NCERT Textbook: Lifelines of National Economy Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 10 - Class 10

Class 10: NCERT Textbook: Lifelines of National Economy Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 10 - Class 10

The document NCERT Textbook: Lifelines of National Economy Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 10 - Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
All you need of Class 10 at this link: Class 10
 Page 1


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are prerequisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air. Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other.
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as lifelines of our nation and its modern
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a prerequisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has second largest road networks in the
world, aggregating to about 62.16 lakh km
(2020–21). In India, roadways have preceded
railways. They still have an edge over railways
in view of the ease with which they can be built
2022-23
Page 2


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are prerequisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air. Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other.
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as lifelines of our nation and its modern
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a prerequisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has second largest road networks in the
world, aggregating to about 62.16 lakh km
(2020–21). In India, roadways have preceded
railways. They still have an edge over railways
in view of the ease with which they can be built
2022-23
80 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
and maintained. The growing importance of
road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted
in the following reasons; (a) construction cost
of roads is much lower than that of railway
lines, (b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and
as such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much lower,
(f) road transport is also used as a feeder to
other modes of transport such as they provide
a link between railway stations, air and
sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the
following six classes according to their
capacity. Look at the map of the National
Highways and find out about the significant
role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major
road development project linking Delhi-
Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by
six-lane Super Highways. The North-
South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu
& Kashmir) and Kanniyakumari (Tamil
Nadu), and East-West Corridor
connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbander
(Gujarat) are part of this project. The
major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance
between the mega cities of India. These
highway projects are being implemented
by the National Highway Authority of
India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These
are the primary road systems and are
laid and maintained by the Central Public
Works Department (CPWD). A number of
major National Highways run in North-
South and East-West directions. The
historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called
National Highway No.1, between Delhi and
Amritsar.
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These roads
are constructed and maintained by the
State Public Works Department (PWD) in
State and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places
of the district. These roads are maintained
by the Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every
village in the country is linked to a major
town in the country by an all season
motorable road.
• Border Roads: Apart from these, Border
Roads Organisation a Government of India
undertaking constructs and maintains
roads in the bordering areas of the
country. This organisation was established
in 1960 for the development of the roads
of strategic importance in the northern and
north-eastern border areas. These roads
have improved accessibility in areas of
difficult terrain and have helped in the
economic development of these area.
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expressway
Collect information of National Highway
numbers (old and new) from the website
morth.nic.in/national-highway-details.
2022-23
Page 3


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are prerequisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air. Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other.
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as lifelines of our nation and its modern
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a prerequisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has second largest road networks in the
world, aggregating to about 62.16 lakh km
(2020–21). In India, roadways have preceded
railways. They still have an edge over railways
in view of the ease with which they can be built
2022-23
80 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
and maintained. The growing importance of
road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted
in the following reasons; (a) construction cost
of roads is much lower than that of railway
lines, (b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and
as such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much lower,
(f) road transport is also used as a feeder to
other modes of transport such as they provide
a link between railway stations, air and
sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the
following six classes according to their
capacity. Look at the map of the National
Highways and find out about the significant
role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major
road development project linking Delhi-
Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by
six-lane Super Highways. The North-
South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu
& Kashmir) and Kanniyakumari (Tamil
Nadu), and East-West Corridor
connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbander
(Gujarat) are part of this project. The
major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance
between the mega cities of India. These
highway projects are being implemented
by the National Highway Authority of
India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These
are the primary road systems and are
laid and maintained by the Central Public
Works Department (CPWD). A number of
major National Highways run in North-
South and East-West directions. The
historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called
National Highway No.1, between Delhi and
Amritsar.
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These roads
are constructed and maintained by the
State Public Works Department (PWD) in
State and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places
of the district. These roads are maintained
by the Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every
village in the country is linked to a major
town in the country by an all season
motorable road.
• Border Roads: Apart from these, Border
Roads Organisation a Government of India
undertaking constructs and maintains
roads in the bordering areas of the
country. This organisation was established
in 1960 for the development of the roads
of strategic importance in the northern and
north-eastern border areas. These roads
have improved accessibility in areas of
difficult terrain and have helped in the
economic development of these area.
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expressway
Collect information of National Highway
numbers (old and new) from the website
morth.nic.in/national-highway-details.
2022-23
81 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
India:  National Highways
2022-23
Page 4


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are prerequisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air. Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other.
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as lifelines of our nation and its modern
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a prerequisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has second largest road networks in the
world, aggregating to about 62.16 lakh km
(2020–21). In India, roadways have preceded
railways. They still have an edge over railways
in view of the ease with which they can be built
2022-23
80 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
and maintained. The growing importance of
road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted
in the following reasons; (a) construction cost
of roads is much lower than that of railway
lines, (b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and
as such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much lower,
(f) road transport is also used as a feeder to
other modes of transport such as they provide
a link between railway stations, air and
sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the
following six classes according to their
capacity. Look at the map of the National
Highways and find out about the significant
role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major
road development project linking Delhi-
Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by
six-lane Super Highways. The North-
South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu
& Kashmir) and Kanniyakumari (Tamil
Nadu), and East-West Corridor
connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbander
(Gujarat) are part of this project. The
major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance
between the mega cities of India. These
highway projects are being implemented
by the National Highway Authority of
India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These
are the primary road systems and are
laid and maintained by the Central Public
Works Department (CPWD). A number of
major National Highways run in North-
South and East-West directions. The
historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called
National Highway No.1, between Delhi and
Amritsar.
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These roads
are constructed and maintained by the
State Public Works Department (PWD) in
State and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places
of the district. These roads are maintained
by the Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every
village in the country is linked to a major
town in the country by an all season
motorable road.
• Border Roads: Apart from these, Border
Roads Organisation a Government of India
undertaking constructs and maintains
roads in the bordering areas of the
country. This organisation was established
in 1960 for the development of the roads
of strategic importance in the northern and
north-eastern border areas. These roads
have improved accessibility in areas of
difficult terrain and have helped in the
economic development of these area.
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expressway
Collect information of National Highway
numbers (old and new) from the website
morth.nic.in/national-highway-details.
2022-23
81 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
India:  National Highways
2022-23
82 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
The Indian Railways is the largest public
sector undertaking in the country. The first
train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane in
1853, covering a distance of 34 km.
Find out the current Railway zones and their
headquarters. Also locate the headquarters
of Railway zones on the map of India.
The distribution pattern of the Railway
network in the country has been largely
influenced by physiographic, economic and
administrative factors.  The northern plains with
their vast level land, high population density
and rich agricultural resources provided the most
favourable condition for their growth.  However,
a large number of rivers requiring construction
of bridges across their wide beds posed some
obstacles.  In the hilly terrains of the peninsular
region, railway tracts are laid through low hills,
gaps or tunnels. The Himalayan mountainous
regions too are unfavourable for the construction
of railway lines due to high relief, sparse
population and lack of economic opportunities.
Likewise, it was difficult to lay railway lines on
Roads can also be classified on the basis of
the type of material used for their construction
such as metalled and unmetalled roads.
Metalled roads may be made of cement,
concrete or even bitumen of coal, therefore,
and narrow. However, in recent years fast
development of road network has taken place
in different parts of the country
Railways
Railways are the principal mode of
transportation for freight and passengers
in India. Railways also make it possible for
people to conduct multifarious activities
like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage
along with transportation of goods over
longer distances. Apart from an important
means of transport the Indian Railways
have been a great integrating force for more
than 150 years. Railways in India bind the
economic life of the country as well as
accelerate the development of the industry
and agriculture.
The Indian Railway is now reorganised into
16 zones.
The World’s longest Highway tunnel-Atal
Tunnel (9.02 Km) has been built by Border
Road Organisation. This tunnel connects
Manali to Lahul-Spiti valley throughout the
year. Earlier the valley was cut off for about
6 months each year owing to heavy snowfall.
The tunnel is buit with ultra-modern
specifications in the Pir Panjal range of
Himalayas at an altitude of 3000 metres
from the Mean Sea Level (MSL).
Source: http://www.bro.gov.in/pagefimg.
asp?imid=144,And PIBdelhi03October2020
Fig. 7.3:  Hilly Tracts
Fig. 7.4:  Traffic on north-eastern border road
(Arunachal Pradesh)
2022-23
Page 5


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are prerequisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air. Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other.
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as lifelines of our nation and its modern
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a prerequisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has second largest road networks in the
world, aggregating to about 62.16 lakh km
(2020–21). In India, roadways have preceded
railways. They still have an edge over railways
in view of the ease with which they can be built
2022-23
80 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
and maintained. The growing importance of
road transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted
in the following reasons; (a) construction cost
of roads is much lower than that of railway
lines, (b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and
as such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much lower,
(f) road transport is also used as a feeder to
other modes of transport such as they provide
a link between railway stations, air and
sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the
following six classes according to their
capacity. Look at the map of the National
Highways and find out about the significant
role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major
road development project linking Delhi-
Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by
six-lane Super Highways. The North-
South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu
& Kashmir) and Kanniyakumari (Tamil
Nadu), and East-West Corridor
connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbander
(Gujarat) are part of this project. The
major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance
between the mega cities of India. These
highway projects are being implemented
by the National Highway Authority of
India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These
are the primary road systems and are
laid and maintained by the Central Public
Works Department (CPWD). A number of
major National Highways run in North-
South and East-West directions. The
historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called
National Highway No.1, between Delhi and
Amritsar.
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These roads
are constructed and maintained by the
State Public Works Department (PWD) in
State and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places
of the district. These roads are maintained
by the Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every
village in the country is linked to a major
town in the country by an all season
motorable road.
• Border Roads: Apart from these, Border
Roads Organisation a Government of India
undertaking constructs and maintains
roads in the bordering areas of the
country. This organisation was established
in 1960 for the development of the roads
of strategic importance in the northern and
north-eastern border areas. These roads
have improved accessibility in areas of
difficult terrain and have helped in the
economic development of these area.
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expressway
Collect information of National Highway
numbers (old and new) from the website
morth.nic.in/national-highway-details.
2022-23
81 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
India:  National Highways
2022-23
82 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
The Indian Railways is the largest public
sector undertaking in the country. The first
train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane in
1853, covering a distance of 34 km.
Find out the current Railway zones and their
headquarters. Also locate the headquarters
of Railway zones on the map of India.
The distribution pattern of the Railway
network in the country has been largely
influenced by physiographic, economic and
administrative factors.  The northern plains with
their vast level land, high population density
and rich agricultural resources provided the most
favourable condition for their growth.  However,
a large number of rivers requiring construction
of bridges across their wide beds posed some
obstacles.  In the hilly terrains of the peninsular
region, railway tracts are laid through low hills,
gaps or tunnels. The Himalayan mountainous
regions too are unfavourable for the construction
of railway lines due to high relief, sparse
population and lack of economic opportunities.
Likewise, it was difficult to lay railway lines on
Roads can also be classified on the basis of
the type of material used for their construction
such as metalled and unmetalled roads.
Metalled roads may be made of cement,
concrete or even bitumen of coal, therefore,
and narrow. However, in recent years fast
development of road network has taken place
in different parts of the country
Railways
Railways are the principal mode of
transportation for freight and passengers
in India. Railways also make it possible for
people to conduct multifarious activities
like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage
along with transportation of goods over
longer distances. Apart from an important
means of transport the Indian Railways
have been a great integrating force for more
than 150 years. Railways in India bind the
economic life of the country as well as
accelerate the development of the industry
and agriculture.
The Indian Railway is now reorganised into
16 zones.
The World’s longest Highway tunnel-Atal
Tunnel (9.02 Km) has been built by Border
Road Organisation. This tunnel connects
Manali to Lahul-Spiti valley throughout the
year. Earlier the valley was cut off for about
6 months each year owing to heavy snowfall.
The tunnel is buit with ultra-modern
specifications in the Pir Panjal range of
Himalayas at an altitude of 3000 metres
from the Mean Sea Level (MSL).
Source: http://www.bro.gov.in/pagefimg.
asp?imid=144,And PIBdelhi03October2020
Fig. 7.3:  Hilly Tracts
Fig. 7.4:  Traffic on north-eastern border road
(Arunachal Pradesh)
2022-23
83 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
Source: Railway Yearbook 2019–20, Ministry of Railways, Government of India.
Website: www.indianrailways.gov.in
subsequent running costs are minimal.  It rules
out trans-shipment losses or delays.
There are three important networks of
pipeline transportation in the country.
• From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur
(Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and
Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to
Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to
Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
• From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in
Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and
Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali
(near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and
other places.
• The first 1,700 km long Hazira-Vijaipur-
Jagdishpur (HVJ) cross country gas
pipeline, linked Mumbai High and Bassein
gas fields with various ferilizer, power and
industrial complexes in western and
northern India. Overall, India’s gas pipeline
infrastructure has expanded from 1,700 km
to 18,500 km of cross-country pipelines.
Waterways
Since the ancient period, India was one of the
seafaring countries.  Its seamen sailed far and
near, thus, carrying and spreading Indian
commerce and culture. Waterways are the
cheapest means of transport. They are most
suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
It is a fuel-efficient and environment friendly
mode of transport. India has inland navigation
waterways of 14,500 km in length. Out of these
only 5685 km are navigable by mechanised
vessels. The following waterways have been
declared as the National Waterways by the
Government.
Table 7.1: India: Railway Track
The Indian Railway network runs on multiple gauge operations
extending over 67,956 km.
the sandy plain of western Rajasthan, swamps
of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand.  The
contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed
only through gaps or passes (Ghats). In recent
times, the development of the Konkan railway
along the west coast has facilitated the movement
of passengers and goods in this most important
economic region of India. It has also faced a
number of problem such as sinking of track in
some stretches and landslides.
Today, the railways have become more
important in our national economy than all
other means of transport put together. However,
rail transport suffers from certain problems as
well. Many passengers travel without tickets.
Thefts and damaging of railway property has
not yet stopped completely.  People stop the
trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this
causes heavy damage to the railway. Think over
it, how we can help our railway in running as
per the scheduled time?
Pipelines
Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on
the transportation map of India.  In the past,
these were used to transport water to cities and
industries. Now, these are used for transporting
crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas
from oil and natural gas fields to refineries,
fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.
Solids can also be transported through a
pipeline when converted into slurry. The far
inland locations of refineries like Barauni,
Mathura, Panipat and gas based fertilizer plants
could be thought of only because of pipelines.
Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but
Gauge in metres      Route (Km)
Broad Gauge (1.676) 63950
Metre Gauge (1.000) 2,402
Narrow Gauge (0.762  and 0.610) 1,604
Total 67,956
2022-23
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