NCERT Textbook - Migration : Types, Causes and Consequences Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Migration : Types, Causes and Consequences Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit I Unit I Unit I Unit I Unit I
Chapter 2
MIGRATION
Types, Causes and
Consequences
Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai
Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small
village of district Bhojpur, Bihar.  At an early
age of twelve he moved to a nearby town Ara to
complete his intermediate level studies. He went
to Sindri, Jharkhand, for his engineering degree
and he got a job at Bhilai, where he is living for
the last 31 years. His parents were illiterate and
the only source of their livelihood was meagre
income from agriculture. They spent their whole
life in that village.
Ram Babu has three children who got their
education up to the intermediate level at Bhilai
and then moved to different places for higher
education. First one studied at Allahabad and
Mumbai and is presently working in Delhi as a
scientist. The second child got her higher
education from different universities in India
and is now working in USA. The third one after
finishing her education settled at Surat after
marriage.
This is not a story of only Ram Babu and
his children but such movements are
increasingly becoming universal trend. People
have been moving from one village to another,
from villages to towns, from smaller towns to
bigger towns and from one country to another.
In your Book Fundamentals of Human
Geography you have already learnt about the
concept and definition of migration. Migration
has been an integral part and a very important
factor in redistributing population over time
and space. India has witnessed the waves of
migrants coming to the country from Central
and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia.
In fact, the history of India is a history of waves
of migrants coming and settling one after
another in different parts of the country. In the
words of a renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri;
SAR ZAMIN-E-HIND PAR AQWAM-E-ALAM KE
FIRAQUE
KAFILE BASTE GAYE, HINDOSTAN BANTA
GAYA
(The carvans of people from all parts of the
world kept on coming and settling in India and
led to the formation of India.)
Similarly, large numbers of people from
India too have been migrating to places in search
2020-21
Page 2


Unit I Unit I Unit I Unit I Unit I
Chapter 2
MIGRATION
Types, Causes and
Consequences
Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai
Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small
village of district Bhojpur, Bihar.  At an early
age of twelve he moved to a nearby town Ara to
complete his intermediate level studies. He went
to Sindri, Jharkhand, for his engineering degree
and he got a job at Bhilai, where he is living for
the last 31 years. His parents were illiterate and
the only source of their livelihood was meagre
income from agriculture. They spent their whole
life in that village.
Ram Babu has three children who got their
education up to the intermediate level at Bhilai
and then moved to different places for higher
education. First one studied at Allahabad and
Mumbai and is presently working in Delhi as a
scientist. The second child got her higher
education from different universities in India
and is now working in USA. The third one after
finishing her education settled at Surat after
marriage.
This is not a story of only Ram Babu and
his children but such movements are
increasingly becoming universal trend. People
have been moving from one village to another,
from villages to towns, from smaller towns to
bigger towns and from one country to another.
In your Book Fundamentals of Human
Geography you have already learnt about the
concept and definition of migration. Migration
has been an integral part and a very important
factor in redistributing population over time
and space. India has witnessed the waves of
migrants coming to the country from Central
and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia.
In fact, the history of India is a history of waves
of migrants coming and settling one after
another in different parts of the country. In the
words of a renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri;
SAR ZAMIN-E-HIND PAR AQWAM-E-ALAM KE
FIRAQUE
KAFILE BASTE GAYE, HINDOSTAN BANTA
GAYA
(The carvans of people from all parts of the
world kept on coming and settling in India and
led to the formation of India.)
Similarly, large numbers of people from
India too have been migrating to places in search
2020-21
16 India : People and Economy
of better opportunities specially to the countries
of the Middle-East, Western Europe, America,
Australia and East and South East Asia.
Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora
During colonial period (British period)
millions of the indentured labourers were
sent to Mauritius, Caribbean islands
(Trinidad, Tobago and Guyana), Fiji and
South Africa by British from Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar; to Reunion Island, Guadeloupe,
Martinique and Surinam by French and
Dutch and by Portuguese from Goa, Daman
and Diu to Angola, Mozambique to work as
plantation workers. All such migrations were
covered under the time-bound contract
known as Girmit Act (Indian Emigration Act).
However, the living conditions of these
indentured labourers were not better than
the slaves.
The second wave of migrants ventured out into
the neighbouring countries in recent times as
professionals, artisans, traders and factory
workers, in search of economic opportunities
to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia,
Brunei and African countries, etc. and the
trend still continues. There was a steady
outflow of India’s semi-skilled and skilled labour
in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in
the 1970s. There was also some outflow of
entrepreneurs, storeowners, professionals,
businessmen to Western Countries.
Third wave, of migrant was comprised
professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s
onwards), software engineers, management
consultants, financial experts, media
persons (1980s onwards), and others
migrated to countries such as USA, Canada,
UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany,
etc. These professional enjoy the distinction
of being one of highly educated, the highest
earning and prospering groups. After
liberalisation, in the 90s education and
knowledge–based Indian emigration has
made Indian Diaspora one of the most
powerful diasporas in the world.
In all these countries, Indian diaspora has
been playing an important role in the
development of the respective countries.
Migration Migration Migration Migration Migration
You are familiar with Census in India. It
contains information about migration in the
country. Actually migration was recorded
beginning from the first Census of India
conducted in 1881. This data were recorded
on the basis of place of birth. However, the first
major modification was introduced in 1961
Census by bringing in two additional
components viz; place of birth i.e. village or town
and duration of residence (if born elsewhere).
Further in 1971, additional information on
place of last residence and duration of stay at
the place of enumeration were incorporated.
Information on reasons for migration were
incorporated in 1981 Census and modified in
consecutive Censuses.
In the Census the following questions are
asked on migration :
• Is the person born in this village or
town? If no, then further information
is taken on rural/urban status of the
place of birth, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country of birth.
• Has the person come to this village or
town from elsewhere? If yes, then
further questions are asked about the
status (rural/urban) of previous place
of residence, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country.
In addition, reasons for migration from the
place of last residence and duration of residence
in place of enumeration are also asked.
In the Census of India migration is
enumerated on two bases : (i) place of birth, if
the place of birth is different from the place of
enumeration (known as life-time migrant);
(ii) place of residence, if the place of last
residence is different from the place of
enumeration (known as migrant by place of last
residence). As per 2011 census, out of 1,210
million people in the country, 455.8 million
(about 37%) were reported as migrants of place
of last residence.
2020-21
Page 3


Unit I Unit I Unit I Unit I Unit I
Chapter 2
MIGRATION
Types, Causes and
Consequences
Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai
Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small
village of district Bhojpur, Bihar.  At an early
age of twelve he moved to a nearby town Ara to
complete his intermediate level studies. He went
to Sindri, Jharkhand, for his engineering degree
and he got a job at Bhilai, where he is living for
the last 31 years. His parents were illiterate and
the only source of their livelihood was meagre
income from agriculture. They spent their whole
life in that village.
Ram Babu has three children who got their
education up to the intermediate level at Bhilai
and then moved to different places for higher
education. First one studied at Allahabad and
Mumbai and is presently working in Delhi as a
scientist. The second child got her higher
education from different universities in India
and is now working in USA. The third one after
finishing her education settled at Surat after
marriage.
This is not a story of only Ram Babu and
his children but such movements are
increasingly becoming universal trend. People
have been moving from one village to another,
from villages to towns, from smaller towns to
bigger towns and from one country to another.
In your Book Fundamentals of Human
Geography you have already learnt about the
concept and definition of migration. Migration
has been an integral part and a very important
factor in redistributing population over time
and space. India has witnessed the waves of
migrants coming to the country from Central
and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia.
In fact, the history of India is a history of waves
of migrants coming and settling one after
another in different parts of the country. In the
words of a renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri;
SAR ZAMIN-E-HIND PAR AQWAM-E-ALAM KE
FIRAQUE
KAFILE BASTE GAYE, HINDOSTAN BANTA
GAYA
(The carvans of people from all parts of the
world kept on coming and settling in India and
led to the formation of India.)
Similarly, large numbers of people from
India too have been migrating to places in search
2020-21
16 India : People and Economy
of better opportunities specially to the countries
of the Middle-East, Western Europe, America,
Australia and East and South East Asia.
Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora
During colonial period (British period)
millions of the indentured labourers were
sent to Mauritius, Caribbean islands
(Trinidad, Tobago and Guyana), Fiji and
South Africa by British from Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar; to Reunion Island, Guadeloupe,
Martinique and Surinam by French and
Dutch and by Portuguese from Goa, Daman
and Diu to Angola, Mozambique to work as
plantation workers. All such migrations were
covered under the time-bound contract
known as Girmit Act (Indian Emigration Act).
However, the living conditions of these
indentured labourers were not better than
the slaves.
The second wave of migrants ventured out into
the neighbouring countries in recent times as
professionals, artisans, traders and factory
workers, in search of economic opportunities
to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia,
Brunei and African countries, etc. and the
trend still continues. There was a steady
outflow of India’s semi-skilled and skilled labour
in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in
the 1970s. There was also some outflow of
entrepreneurs, storeowners, professionals,
businessmen to Western Countries.
Third wave, of migrant was comprised
professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s
onwards), software engineers, management
consultants, financial experts, media
persons (1980s onwards), and others
migrated to countries such as USA, Canada,
UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany,
etc. These professional enjoy the distinction
of being one of highly educated, the highest
earning and prospering groups. After
liberalisation, in the 90s education and
knowledge–based Indian emigration has
made Indian Diaspora one of the most
powerful diasporas in the world.
In all these countries, Indian diaspora has
been playing an important role in the
development of the respective countries.
Migration Migration Migration Migration Migration
You are familiar with Census in India. It
contains information about migration in the
country. Actually migration was recorded
beginning from the first Census of India
conducted in 1881. This data were recorded
on the basis of place of birth. However, the first
major modification was introduced in 1961
Census by bringing in two additional
components viz; place of birth i.e. village or town
and duration of residence (if born elsewhere).
Further in 1971, additional information on
place of last residence and duration of stay at
the place of enumeration were incorporated.
Information on reasons for migration were
incorporated in 1981 Census and modified in
consecutive Censuses.
In the Census the following questions are
asked on migration :
• Is the person born in this village or
town? If no, then further information
is taken on rural/urban status of the
place of birth, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country of birth.
• Has the person come to this village or
town from elsewhere? If yes, then
further questions are asked about the
status (rural/urban) of previous place
of residence, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country.
In addition, reasons for migration from the
place of last residence and duration of residence
in place of enumeration are also asked.
In the Census of India migration is
enumerated on two bases : (i) place of birth, if
the place of birth is different from the place of
enumeration (known as life-time migrant);
(ii) place of residence, if the place of last
residence is different from the place of
enumeration (known as migrant by place of last
residence). As per 2011 census, out of 1,210
million people in the country, 455.8 million
(about 37%) were reported as migrants of place
of last residence.
2020-21
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences     17
Conduct a survey of five households in your
neighbourhood  to find out their migration status. If
migrants, classify these on the basis of the two criteria
mentioned in the text.
Streams of Migration
A few facts pertaining to the internal
migration (within the country) and
international migration (out of the country
and into the country from other countries)
are presented here. Under the internal
migrants. The stream was dominated by female
migrants. Most of these were migrants related
to marriage.
The distribution of male and female
migrants in different streams of intra-state and
inter-state migration is presented in Fig. 2.1 a
and 2.1 b. It is clearly evident that females
predominate the streams of short distance rural
to rural migration in both types of migration.
Contrary to this, men predominate the rural to
urban stream of inter-state migration due to
economic reasons.
Apart from these streams of internal
migration, India also experiences immigration
migration, four streams are identified: (a)
rural to rural (R-R); (b) rural to urban (R-U); (c)
urban to urban (U-U); and (d) urban to rural
(U-R).  In India, during 2011, out of 455.0
million migrants, enumerated on the basis of
the last residence, 141.9 million had changed
their place of residence in the last ten years.
Out of these, 118.7 million were intra-state
from and emigration to the neighbouring
countries. Table 2.1 presents the details of
migrants from neighbouring countries. Indian
Census 2011 has recorded that more than 5
million person have migrated to India from
other countries. Out of these, about 88.9  per
cent came from the neighbouring countries:
Bangladesh followed by Nepal and Pakistan.
Source: Census of India, 2011
Fig. 2.1 a : Intra-state Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
India, 2011
Fig. 2.1 b : Inter-state Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
India, 2011
Examine Fig. 2.1 a and 2.1 b showing intra-state and inter-state migration in India according to the Census 2001
and find out:
(i) Why are the numbers of females migrating from rural to rural areas in both the diagrams higher?
(ii) Why is the inter-state male migration higher from rural to urban?
Migration in Millions
5
4
3
2
1
0
Migration Streams
50
40
30
20
10
0
Male
Female
Rural to
Rural
Rural to
urban
Urban to
Rural
Urban to
Urban
Migration in Millions
Migration Streams
Male
Female
Rural to
Rural
Rural to
urban
Urban to
Rural
Urban to
Urban
2020-21
Page 4


Unit I Unit I Unit I Unit I Unit I
Chapter 2
MIGRATION
Types, Causes and
Consequences
Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai
Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small
village of district Bhojpur, Bihar.  At an early
age of twelve he moved to a nearby town Ara to
complete his intermediate level studies. He went
to Sindri, Jharkhand, for his engineering degree
and he got a job at Bhilai, where he is living for
the last 31 years. His parents were illiterate and
the only source of their livelihood was meagre
income from agriculture. They spent their whole
life in that village.
Ram Babu has three children who got their
education up to the intermediate level at Bhilai
and then moved to different places for higher
education. First one studied at Allahabad and
Mumbai and is presently working in Delhi as a
scientist. The second child got her higher
education from different universities in India
and is now working in USA. The third one after
finishing her education settled at Surat after
marriage.
This is not a story of only Ram Babu and
his children but such movements are
increasingly becoming universal trend. People
have been moving from one village to another,
from villages to towns, from smaller towns to
bigger towns and from one country to another.
In your Book Fundamentals of Human
Geography you have already learnt about the
concept and definition of migration. Migration
has been an integral part and a very important
factor in redistributing population over time
and space. India has witnessed the waves of
migrants coming to the country from Central
and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia.
In fact, the history of India is a history of waves
of migrants coming and settling one after
another in different parts of the country. In the
words of a renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri;
SAR ZAMIN-E-HIND PAR AQWAM-E-ALAM KE
FIRAQUE
KAFILE BASTE GAYE, HINDOSTAN BANTA
GAYA
(The carvans of people from all parts of the
world kept on coming and settling in India and
led to the formation of India.)
Similarly, large numbers of people from
India too have been migrating to places in search
2020-21
16 India : People and Economy
of better opportunities specially to the countries
of the Middle-East, Western Europe, America,
Australia and East and South East Asia.
Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora
During colonial period (British period)
millions of the indentured labourers were
sent to Mauritius, Caribbean islands
(Trinidad, Tobago and Guyana), Fiji and
South Africa by British from Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar; to Reunion Island, Guadeloupe,
Martinique and Surinam by French and
Dutch and by Portuguese from Goa, Daman
and Diu to Angola, Mozambique to work as
plantation workers. All such migrations were
covered under the time-bound contract
known as Girmit Act (Indian Emigration Act).
However, the living conditions of these
indentured labourers were not better than
the slaves.
The second wave of migrants ventured out into
the neighbouring countries in recent times as
professionals, artisans, traders and factory
workers, in search of economic opportunities
to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia,
Brunei and African countries, etc. and the
trend still continues. There was a steady
outflow of India’s semi-skilled and skilled labour
in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in
the 1970s. There was also some outflow of
entrepreneurs, storeowners, professionals,
businessmen to Western Countries.
Third wave, of migrant was comprised
professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s
onwards), software engineers, management
consultants, financial experts, media
persons (1980s onwards), and others
migrated to countries such as USA, Canada,
UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany,
etc. These professional enjoy the distinction
of being one of highly educated, the highest
earning and prospering groups. After
liberalisation, in the 90s education and
knowledge–based Indian emigration has
made Indian Diaspora one of the most
powerful diasporas in the world.
In all these countries, Indian diaspora has
been playing an important role in the
development of the respective countries.
Migration Migration Migration Migration Migration
You are familiar with Census in India. It
contains information about migration in the
country. Actually migration was recorded
beginning from the first Census of India
conducted in 1881. This data were recorded
on the basis of place of birth. However, the first
major modification was introduced in 1961
Census by bringing in two additional
components viz; place of birth i.e. village or town
and duration of residence (if born elsewhere).
Further in 1971, additional information on
place of last residence and duration of stay at
the place of enumeration were incorporated.
Information on reasons for migration were
incorporated in 1981 Census and modified in
consecutive Censuses.
In the Census the following questions are
asked on migration :
• Is the person born in this village or
town? If no, then further information
is taken on rural/urban status of the
place of birth, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country of birth.
• Has the person come to this village or
town from elsewhere? If yes, then
further questions are asked about the
status (rural/urban) of previous place
of residence, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country.
In addition, reasons for migration from the
place of last residence and duration of residence
in place of enumeration are also asked.
In the Census of India migration is
enumerated on two bases : (i) place of birth, if
the place of birth is different from the place of
enumeration (known as life-time migrant);
(ii) place of residence, if the place of last
residence is different from the place of
enumeration (known as migrant by place of last
residence). As per 2011 census, out of 1,210
million people in the country, 455.8 million
(about 37%) were reported as migrants of place
of last residence.
2020-21
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences     17
Conduct a survey of five households in your
neighbourhood  to find out their migration status. If
migrants, classify these on the basis of the two criteria
mentioned in the text.
Streams of Migration
A few facts pertaining to the internal
migration (within the country) and
international migration (out of the country
and into the country from other countries)
are presented here. Under the internal
migrants. The stream was dominated by female
migrants. Most of these were migrants related
to marriage.
The distribution of male and female
migrants in different streams of intra-state and
inter-state migration is presented in Fig. 2.1 a
and 2.1 b. It is clearly evident that females
predominate the streams of short distance rural
to rural migration in both types of migration.
Contrary to this, men predominate the rural to
urban stream of inter-state migration due to
economic reasons.
Apart from these streams of internal
migration, India also experiences immigration
migration, four streams are identified: (a)
rural to rural (R-R); (b) rural to urban (R-U); (c)
urban to urban (U-U); and (d) urban to rural
(U-R).  In India, during 2011, out of 455.0
million migrants, enumerated on the basis of
the last residence, 141.9 million had changed
their place of residence in the last ten years.
Out of these, 118.7 million were intra-state
from and emigration to the neighbouring
countries. Table 2.1 presents the details of
migrants from neighbouring countries. Indian
Census 2011 has recorded that more than 5
million person have migrated to India from
other countries. Out of these, about 88.9  per
cent came from the neighbouring countries:
Bangladesh followed by Nepal and Pakistan.
Source: Census of India, 2011
Fig. 2.1 a : Intra-state Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
India, 2011
Fig. 2.1 b : Inter-state Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
India, 2011
Examine Fig. 2.1 a and 2.1 b showing intra-state and inter-state migration in India according to the Census 2001
and find out:
(i) Why are the numbers of females migrating from rural to rural areas in both the diagrams higher?
(ii) Why is the inter-state male migration higher from rural to urban?
Migration in Millions
5
4
3
2
1
0
Migration Streams
50
40
30
20
10
0
Male
Female
Rural to
Rural
Rural to
urban
Urban to
Rural
Urban to
Urban
Migration in Millions
Migration Streams
Male
Female
Rural to
Rural
Rural to
urban
Urban to
Rural
Urban to
Urban
2020-21
18 India : People and Economy
Represent the data given in Table 2.1 by pie diagrams
assuming the migration from neighbouring countries
47,66,231 persons as 100 per cent).
Spatial Variation in Migration
Some states like Maharashtra, Delhi, Gujarat and
Haryana attract migrants from other states
such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, etc.
Maharashtra occupied first place in migrants,
followed by Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana. On the
other hand, Uttar Pradesh was the state, which
had the largest number of net out-migrants from
the state.
From the From the From the From the From the given given given given given news news news news news
items try to identify items try to identify items try to identify items try to identify items try to identify
the political the political the political the political the political and and and and and
economic economic economic economic economic causes of causes of causes of causes of causes of
migration. migration. migration. migration. migration.
Countries No of %  of total
Migrants Migrants
Total
migration 53,63,099 100
Migration from
neighbouring
countries 47,66,231 88.9
Afghanistan 6,476 0.1
Bangladesh 27,47,062 51.2
Bhutan 7,964 0.1
China 18,114 0.3
Myanmar 59,282 1.1
Nepal 8,10,158 15.1
Pakistan 9,18,982 17.1
Sri Lanka 1,98,193 3.7
Table 2.1 : Migrants classified by place of
last residence outside India, 2011
Source: Census of India, 2011
2020-21
Page 5


Unit I Unit I Unit I Unit I Unit I
Chapter 2
MIGRATION
Types, Causes and
Consequences
Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai
Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small
village of district Bhojpur, Bihar.  At an early
age of twelve he moved to a nearby town Ara to
complete his intermediate level studies. He went
to Sindri, Jharkhand, for his engineering degree
and he got a job at Bhilai, where he is living for
the last 31 years. His parents were illiterate and
the only source of their livelihood was meagre
income from agriculture. They spent their whole
life in that village.
Ram Babu has three children who got their
education up to the intermediate level at Bhilai
and then moved to different places for higher
education. First one studied at Allahabad and
Mumbai and is presently working in Delhi as a
scientist. The second child got her higher
education from different universities in India
and is now working in USA. The third one after
finishing her education settled at Surat after
marriage.
This is not a story of only Ram Babu and
his children but such movements are
increasingly becoming universal trend. People
have been moving from one village to another,
from villages to towns, from smaller towns to
bigger towns and from one country to another.
In your Book Fundamentals of Human
Geography you have already learnt about the
concept and definition of migration. Migration
has been an integral part and a very important
factor in redistributing population over time
and space. India has witnessed the waves of
migrants coming to the country from Central
and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia.
In fact, the history of India is a history of waves
of migrants coming and settling one after
another in different parts of the country. In the
words of a renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri;
SAR ZAMIN-E-HIND PAR AQWAM-E-ALAM KE
FIRAQUE
KAFILE BASTE GAYE, HINDOSTAN BANTA
GAYA
(The carvans of people from all parts of the
world kept on coming and settling in India and
led to the formation of India.)
Similarly, large numbers of people from
India too have been migrating to places in search
2020-21
16 India : People and Economy
of better opportunities specially to the countries
of the Middle-East, Western Europe, America,
Australia and East and South East Asia.
Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora Indian Diaspora
During colonial period (British period)
millions of the indentured labourers were
sent to Mauritius, Caribbean islands
(Trinidad, Tobago and Guyana), Fiji and
South Africa by British from Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar; to Reunion Island, Guadeloupe,
Martinique and Surinam by French and
Dutch and by Portuguese from Goa, Daman
and Diu to Angola, Mozambique to work as
plantation workers. All such migrations were
covered under the time-bound contract
known as Girmit Act (Indian Emigration Act).
However, the living conditions of these
indentured labourers were not better than
the slaves.
The second wave of migrants ventured out into
the neighbouring countries in recent times as
professionals, artisans, traders and factory
workers, in search of economic opportunities
to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia,
Brunei and African countries, etc. and the
trend still continues. There was a steady
outflow of India’s semi-skilled and skilled labour
in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in
the 1970s. There was also some outflow of
entrepreneurs, storeowners, professionals,
businessmen to Western Countries.
Third wave, of migrant was comprised
professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s
onwards), software engineers, management
consultants, financial experts, media
persons (1980s onwards), and others
migrated to countries such as USA, Canada,
UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany,
etc. These professional enjoy the distinction
of being one of highly educated, the highest
earning and prospering groups. After
liberalisation, in the 90s education and
knowledge–based Indian emigration has
made Indian Diaspora one of the most
powerful diasporas in the world.
In all these countries, Indian diaspora has
been playing an important role in the
development of the respective countries.
Migration Migration Migration Migration Migration
You are familiar with Census in India. It
contains information about migration in the
country. Actually migration was recorded
beginning from the first Census of India
conducted in 1881. This data were recorded
on the basis of place of birth. However, the first
major modification was introduced in 1961
Census by bringing in two additional
components viz; place of birth i.e. village or town
and duration of residence (if born elsewhere).
Further in 1971, additional information on
place of last residence and duration of stay at
the place of enumeration were incorporated.
Information on reasons for migration were
incorporated in 1981 Census and modified in
consecutive Censuses.
In the Census the following questions are
asked on migration :
• Is the person born in this village or
town? If no, then further information
is taken on rural/urban status of the
place of birth, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country of birth.
• Has the person come to this village or
town from elsewhere? If yes, then
further questions are asked about the
status (rural/urban) of previous place
of residence, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country.
In addition, reasons for migration from the
place of last residence and duration of residence
in place of enumeration are also asked.
In the Census of India migration is
enumerated on two bases : (i) place of birth, if
the place of birth is different from the place of
enumeration (known as life-time migrant);
(ii) place of residence, if the place of last
residence is different from the place of
enumeration (known as migrant by place of last
residence). As per 2011 census, out of 1,210
million people in the country, 455.8 million
(about 37%) were reported as migrants of place
of last residence.
2020-21
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences     17
Conduct a survey of five households in your
neighbourhood  to find out their migration status. If
migrants, classify these on the basis of the two criteria
mentioned in the text.
Streams of Migration
A few facts pertaining to the internal
migration (within the country) and
international migration (out of the country
and into the country from other countries)
are presented here. Under the internal
migrants. The stream was dominated by female
migrants. Most of these were migrants related
to marriage.
The distribution of male and female
migrants in different streams of intra-state and
inter-state migration is presented in Fig. 2.1 a
and 2.1 b. It is clearly evident that females
predominate the streams of short distance rural
to rural migration in both types of migration.
Contrary to this, men predominate the rural to
urban stream of inter-state migration due to
economic reasons.
Apart from these streams of internal
migration, India also experiences immigration
migration, four streams are identified: (a)
rural to rural (R-R); (b) rural to urban (R-U); (c)
urban to urban (U-U); and (d) urban to rural
(U-R).  In India, during 2011, out of 455.0
million migrants, enumerated on the basis of
the last residence, 141.9 million had changed
their place of residence in the last ten years.
Out of these, 118.7 million were intra-state
from and emigration to the neighbouring
countries. Table 2.1 presents the details of
migrants from neighbouring countries. Indian
Census 2011 has recorded that more than 5
million person have migrated to India from
other countries. Out of these, about 88.9  per
cent came from the neighbouring countries:
Bangladesh followed by Nepal and Pakistan.
Source: Census of India, 2011
Fig. 2.1 a : Intra-state Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
India, 2011
Fig. 2.1 b : Inter-state Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
India, 2011
Examine Fig. 2.1 a and 2.1 b showing intra-state and inter-state migration in India according to the Census 2001
and find out:
(i) Why are the numbers of females migrating from rural to rural areas in both the diagrams higher?
(ii) Why is the inter-state male migration higher from rural to urban?
Migration in Millions
5
4
3
2
1
0
Migration Streams
50
40
30
20
10
0
Male
Female
Rural to
Rural
Rural to
urban
Urban to
Rural
Urban to
Urban
Migration in Millions
Migration Streams
Male
Female
Rural to
Rural
Rural to
urban
Urban to
Rural
Urban to
Urban
2020-21
18 India : People and Economy
Represent the data given in Table 2.1 by pie diagrams
assuming the migration from neighbouring countries
47,66,231 persons as 100 per cent).
Spatial Variation in Migration
Some states like Maharashtra, Delhi, Gujarat and
Haryana attract migrants from other states
such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, etc.
Maharashtra occupied first place in migrants,
followed by Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana. On the
other hand, Uttar Pradesh was the state, which
had the largest number of net out-migrants from
the state.
From the From the From the From the From the given given given given given news news news news news
items try to identify items try to identify items try to identify items try to identify items try to identify
the political the political the political the political the political and and and and and
economic economic economic economic economic causes of causes of causes of causes of causes of
migration. migration. migration. migration. migration.
Countries No of %  of total
Migrants Migrants
Total
migration 53,63,099 100
Migration from
neighbouring
countries 47,66,231 88.9
Afghanistan 6,476 0.1
Bangladesh 27,47,062 51.2
Bhutan 7,964 0.1
China 18,114 0.3
Myanmar 59,282 1.1
Nepal 8,10,158 15.1
Pakistan 9,18,982 17.1
Sri Lanka 1,98,193 3.7
Table 2.1 : Migrants classified by place of
last residence outside India, 2011
Source: Census of India, 2011
2020-21
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences     19
Causes of Migration
People, generally are emotionally attached to
their place of birth. But millions of people leave
their places of birth and residence. There could
be variety of reasons. These reasons can be put
into two broad categories : (i) push factor, these
cause people to leave their place of residence or
origin; and (ii) pull factors, which attract the
people from different places.
In India people migrate from rural to urban
areas mainly due to poverty, high population
pressure on the land, lack of basic infrastructural
facilities like health care, education, etc. Apart
from these factors, natural disasters such as,
flood, drought, cyclonic storms, earthquake,
tsunami, wars and local conflicts also give extra
push to migrate. On the other hand, there are
pull factors which attract people from rural areas
to cities. The most important pull factor for
majority of the rural migrants to urban areas is
the better opportunities, availability of regular
work and relatively higher wages. Better
opportunities for education, better health
The four stories describe different situations of migrants.
Enumerate the push and pull factors for Aarif?
What are the pull factors for Mohan Singh?
Study the story of Subbalakshmi and Manish Gawarkar. Compare their cases on the basis of types of
migration, causes of migration and their living conditions.
2020-21
Read More
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