things we can reasonably expect
from democracy and examine the record
of democracy.
Did we reach
these
conclusions in
Madam Lyngdoh’s
class? I loved
that class
because
students were
not being
dictated any
conclusions.
© RK Laxman - Brushing up the years
Is democracy all about coping with multiple pressures and
accommodating diverse demands?
© NCERT
not to be republished
Outcomes of Democracy
91
Accountable, responsive and legitimate government
There are some things that democracy
must provide. In a democracy, we are
most concerned with ensuring that
people will have the right to choose their
rulers and people will have control over
the rulers. Whenever possible and
necessary, citizens should be able to
participate in decision making, that affects
them all. Therefore, the most basic
outcome of democracy should be that
it produces a government that is
accountable to the citizens, and
responsive to the needs and expectations
of the citizens.
Before we go into this question, we
face another common question: Is the
democratic government efficient? Is it
effective? Some people think that
democracy produces less effective
government. It is, of course, true that
non-democratic rulers do not have to
bother about deliberation in assemblies or
worry about majorities and public opinion.
So, they can be very quick and efficient in
decision making and implementation.
Democracy is based on the idea of
deliberation and negotiation. So , some delay
is bound to take place. Does that make
democratic government inefficient?
Let us think in terms of costs.
Imagine a government that may take
decisions very fast. But it may take
decisions that are not accepted by the
people and may therefore face problems.
In contrast, the democratic government
will take more time to follow
procedures before arriving at a decision.
But because it has followed procedures,
its decisions may be both more
acceptable to the people and more
effective. So, the cost of time that
democracy pays is perhaps worth it.
Now look at the other side –
democracy ensures that decision making
will be based on norms and procedures.
So, a citizen who wants to know if a
decision was taken through the correct
procedures can find this out. She has the
right and the means to examine the
process of decision making. This is
known as transparency. This factor is
often missing from a non-democratic
government. Therefore, when we are
trying to find out the outcomes of
democracy, it is right to expect
democracy to produce a government
that follows procedures and is
accountable to the people. We can also
expect that the democratic government
develops mechanisms for citizens to hold
the government accountable and
mechanisms for citizens to take part in
decision making whenever they think fit.
If you wanted to measure
democracies on the basis of this
expected outcome, you would look for
the following practices and institutions:
regular, free and fair elections; open
public debate on major policies and
© Mike Keefe  - Cagle Cartoons Inc.
Can you think of what
and how the
government knows
about you and your
family (for example
ration cards and
voter identity cards)?
What are the sources
of information for you
about the
government?
Governmental Secrecy
© NCERT
not to be republished
92
Democratic Politics
So, the best
outcome of
democracy is
that it is a
democracy! That
is what we have
discovered after
all this mental
gymnastics?
legislations; and citizens’ right to
information about the government and
its functioning. The actual performance
of democracies shows a mixed record
on this. Democracies have had greater
success in setting up regular and free
elections and in setting up conditions for
open public debate. But most
democracies fall short of elections that
provide a fair chance to everyone and in
subjecting every decision to public debate.
Democratic governments do not have a
very good record when it comes to
sharing information with citizens. All one
can say in favour of democratic regimes
is that they are much better than any
non-democratic regime in these respects.
In substantive terms it may be
reasonable to expect from democracy a
government that is attentive to the needs
and demands of the people and is largely
free of corruption. The record of
democracies is not impressive on these
two counts. Democracies often frustrate
the needs of the people and often ignore
the demands of a majority of its
population. The routine tales of
corruption are enough to convince us that
democracy is not free of this evil. At the
same time, there is nothing to show that
non-democracies are less corrupt or
more sensitive to the people.
There is one respect in which
democratic government is certainly
better than its alternatives: democratic
government is legitimate government.
It may be slow , less efficient, not always
very responsive or clean. But a
democratic government is people’ s own
government. That is why there is an
overwhelming support for the idea of
democracy all over the world. As the
accompanying evidence from South
Asia shows, the support exists in
countries with democratic regimes as
well as countries without democratic
regimes. People wish to be ruled by
representatives elected by them. They
also believe that democracy is suitable
for their country. Democracy’s ability
to generate its own support is itself an
outcome that cannot be ignored.
Source: SDSA Team, State of Democracy in South Asia, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007
Democracy is preferred
over dictatorship
everywhere except
Pakistan
South Asia
28
62
10
62
Bangladesh India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka
Democracy is
preferable 69 70 62 37 71
Sometimes dictatorship
is better 6 9 10 14 1 1
Doesn’t
matter to me 25 21 28 49 18
Those who agree with one of
the statements
Very few doubt the suitability of democracy
for their own country
How suitable is democracy for your country?
Very suitable Suitable
South Asia 88
Bangladesh 93
Sri Lanka 92
India 92
Pakistan 84
Nepal 79
0 50 100
Overwhelming support for democracy
Those who agree with the rule of leaders elected by the people
Strongly agree Agree
South Asia 94
Sri Lanka 98
Bangladesh 96
India 95
Nepal 94
Pakistan 81
0 50 100
© NCERT
not to be republished
Outcomes of Democracy
93
Economic growth and development
If democracies are expected to produce
good governments, then is it not fair to
expect that they would also produce
development? Evidence shows that in
practice many democracies did not fulfil
this expectation.
If you consider all democracies and
all dictatorships for the fifty years between
1950 and 2000, dictatorships have slightly
higher rate of economic growth. The
inability of democracy to achieve higher
economic development worries us. But
this alone cannot be reason to reject
democracy . As you have already studied
in economics, economic development
depends on several factors: country’s
population size, global situation,
The Rich Get Buff
cooperation from other countries,
economic priorities adopted by the
country , etc. However, the difference in
the rates of economic development
between less developed countries with
dictatorships and democracies is
negligible. Overall, we cannot say that
democracy is a guarantee of economic
development. But we can expect
democracy not to lag behind
dictatorships in this respect.
When we find such significant
difference in the rates of economic
growth between countries under
dictatorship and democracy, it is better
to prefer democracy as it has several
other positive outcomes.
© RJ Matson - Cagle Cartoons Inc.
Cartoon on this page
and next three pages tell
us about the disparities
between the rich and
poor.  Should the gains
of economic growth be
evenly distributed? How
can the poor get a voice
for a better share in a
nation? What can the
poor countries do to
receive a greater share
in the world’s wealth?
© NCERT
not to be republished
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