NCERT Textbook - India Location Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - India Location Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


INTRODUCTION
This unit deals with
• Location — space relations and India’s place in the world
UNIT
I
2020-21
Page 2


INTRODUCTION
This unit deals with
• Location — space relations and India’s place in the world
UNIT
I
2020-21
Y
ou have already seen the map of India
in the previous classes. Now you closely
examine the  map of India (Figure 1.1).
Mark the southernmost and northernmost
latitudes and the easternmost and
westernmost longitudes.
The mainland of India, extends from
Kashmir in the north to Kanniyakumari in the
south and  Arunachal Pradesh in the east to
Gujarat in the west. India’s territorial limit
further extends towards the sea upto 12
nautical miles (about 21.9 km) from the coast.
(See the box for conversion).
Statute mile = 63,360 inches
Nautical mile = 72,960 inches
1 Statute mile = about 1.6 km (1.584 km)
1 Nautical mile = about 1.8 km (1.852 km)
Our southern boundary extends upto
6°45' N latitude in the Bay of Bengal.  Let us
try to analyse the implications of having such
a vast longitudinal and latitudinal extent.
If you work out the latitudinal and
longitudinal extent of India, they are roughly
about 30 degrees, whereas the actual distance
measured from north to south extremity is
3,214 km, and that from east to west is only
2,933 km. What is the reason for this
difference? Consult Chapter 3 on the topic
Latitude, Longitude and Time in the book
Practical Work in Geography – Part I (NCERT ,
2006) to find out.
This difference is based on the fact that the
distance between two longitudes decreases
towards the poles whereas the distance
between two latitudes remains the same
everywhere. Find out the distance between two
latitudes?
From the values of latitude, it is understood
that the southern part of the country lies
within the tropics and the northern part lies in
the sub-tropical zone or the warm temperate
zone. This location is responsible for large
variations in land forms, climate, soil types and
natural vegetation in the country.
Now, let us observe the longitudinal extent
and its implications on the Indian people. From
the values of longitude, it is quite discernible
that there is a variation of nearly 30 degrees,
which causes a time difference of nearly two
hours between the easternmost and the
westernmost parts of our country. You are
familiar with the concept of Indian Standard
Time (IST).  What is the use of the standard
meridian? While the sun rises in the
northeastern states about two hours earlier as
compared to Jaisalmer, the watches in
Dibrugarh, Imphal in the east and Jaisalmer ,
Bhopal or Chennai in the other parts of India
show the same time.  Why does this happen?
INDIA – LOCATION
CHAPTER
There is a general understanding among the countries of the world to select the standard
meridian in multiples of 7°30' of longitude. That is why 82°30' E  has been selected as the
‘standard meridian’ of India. Indian Standard Time is ahead of Greenwich Mean Time by
5 hours and 30 minutes.
There are some countries where there are more than one standard meridian due to
their vast east-to-west extent. For example, the USA has seven time zones.
Do you Remember?
2020-21
Page 3


INTRODUCTION
This unit deals with
• Location — space relations and India’s place in the world
UNIT
I
2020-21
Y
ou have already seen the map of India
in the previous classes. Now you closely
examine the  map of India (Figure 1.1).
Mark the southernmost and northernmost
latitudes and the easternmost and
westernmost longitudes.
The mainland of India, extends from
Kashmir in the north to Kanniyakumari in the
south and  Arunachal Pradesh in the east to
Gujarat in the west. India’s territorial limit
further extends towards the sea upto 12
nautical miles (about 21.9 km) from the coast.
(See the box for conversion).
Statute mile = 63,360 inches
Nautical mile = 72,960 inches
1 Statute mile = about 1.6 km (1.584 km)
1 Nautical mile = about 1.8 km (1.852 km)
Our southern boundary extends upto
6°45' N latitude in the Bay of Bengal.  Let us
try to analyse the implications of having such
a vast longitudinal and latitudinal extent.
If you work out the latitudinal and
longitudinal extent of India, they are roughly
about 30 degrees, whereas the actual distance
measured from north to south extremity is
3,214 km, and that from east to west is only
2,933 km. What is the reason for this
difference? Consult Chapter 3 on the topic
Latitude, Longitude and Time in the book
Practical Work in Geography – Part I (NCERT ,
2006) to find out.
This difference is based on the fact that the
distance between two longitudes decreases
towards the poles whereas the distance
between two latitudes remains the same
everywhere. Find out the distance between two
latitudes?
From the values of latitude, it is understood
that the southern part of the country lies
within the tropics and the northern part lies in
the sub-tropical zone or the warm temperate
zone. This location is responsible for large
variations in land forms, climate, soil types and
natural vegetation in the country.
Now, let us observe the longitudinal extent
and its implications on the Indian people. From
the values of longitude, it is quite discernible
that there is a variation of nearly 30 degrees,
which causes a time difference of nearly two
hours between the easternmost and the
westernmost parts of our country. You are
familiar with the concept of Indian Standard
Time (IST).  What is the use of the standard
meridian? While the sun rises in the
northeastern states about two hours earlier as
compared to Jaisalmer, the watches in
Dibrugarh, Imphal in the east and Jaisalmer ,
Bhopal or Chennai in the other parts of India
show the same time.  Why does this happen?
INDIA – LOCATION
CHAPTER
There is a general understanding among the countries of the world to select the standard
meridian in multiples of 7°30' of longitude. That is why 82°30' E  has been selected as the
‘standard meridian’ of India. Indian Standard Time is ahead of Greenwich Mean Time by
5 hours and 30 minutes.
There are some countries where there are more than one standard meridian due to
their vast east-to-west extent. For example, the USA has seven time zones.
Do you Remember?
2020-21
3 INDIA – LOCATION
Figure 1.1 : India : Administrative Divisions
2020-21
Page 4


INTRODUCTION
This unit deals with
• Location — space relations and India’s place in the world
UNIT
I
2020-21
Y
ou have already seen the map of India
in the previous classes. Now you closely
examine the  map of India (Figure 1.1).
Mark the southernmost and northernmost
latitudes and the easternmost and
westernmost longitudes.
The mainland of India, extends from
Kashmir in the north to Kanniyakumari in the
south and  Arunachal Pradesh in the east to
Gujarat in the west. India’s territorial limit
further extends towards the sea upto 12
nautical miles (about 21.9 km) from the coast.
(See the box for conversion).
Statute mile = 63,360 inches
Nautical mile = 72,960 inches
1 Statute mile = about 1.6 km (1.584 km)
1 Nautical mile = about 1.8 km (1.852 km)
Our southern boundary extends upto
6°45' N latitude in the Bay of Bengal.  Let us
try to analyse the implications of having such
a vast longitudinal and latitudinal extent.
If you work out the latitudinal and
longitudinal extent of India, they are roughly
about 30 degrees, whereas the actual distance
measured from north to south extremity is
3,214 km, and that from east to west is only
2,933 km. What is the reason for this
difference? Consult Chapter 3 on the topic
Latitude, Longitude and Time in the book
Practical Work in Geography – Part I (NCERT ,
2006) to find out.
This difference is based on the fact that the
distance between two longitudes decreases
towards the poles whereas the distance
between two latitudes remains the same
everywhere. Find out the distance between two
latitudes?
From the values of latitude, it is understood
that the southern part of the country lies
within the tropics and the northern part lies in
the sub-tropical zone or the warm temperate
zone. This location is responsible for large
variations in land forms, climate, soil types and
natural vegetation in the country.
Now, let us observe the longitudinal extent
and its implications on the Indian people. From
the values of longitude, it is quite discernible
that there is a variation of nearly 30 degrees,
which causes a time difference of nearly two
hours between the easternmost and the
westernmost parts of our country. You are
familiar with the concept of Indian Standard
Time (IST).  What is the use of the standard
meridian? While the sun rises in the
northeastern states about two hours earlier as
compared to Jaisalmer, the watches in
Dibrugarh, Imphal in the east and Jaisalmer ,
Bhopal or Chennai in the other parts of India
show the same time.  Why does this happen?
INDIA – LOCATION
CHAPTER
There is a general understanding among the countries of the world to select the standard
meridian in multiples of 7°30' of longitude. That is why 82°30' E  has been selected as the
‘standard meridian’ of India. Indian Standard Time is ahead of Greenwich Mean Time by
5 hours and 30 minutes.
There are some countries where there are more than one standard meridian due to
their vast east-to-west extent. For example, the USA has seven time zones.
Do you Remember?
2020-21
3 INDIA – LOCATION
Figure 1.1 : India : Administrative Divisions
2020-21
4 INDIA : PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Figure 1.2 : Location of India in the Eastern World
2020-21
Page 5


INTRODUCTION
This unit deals with
• Location — space relations and India’s place in the world
UNIT
I
2020-21
Y
ou have already seen the map of India
in the previous classes. Now you closely
examine the  map of India (Figure 1.1).
Mark the southernmost and northernmost
latitudes and the easternmost and
westernmost longitudes.
The mainland of India, extends from
Kashmir in the north to Kanniyakumari in the
south and  Arunachal Pradesh in the east to
Gujarat in the west. India’s territorial limit
further extends towards the sea upto 12
nautical miles (about 21.9 km) from the coast.
(See the box for conversion).
Statute mile = 63,360 inches
Nautical mile = 72,960 inches
1 Statute mile = about 1.6 km (1.584 km)
1 Nautical mile = about 1.8 km (1.852 km)
Our southern boundary extends upto
6°45' N latitude in the Bay of Bengal.  Let us
try to analyse the implications of having such
a vast longitudinal and latitudinal extent.
If you work out the latitudinal and
longitudinal extent of India, they are roughly
about 30 degrees, whereas the actual distance
measured from north to south extremity is
3,214 km, and that from east to west is only
2,933 km. What is the reason for this
difference? Consult Chapter 3 on the topic
Latitude, Longitude and Time in the book
Practical Work in Geography – Part I (NCERT ,
2006) to find out.
This difference is based on the fact that the
distance between two longitudes decreases
towards the poles whereas the distance
between two latitudes remains the same
everywhere. Find out the distance between two
latitudes?
From the values of latitude, it is understood
that the southern part of the country lies
within the tropics and the northern part lies in
the sub-tropical zone or the warm temperate
zone. This location is responsible for large
variations in land forms, climate, soil types and
natural vegetation in the country.
Now, let us observe the longitudinal extent
and its implications on the Indian people. From
the values of longitude, it is quite discernible
that there is a variation of nearly 30 degrees,
which causes a time difference of nearly two
hours between the easternmost and the
westernmost parts of our country. You are
familiar with the concept of Indian Standard
Time (IST).  What is the use of the standard
meridian? While the sun rises in the
northeastern states about two hours earlier as
compared to Jaisalmer, the watches in
Dibrugarh, Imphal in the east and Jaisalmer ,
Bhopal or Chennai in the other parts of India
show the same time.  Why does this happen?
INDIA – LOCATION
CHAPTER
There is a general understanding among the countries of the world to select the standard
meridian in multiples of 7°30' of longitude. That is why 82°30' E  has been selected as the
‘standard meridian’ of India. Indian Standard Time is ahead of Greenwich Mean Time by
5 hours and 30 minutes.
There are some countries where there are more than one standard meridian due to
their vast east-to-west extent. For example, the USA has seven time zones.
Do you Remember?
2020-21
3 INDIA – LOCATION
Figure 1.1 : India : Administrative Divisions
2020-21
4 INDIA : PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Figure 1.2 : Location of India in the Eastern World
2020-21
5 INDIA – LOCATION
Name a few places in India through which the
standard meridian passes?
India with its area of 3.28 million sq. km
accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s land
surface area and stands as the seventh
largest country in the world.  Find out the
names of the countries which are larger than
India.
SIZE
The size of India has endowed her with great
physical diversity.  Thus, you may appreciate
the presence of lofty mountains in the north;
large rivers such as Ganga, Brahmaputra,
Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari and Kaveri;
green forested hills in northeast and south
India; and the vast sandy expanse of
Marusthali.  You may further appreciate that
bounded by the Himalayas in the north,
Hindukush and Sulaiman ranges in the north-
west, Purvachal hills in the north-east and by
the large expanse of the Indian ocean in the
south, it forms a great geographic entity known
as the Indian subcontinent. It includes the
countries — Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan,
Bangladesh and India. The Himalayas,
together with other ranges, have acted as a
formidable physical barrier in the past.  Except
for a few mountain passes such as the Khyber,
the Bolan, the Shipkila, the Nathula, the
Bomdila, etc. it was difficult to cross it.  It has
contributed towards the evolving of a unique
regional identity of the Indian subcontinent.
By referring to the physical map of India
you can now describe the physical variations
which you would come across while travelling
from Kashmir to Kanniyakumari and from
Jaisalmer in Rajasthan to Imphal in Manipur.
Peninsular part of India extends towards
the Indian Ocean.  This has provided the
country with a coastline of 6,100 km in the
mainland and 7,517 km in the entire
geographical coast of the mainland plus the
island groups Andaman and Nicobar located
in the Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep in
the Arabian Sea.  Thus India, as a country, is
a physically diverse land providing occurrence
of varied resources.
INDIA AND ITS NEIGHBOURS
Examine the location map of India (Figure 1.2).
You will notice that India is located in the
south-central part of the continent of Asia,
bordering the Indian ocean and its two arms
extending in the form of Bay of Bengal and the
Arabian Sea. This maritime location of
Peninsular India has provided links to its
neighbouring regions through the sea and air
routes.
Prepare a list of India’s neighbouring
countries by consulting the map.
Sri Lanka and Maldives are the two island
countries located in the Indian Ocean, which
are our neighbours.  Sri Lanka is separated from
India by the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait.
Differentiate between a Gulf and a Strait.
Do you think that physical barrier is a
hindrance in interaction with our neighbouring
countries in modern times?  Give some
examples how we have overcome these
difficulties in the present day.
Do you Remember?
School Bhuvan is a portal providing
map-based learning to bring awareness
among the students about country’s
natural resources, environment and
their role in sustainable development.
It is an initiative of Bhuvan-NRSC/
ISRO, based on NCERT syllabus.
You can explore various maps of India
on http://bhuvan-app1.nrsc.gov.in/
mhrd_ncert/
2020-21
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