NCERT Textbook - Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Class 6 Notes | EduRev

History(Prelims) by UPSC Toppers

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


79 n
Pr Pr Pr Pr Prabhak abhak abhak abhak abhakar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith’s shop ’s shop ’s shop ’s shop ’s shop
Prabhakar sat watching the smiths at the local shop.
There was a small bench on which iron tools like axes
and sickles were laid out, ready for sale. A bright fire
was burning, and two men were heating and beating
metal rods into shape. It was very hot and noisy, and yet
it was fascinating to watch what was happening.
Ir Ir Ir Ir Iron tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agriculture e e e e
We often take the use of iron for granted today.
Things made of iron (and steel) are a part of our
daily lives. The use of iron began in the
subcontinent around 3000 years ago. Some of
the largest collections of iron tools and weapons
were found in the megalithic burials, about which
you read in Chapter 4.
Around 2500 years ago, there is evidence for
the growing use of iron tools. These included axes
for clearing forests, and the iron ploughshare. As
we had seen (Chapter 5) the ploughshare was
useful for increasing agricultural production.
Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to increase pr ease pr ease pr ease pr ease produ odu odu odu oduction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation
The kings and kingdoms you have been reading
about could not have existed without the support
of flourishing villages. While new tools and the
system of transplantation (Chapter 5) increased
production, irrigation was also used. Irrigation
works that were built during this time included
canals, wells, tanks, and artificial lakes.
Iron tools.
Here is a set of
captions. Choose the
right one for each of the
pictures.
Sickle, tongs, axe.
Prepare a list of at least
five objects made of
iron or steel that you
use almost everyday.
CHAPTER 8
VIT VIT VIT VIT VITAL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLAGES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING TO O O O OWNS WNS WNS WNS WNS
VITAL VILLAGES,
THRIVING TOWNS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 2


79 n
Pr Pr Pr Pr Prabhak abhak abhak abhak abhakar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith’s shop ’s shop ’s shop ’s shop ’s shop
Prabhakar sat watching the smiths at the local shop.
There was a small bench on which iron tools like axes
and sickles were laid out, ready for sale. A bright fire
was burning, and two men were heating and beating
metal rods into shape. It was very hot and noisy, and yet
it was fascinating to watch what was happening.
Ir Ir Ir Ir Iron tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agriculture e e e e
We often take the use of iron for granted today.
Things made of iron (and steel) are a part of our
daily lives. The use of iron began in the
subcontinent around 3000 years ago. Some of
the largest collections of iron tools and weapons
were found in the megalithic burials, about which
you read in Chapter 4.
Around 2500 years ago, there is evidence for
the growing use of iron tools. These included axes
for clearing forests, and the iron ploughshare. As
we had seen (Chapter 5) the ploughshare was
useful for increasing agricultural production.
Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to increase pr ease pr ease pr ease pr ease produ odu odu odu oduction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation
The kings and kingdoms you have been reading
about could not have existed without the support
of flourishing villages. While new tools and the
system of transplantation (Chapter 5) increased
production, irrigation was also used. Irrigation
works that were built during this time included
canals, wells, tanks, and artificial lakes.
Iron tools.
Here is a set of
captions. Choose the
right one for each of the
pictures.
Sickle, tongs, axe.
Prepare a list of at least
five objects made of
iron or steel that you
use almost everyday.
CHAPTER 8
VIT VIT VIT VIT VITAL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLAGES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING TO O O O OWNS WNS WNS WNS WNS
VITAL VILLAGES,
THRIVING TOWNS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 80
OUR PASTS–I
Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages?
There were at least three different kinds of people
living in most villages in the southern and
northern parts of the subcontinent. In the Tamil
region, large landowners were known as vellalar,
ordinary ploughmen were known as uzhavar, and
landless labourers, including slaves, were known
as kadaisiyar and adimai.
1. Kings need money for armies,
palaces, forts.
2. They demand taxes from farmers.
3. 4. This is possible with irrigation.
5.
6.
7. Production increases.
8. So does revenue.
9.
If you look at the chart, you will find that some
of the stages in the construction of irrigation works
are mentioned.
Fill in the rest by using the following phrases:
• Labour is provided by the people.
• Farmers also benefit because crop production is
more certain.
• Farmers have to increase production to pay taxes.
• Kings provide money and plan irrigation works.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 3


79 n
Pr Pr Pr Pr Prabhak abhak abhak abhak abhakar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith’s shop ’s shop ’s shop ’s shop ’s shop
Prabhakar sat watching the smiths at the local shop.
There was a small bench on which iron tools like axes
and sickles were laid out, ready for sale. A bright fire
was burning, and two men were heating and beating
metal rods into shape. It was very hot and noisy, and yet
it was fascinating to watch what was happening.
Ir Ir Ir Ir Iron tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agriculture e e e e
We often take the use of iron for granted today.
Things made of iron (and steel) are a part of our
daily lives. The use of iron began in the
subcontinent around 3000 years ago. Some of
the largest collections of iron tools and weapons
were found in the megalithic burials, about which
you read in Chapter 4.
Around 2500 years ago, there is evidence for
the growing use of iron tools. These included axes
for clearing forests, and the iron ploughshare. As
we had seen (Chapter 5) the ploughshare was
useful for increasing agricultural production.
Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to increase pr ease pr ease pr ease pr ease produ odu odu odu oduction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation
The kings and kingdoms you have been reading
about could not have existed without the support
of flourishing villages. While new tools and the
system of transplantation (Chapter 5) increased
production, irrigation was also used. Irrigation
works that were built during this time included
canals, wells, tanks, and artificial lakes.
Iron tools.
Here is a set of
captions. Choose the
right one for each of the
pictures.
Sickle, tongs, axe.
Prepare a list of at least
five objects made of
iron or steel that you
use almost everyday.
CHAPTER 8
VIT VIT VIT VIT VITAL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLAGES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING TO O O O OWNS WNS WNS WNS WNS
VITAL VILLAGES,
THRIVING TOWNS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 80
OUR PASTS–I
Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages?
There were at least three different kinds of people
living in most villages in the southern and
northern parts of the subcontinent. In the Tamil
region, large landowners were known as vellalar,
ordinary ploughmen were known as uzhavar, and
landless labourers, including slaves, were known
as kadaisiyar and adimai.
1. Kings need money for armies,
palaces, forts.
2. They demand taxes from farmers.
3. 4. This is possible with irrigation.
5.
6.
7. Production increases.
8. So does revenue.
9.
If you look at the chart, you will find that some
of the stages in the construction of irrigation works
are mentioned.
Fill in the rest by using the following phrases:
• Labour is provided by the people.
• Farmers also benefit because crop production is
more certain.
• Farmers have to increase production to pay taxes.
• Kings provide money and plan irrigation works.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
81 n
In the northern part of the country, the village
headman was known as the grama bhojaka.
Usually, men from the same family held the
position for generations. In other words, the post
was hereditary. The grama bhojaka was often the
largest landowner. Generally, he had slaves and
hired workers to cultivate the land. Besides, as
he was powerful, the king often used him to collect
taxes from the village. He also functioned as a
judge, and sometimes as a policeman.
Apart from the gramabhojaka, there were other
independent farmers, known as grihapatis, most
of whom were smaller landowners. And then there
were men and women such as the dasa
karmakara, who did not own land, and had to
earn a living working on the fields owned by others.
In most villages there were also some crafts
persons such as the blacksmith, potter, carpenter
and weaver.
The earliest T The earliest T The earliest T The earliest T The earliest Tamil compositions amil compositions amil compositions amil compositions amil compositions
Some of the earliest works in Tamil, known as
Sangam literature, were composed around 2300
years ago. These texts were called Sangam because
they were supposed to have been composed and
compiled in assemblies (known as sangams) of
poets that were held in the city of Madurai (see Map
7, page 105). The Tamil terms mentioned above are
found in Sangam literature.
Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: stories, tr tories, tr tories, tr tories, tr tories, tra a a a av v v v vellers, ellers, ellers, ellers, ellers,
sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology
You may have heard of the Jatakas. These were
stories that were probably composed by ordinary
people, and then written down and preserved by
Buddhist monks. Here is part of a Jataka story,
which tells us how a poor man gradually became
rich.
VITAL VILLAGES,
THRIVING TOWNS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 4


79 n
Pr Pr Pr Pr Prabhak abhak abhak abhak abhakar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith’s shop ’s shop ’s shop ’s shop ’s shop
Prabhakar sat watching the smiths at the local shop.
There was a small bench on which iron tools like axes
and sickles were laid out, ready for sale. A bright fire
was burning, and two men were heating and beating
metal rods into shape. It was very hot and noisy, and yet
it was fascinating to watch what was happening.
Ir Ir Ir Ir Iron tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agriculture e e e e
We often take the use of iron for granted today.
Things made of iron (and steel) are a part of our
daily lives. The use of iron began in the
subcontinent around 3000 years ago. Some of
the largest collections of iron tools and weapons
were found in the megalithic burials, about which
you read in Chapter 4.
Around 2500 years ago, there is evidence for
the growing use of iron tools. These included axes
for clearing forests, and the iron ploughshare. As
we had seen (Chapter 5) the ploughshare was
useful for increasing agricultural production.
Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to increase pr ease pr ease pr ease pr ease produ odu odu odu oduction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation
The kings and kingdoms you have been reading
about could not have existed without the support
of flourishing villages. While new tools and the
system of transplantation (Chapter 5) increased
production, irrigation was also used. Irrigation
works that were built during this time included
canals, wells, tanks, and artificial lakes.
Iron tools.
Here is a set of
captions. Choose the
right one for each of the
pictures.
Sickle, tongs, axe.
Prepare a list of at least
five objects made of
iron or steel that you
use almost everyday.
CHAPTER 8
VIT VIT VIT VIT VITAL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLAGES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING TO O O O OWNS WNS WNS WNS WNS
VITAL VILLAGES,
THRIVING TOWNS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 80
OUR PASTS–I
Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages?
There were at least three different kinds of people
living in most villages in the southern and
northern parts of the subcontinent. In the Tamil
region, large landowners were known as vellalar,
ordinary ploughmen were known as uzhavar, and
landless labourers, including slaves, were known
as kadaisiyar and adimai.
1. Kings need money for armies,
palaces, forts.
2. They demand taxes from farmers.
3. 4. This is possible with irrigation.
5.
6.
7. Production increases.
8. So does revenue.
9.
If you look at the chart, you will find that some
of the stages in the construction of irrigation works
are mentioned.
Fill in the rest by using the following phrases:
• Labour is provided by the people.
• Farmers also benefit because crop production is
more certain.
• Farmers have to increase production to pay taxes.
• Kings provide money and plan irrigation works.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
81 n
In the northern part of the country, the village
headman was known as the grama bhojaka.
Usually, men from the same family held the
position for generations. In other words, the post
was hereditary. The grama bhojaka was often the
largest landowner. Generally, he had slaves and
hired workers to cultivate the land. Besides, as
he was powerful, the king often used him to collect
taxes from the village. He also functioned as a
judge, and sometimes as a policeman.
Apart from the gramabhojaka, there were other
independent farmers, known as grihapatis, most
of whom were smaller landowners. And then there
were men and women such as the dasa
karmakara, who did not own land, and had to
earn a living working on the fields owned by others.
In most villages there were also some crafts
persons such as the blacksmith, potter, carpenter
and weaver.
The earliest T The earliest T The earliest T The earliest T The earliest Tamil compositions amil compositions amil compositions amil compositions amil compositions
Some of the earliest works in Tamil, known as
Sangam literature, were composed around 2300
years ago. These texts were called Sangam because
they were supposed to have been composed and
compiled in assemblies (known as sangams) of
poets that were held in the city of Madurai (see Map
7, page 105). The Tamil terms mentioned above are
found in Sangam literature.
Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: stories, tr tories, tr tories, tr tories, tr tories, tra a a a av v v v vellers, ellers, ellers, ellers, ellers,
sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology
You may have heard of the Jatakas. These were
stories that were probably composed by ordinary
people, and then written down and preserved by
Buddhist monks. Here is part of a Jataka story,
which tells us how a poor man gradually became
rich.
VITAL VILLAGES,
THRIVING TOWNS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 82
OUR PASTS–I
Once upon a time, there was a clever poor young man who lived in a
city. His only resource was a dead rat. He started off by selling it for a
coin to a hotel, for their cat.
Then one day, there was a storm. The king’s garden was littered with
branches and leaves, and the gardener was at a loss as to how to clear
the mess. The young man offered to clean the garden if he could keep
the wood and leaves. The gardener agreed at once.
The young man rounded up all the children who were playing, with
an offer of sweets for every stick and leaf that they could collect. In no
time, every scrap had been neatly piled near the entrance. Just then,
the king’s potter was on the look out for fuel with which to bake his
pots. So he took the whole lot and paid the young man for it.
Our young man now thought of another plan. He carried a jar full of
water to the city gate, and offered water to 500 grass cutters. They were
pleased and said: “You have done us a good turn. Tell us, what can we
do for you?”
He replied, “I’ll let you know when I need your help.”
He then made friends with a trader. One day, the trader told him:
“Tomorrow, a horse dealer is coming to town with 500 horses.” Hearing
this, our young man went back to the grass cutters. He said: “Please give
me a bundle of grass each, and don’t sell your grass till mine is sold.”
They agreed, and gave him 500 bundles of grass.
When the horse dealer could not buy grass anywhere else, he purchased
the young man’s grass for a thousand coins. …
List the occupations of the persons mentioned in the story.
For each one, try and decide whether they would have lived (a) only in
the city (b) only in villages (c) in both cities and villages.
Why do you think the horse dealer was coming to the city?
Do you think women could have taken up the occupations mentioned
in the story? Give reasons for your answer.
We can use other kinds of evidence to find out
about life in some of these early cities. Sculptors
carved scenes depicting peoples’ lives in towns
and villages, as well as in the forest. Many of these
sculptures were used to decorate railings, pillars
and gateways of buildings that were visited by
people.
Facing Page : Ring well
found in Delhi.
In what ways do you
think this system of
drainage was different
from that of the
Harappans?
The clever poor man The clever poor man The clever poor man The clever poor man The clever poor man
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 5


79 n
Pr Pr Pr Pr Prabhak abhak abhak abhak abhakar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith ar at the blacksmith’s shop ’s shop ’s shop ’s shop ’s shop
Prabhakar sat watching the smiths at the local shop.
There was a small bench on which iron tools like axes
and sickles were laid out, ready for sale. A bright fire
was burning, and two men were heating and beating
metal rods into shape. It was very hot and noisy, and yet
it was fascinating to watch what was happening.
Ir Ir Ir Ir Iron tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agricultur on tools and agriculture e e e e
We often take the use of iron for granted today.
Things made of iron (and steel) are a part of our
daily lives. The use of iron began in the
subcontinent around 3000 years ago. Some of
the largest collections of iron tools and weapons
were found in the megalithic burials, about which
you read in Chapter 4.
Around 2500 years ago, there is evidence for
the growing use of iron tools. These included axes
for clearing forests, and the iron ploughshare. As
we had seen (Chapter 5) the ploughshare was
useful for increasing agricultural production.
Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to incr Other steps to increase pr ease pr ease pr ease pr ease produ odu odu odu oduction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation ction: irrigation
The kings and kingdoms you have been reading
about could not have existed without the support
of flourishing villages. While new tools and the
system of transplantation (Chapter 5) increased
production, irrigation was also used. Irrigation
works that were built during this time included
canals, wells, tanks, and artificial lakes.
Iron tools.
Here is a set of
captions. Choose the
right one for each of the
pictures.
Sickle, tongs, axe.
Prepare a list of at least
five objects made of
iron or steel that you
use almost everyday.
CHAPTER 8
VIT VIT VIT VIT VITAL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLA AL VILLAGES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING T GES, THRIVING TO O O O OWNS WNS WNS WNS WNS
VITAL VILLAGES,
THRIVING TOWNS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 80
OUR PASTS–I
Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages? Who lived in the villages?
There were at least three different kinds of people
living in most villages in the southern and
northern parts of the subcontinent. In the Tamil
region, large landowners were known as vellalar,
ordinary ploughmen were known as uzhavar, and
landless labourers, including slaves, were known
as kadaisiyar and adimai.
1. Kings need money for armies,
palaces, forts.
2. They demand taxes from farmers.
3. 4. This is possible with irrigation.
5.
6.
7. Production increases.
8. So does revenue.
9.
If you look at the chart, you will find that some
of the stages in the construction of irrigation works
are mentioned.
Fill in the rest by using the following phrases:
• Labour is provided by the people.
• Farmers also benefit because crop production is
more certain.
• Farmers have to increase production to pay taxes.
• Kings provide money and plan irrigation works.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
81 n
In the northern part of the country, the village
headman was known as the grama bhojaka.
Usually, men from the same family held the
position for generations. In other words, the post
was hereditary. The grama bhojaka was often the
largest landowner. Generally, he had slaves and
hired workers to cultivate the land. Besides, as
he was powerful, the king often used him to collect
taxes from the village. He also functioned as a
judge, and sometimes as a policeman.
Apart from the gramabhojaka, there were other
independent farmers, known as grihapatis, most
of whom were smaller landowners. And then there
were men and women such as the dasa
karmakara, who did not own land, and had to
earn a living working on the fields owned by others.
In most villages there were also some crafts
persons such as the blacksmith, potter, carpenter
and weaver.
The earliest T The earliest T The earliest T The earliest T The earliest Tamil compositions amil compositions amil compositions amil compositions amil compositions
Some of the earliest works in Tamil, known as
Sangam literature, were composed around 2300
years ago. These texts were called Sangam because
they were supposed to have been composed and
compiled in assemblies (known as sangams) of
poets that were held in the city of Madurai (see Map
7, page 105). The Tamil terms mentioned above are
found in Sangam literature.
Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: s Finding out about cities: stories, tr tories, tr tories, tr tories, tr tories, tra a a a av v v v vellers, ellers, ellers, ellers, ellers,
sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology sculpture and archaeology
You may have heard of the Jatakas. These were
stories that were probably composed by ordinary
people, and then written down and preserved by
Buddhist monks. Here is part of a Jataka story,
which tells us how a poor man gradually became
rich.
VITAL VILLAGES,
THRIVING TOWNS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 82
OUR PASTS–I
Once upon a time, there was a clever poor young man who lived in a
city. His only resource was a dead rat. He started off by selling it for a
coin to a hotel, for their cat.
Then one day, there was a storm. The king’s garden was littered with
branches and leaves, and the gardener was at a loss as to how to clear
the mess. The young man offered to clean the garden if he could keep
the wood and leaves. The gardener agreed at once.
The young man rounded up all the children who were playing, with
an offer of sweets for every stick and leaf that they could collect. In no
time, every scrap had been neatly piled near the entrance. Just then,
the king’s potter was on the look out for fuel with which to bake his
pots. So he took the whole lot and paid the young man for it.
Our young man now thought of another plan. He carried a jar full of
water to the city gate, and offered water to 500 grass cutters. They were
pleased and said: “You have done us a good turn. Tell us, what can we
do for you?”
He replied, “I’ll let you know when I need your help.”
He then made friends with a trader. One day, the trader told him:
“Tomorrow, a horse dealer is coming to town with 500 horses.” Hearing
this, our young man went back to the grass cutters. He said: “Please give
me a bundle of grass each, and don’t sell your grass till mine is sold.”
They agreed, and gave him 500 bundles of grass.
When the horse dealer could not buy grass anywhere else, he purchased
the young man’s grass for a thousand coins. …
List the occupations of the persons mentioned in the story.
For each one, try and decide whether they would have lived (a) only in
the city (b) only in villages (c) in both cities and villages.
Why do you think the horse dealer was coming to the city?
Do you think women could have taken up the occupations mentioned
in the story? Give reasons for your answer.
We can use other kinds of evidence to find out
about life in some of these early cities. Sculptors
carved scenes depicting peoples’ lives in towns
and villages, as well as in the forest. Many of these
sculptures were used to decorate railings, pillars
and gateways of buildings that were visited by
people.
Facing Page : Ring well
found in Delhi.
In what ways do you
think this system of
drainage was different
from that of the
Harappans?
The clever poor man The clever poor man The clever poor man The clever poor man The clever poor man
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
83 n
 Many of the cities that developed from about
2500 years ago were capitals of the
mahajanapadas that you learnt about in
Chapter 5. As we had seen, some of these
cities were surrounded by massive
fortification walls.
In many cities, archaeologists have
found rows of pots, or ceramic rings
arranged one on top of the other. These
are known as ring wells. These seem to
have been used as toilets in some cases,
and as drains and garbage dumps. These
ring wells are usually found in individual
houses.
We have hardly any remains of palaces,
markets, or of homes of ordinary people.
Perhaps some are yet to be discovered
by archaeologists. Others, made of wood,
mud brick and thatch, may not have
survived.
Another way of finding out about early
cities is from the accounts of sailors and
travellers who visited them. One of the
most detailed accounts that has been
found was by an unknown Greek sailor.
He described all the ports he visited. Find
Below : A sculpture from
Sanchi.
This is a sculpture from
Sanchi, a site with
stupas, in Madhya
Pradesh, showing the
scene in a city. You will
learn more about Sanchi
in Chapter 11. Notice
the way walls are shown.
Are they made of brick,
wood or stone? Now
look at the railings. Are
they made of wood?
Describe the roofs of
the buildings.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
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Viva Questions

,

study material

,

Summary

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NCERT Textbook - Vital Villages

,

practice quizzes

,

Thriving Towns Class 6 Notes | EduRev

,

MCQs

,

Thriving Towns Class 6 Notes | EduRev

,

mock tests for examination

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NCERT Textbook - Vital Villages

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Objective type Questions

,

ppt

,

video lectures

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Extra Questions

,

Semester Notes

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past year papers

,

NCERT Textbook - Vital Villages

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Thriving Towns Class 6 Notes | EduRev

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