NCERT Textbook - Migration : Types, Causes and Consequences Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

Created by: Mehtab Ahmed

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Migration : Types, Causes and Consequences Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit I
Chapter 2
MIGRATION
Types, Causes and
Consequences
Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai
Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small
village of district Bhojpur, Bihar.  At an early
age of twelve he moved to a nearby town Ara to
complete his intermediate level studies. He went
to Sindri, Jharkhand for his engineering degree
and he got a job at Bhilai, where he is living for
the last 31 years. His parents were illiterate and
the only source of their livelihood was meagre
income from agriculture. They spent their whole
life in that village.
Ram Babu has three children who got their
education up to the intermediate level at Bhilai
and then moved to different places for higher
education. First one studied at Allahabad and
Mumbai and is presently working in Delhi as a
scientist. The second child got her higher
education from different universities in India
and is now working in USA. The third one after
finishing her education settled at Surat after
marriage.
This is not a story of only Ram Babu and
his children but such movements are
increasingly becoming universal trend. People
have been moving from one village to another,
from villages to towns, from smaller towns to
bigger towns and from one country to another.
In your Book Fundamentals of Human
Geography you have already learnt about the
concept and definition of migration. Migration
has been an integral part and a very important
factor in redistributing population over time
and space. India has witnessed the waves of
migrants coming to the country from Central
and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia.
In fact, the history of India is a history of waves
of migrants coming and settling one after
another in different parts of the country. In the
words of a renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri;
SAR ZAMIN-E-HIND PAR AQWAM-E-ALAM KE
FIRAQUE
CARVAN BASTE GAYE, HINDOSTAN BANTA
GAYA
(The carvans of people from all parts of the
world kept on coming and settling in India and
led to the formation of India.)
Similarly, large numbers of people from
India too have been migrating to places in search
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Unit I
Chapter 2
MIGRATION
Types, Causes and
Consequences
Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai
Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small
village of district Bhojpur, Bihar.  At an early
age of twelve he moved to a nearby town Ara to
complete his intermediate level studies. He went
to Sindri, Jharkhand for his engineering degree
and he got a job at Bhilai, where he is living for
the last 31 years. His parents were illiterate and
the only source of their livelihood was meagre
income from agriculture. They spent their whole
life in that village.
Ram Babu has three children who got their
education up to the intermediate level at Bhilai
and then moved to different places for higher
education. First one studied at Allahabad and
Mumbai and is presently working in Delhi as a
scientist. The second child got her higher
education from different universities in India
and is now working in USA. The third one after
finishing her education settled at Surat after
marriage.
This is not a story of only Ram Babu and
his children but such movements are
increasingly becoming universal trend. People
have been moving from one village to another,
from villages to towns, from smaller towns to
bigger towns and from one country to another.
In your Book Fundamentals of Human
Geography you have already learnt about the
concept and definition of migration. Migration
has been an integral part and a very important
factor in redistributing population over time
and space. India has witnessed the waves of
migrants coming to the country from Central
and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia.
In fact, the history of India is a history of waves
of migrants coming and settling one after
another in different parts of the country. In the
words of a renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri;
SAR ZAMIN-E-HIND PAR AQWAM-E-ALAM KE
FIRAQUE
CARVAN BASTE GAYE, HINDOSTAN BANTA
GAYA
(The carvans of people from all parts of the
world kept on coming and settling in India and
led to the formation of India.)
Similarly, large numbers of people from
India too have been migrating to places in search
© NCERT
not to be republished
16 India : People and Economy
of better opportunities specially to the countries
of the Middle-East, Western Europe, America,
Australia and East and South East Asia.
Indian Diaspora
During colonial period (British period)
millions of the indentured labourers were
sent to Mauritius, Caribbean islands
(Trinidad, Tobago and Guyana), Fiji and
South Africa by British from Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar; to Reunion Island, Guadeloupe,
Martinique and Surinam by French and
Dutch and by Portuguese from Goa, Daman
and Diu to Angola, Mozambique to work as
plantation workers. All such migrations were
covered under the time-bound contract
known as Girmit Ac t (Indian Emigration Act).
However, the living conditions of these
indentured labourers were not better than
the slaves.
The second wave of migrants ventured out into
the neighbouring countries in recent times as
professionals, artisans, traders and factory
workers, in search of economic opportunities
to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia,
Brunei and African countries, etc. and the
trend still continues. There was a steady
outflow of India’s semi-skilled and skilled labour
in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in
the 1970s. There was also some outflow of
entrepreneurs, storeowners, professionals,
businessmen to Western Countries.
Third wave, of migrant was comprised
professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s
onwards), software engineers, management
consultants, financial experts, media
persons (1980s onwards), and others
migrated to countries such as USA, Canada,
UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany,
etc. These professional enjoy the distinction
of being one of highly educated, the highest
earning and prospering groups. After
liberalisation, in the 90s education and
knowledge–based Indian emigration has
made Indian Diaspora one of the most
powerful diasporas in the world.
In all these countries, Indian diaspora has
been playing an important role in the
development of the respective countries.
Migration Migration Migration Migration Migration
You are familiar with Census in India. It contains
information about migration in the country.
Actually migration was recorded beginning
from the first Census of India conducted in
1881. This data were recorded on the basis of
place of birth. However, the first major
modification was introduced in 1961 Census
by bringing in two additional components viz;
place of birth i.e. village or town and duration
of residence (if born elsewhere). Further in
1971, additional information on place of last
residence and duration of stay at the place of
enumeration were incorporated. Information on
reasons for migration were incorporated in
1981 Census and modified in consecutive
Censuses.
In the Census the following questions are
asked on migration :
• Is the person born in this village or
town? If no, then further information
is taken on rural/urban status of the
place of birth, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country of birth.
• Has the person come to this village or
town from elsewhere? If yes, then
further questions are asked about the
status (rural/urban) of previous place
of residence, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country.
In addition, reasons for migration from the
place of last residence and duration of residence
in place of enumeration are also asked.
In the Census of India migration is
enumerated on two bases : (i) place of birth, if
the place of birth is different from the place of
enumeration (known as life-time migrant);
(ii) place of residence, if the place of last
residence is different from the place of
enumeration (known as migrant by place of last
residence). Can you imagine the proportion of
migrants in the population of India? As per
2001 census, out of 1,029 million people in the
country, 307 million (30 per cent) were reported
as migrants by place of birth. However, this
figure was 315 million (31 per cent) in case of
place of last residence.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Unit I
Chapter 2
MIGRATION
Types, Causes and
Consequences
Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai
Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small
village of district Bhojpur, Bihar.  At an early
age of twelve he moved to a nearby town Ara to
complete his intermediate level studies. He went
to Sindri, Jharkhand for his engineering degree
and he got a job at Bhilai, where he is living for
the last 31 years. His parents were illiterate and
the only source of their livelihood was meagre
income from agriculture. They spent their whole
life in that village.
Ram Babu has three children who got their
education up to the intermediate level at Bhilai
and then moved to different places for higher
education. First one studied at Allahabad and
Mumbai and is presently working in Delhi as a
scientist. The second child got her higher
education from different universities in India
and is now working in USA. The third one after
finishing her education settled at Surat after
marriage.
This is not a story of only Ram Babu and
his children but such movements are
increasingly becoming universal trend. People
have been moving from one village to another,
from villages to towns, from smaller towns to
bigger towns and from one country to another.
In your Book Fundamentals of Human
Geography you have already learnt about the
concept and definition of migration. Migration
has been an integral part and a very important
factor in redistributing population over time
and space. India has witnessed the waves of
migrants coming to the country from Central
and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia.
In fact, the history of India is a history of waves
of migrants coming and settling one after
another in different parts of the country. In the
words of a renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri;
SAR ZAMIN-E-HIND PAR AQWAM-E-ALAM KE
FIRAQUE
CARVAN BASTE GAYE, HINDOSTAN BANTA
GAYA
(The carvans of people from all parts of the
world kept on coming and settling in India and
led to the formation of India.)
Similarly, large numbers of people from
India too have been migrating to places in search
© NCERT
not to be republished
16 India : People and Economy
of better opportunities specially to the countries
of the Middle-East, Western Europe, America,
Australia and East and South East Asia.
Indian Diaspora
During colonial period (British period)
millions of the indentured labourers were
sent to Mauritius, Caribbean islands
(Trinidad, Tobago and Guyana), Fiji and
South Africa by British from Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar; to Reunion Island, Guadeloupe,
Martinique and Surinam by French and
Dutch and by Portuguese from Goa, Daman
and Diu to Angola, Mozambique to work as
plantation workers. All such migrations were
covered under the time-bound contract
known as Girmit Ac t (Indian Emigration Act).
However, the living conditions of these
indentured labourers were not better than
the slaves.
The second wave of migrants ventured out into
the neighbouring countries in recent times as
professionals, artisans, traders and factory
workers, in search of economic opportunities
to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia,
Brunei and African countries, etc. and the
trend still continues. There was a steady
outflow of India’s semi-skilled and skilled labour
in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in
the 1970s. There was also some outflow of
entrepreneurs, storeowners, professionals,
businessmen to Western Countries.
Third wave, of migrant was comprised
professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s
onwards), software engineers, management
consultants, financial experts, media
persons (1980s onwards), and others
migrated to countries such as USA, Canada,
UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany,
etc. These professional enjoy the distinction
of being one of highly educated, the highest
earning and prospering groups. After
liberalisation, in the 90s education and
knowledge–based Indian emigration has
made Indian Diaspora one of the most
powerful diasporas in the world.
In all these countries, Indian diaspora has
been playing an important role in the
development of the respective countries.
Migration Migration Migration Migration Migration
You are familiar with Census in India. It contains
information about migration in the country.
Actually migration was recorded beginning
from the first Census of India conducted in
1881. This data were recorded on the basis of
place of birth. However, the first major
modification was introduced in 1961 Census
by bringing in two additional components viz;
place of birth i.e. village or town and duration
of residence (if born elsewhere). Further in
1971, additional information on place of last
residence and duration of stay at the place of
enumeration were incorporated. Information on
reasons for migration were incorporated in
1981 Census and modified in consecutive
Censuses.
In the Census the following questions are
asked on migration :
• Is the person born in this village or
town? If no, then further information
is taken on rural/urban status of the
place of birth, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country of birth.
• Has the person come to this village or
town from elsewhere? If yes, then
further questions are asked about the
status (rural/urban) of previous place
of residence, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country.
In addition, reasons for migration from the
place of last residence and duration of residence
in place of enumeration are also asked.
In the Census of India migration is
enumerated on two bases : (i) place of birth, if
the place of birth is different from the place of
enumeration (known as life-time migrant);
(ii) place of residence, if the place of last
residence is different from the place of
enumeration (known as migrant by place of last
residence). Can you imagine the proportion of
migrants in the population of India? As per
2001 census, out of 1,029 million people in the
country, 307 million (30 per cent) were reported
as migrants by place of birth. However, this
figure was 315 million (31 per cent) in case of
place of last residence.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences     17
Conduct a survey of five households in your
neighbourhood  to find out their migration status. If
migrants, classify these on the basis of the two criteria
mentioned in the text.
Streams of Migration
A few facts pertaining to the internal
migration (within the country) and
international migration (out of the country
and into the country from other countries)
are presented here. Under the internal
The distribution of male and female
migrants in different streams of intra-state and
inter-state migration is presented in
Fig. 2.1 a and 2.1 b. It is clearly evident that
females predominate the streams of short
distance rural to rural migration in both types
of migration. Contrary to this, men predominate
the rural to urban stream of inter-state
migration due to economic reasons.
Apart from these streams of internal
migration, India also experiences immigration
from and emigration to the neighbouring
countries. Table 2.1 presents the details of
migrants from neighbouring countries. Indian
migration, four streams are identified: (a)
rural to rural (R-R); (b) rural to urban (R-U);
(c) urban to urban (U-U); and (d) urban to
rural (U-R).  In India, during 2001, out of
315 million migrants, enumerated on the
basis of the last residence, 98 million had
changed their place of residence in the last
ten years. Out of these, 81 million were intra-
state migrants. The stream was dominated
by female migrants. Most of these were
migrants related to marriage.
Census 2001 has recorded that more than 5
million person have migrated to India from
other countries. Out of these, 96 per cent came
from the neighbouring countries: Bangladesh
(3.0 million) followed by Pakistan (0.9 million)
and Nepal (0.5 million). Included in this are 0.16
million refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka,
Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and
Myanmar. As far as emigration from India is
concerned it is estimated that there are around
20 million people of Indian Diaspora, spread
across 110 countries.
Source: Census of India, 2001
Fig. 2.1 a : Intra State Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
(Duration 0-9 years), India, 2001
Fig. 2.1 b : Inter State Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
(Duration 0-9 years), India, 2001
Examine Fig. 2.1 a and 2.1 b showing intra-state and inter-state migration in India according to the Census 2001
and find out:
( i ) Why are the numbers of females migrating from rural to rural areas in both the diagrams higher?
( i i ) Why is the male migration higher from rural to urban?
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Unit I
Chapter 2
MIGRATION
Types, Causes and
Consequences
Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai
Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small
village of district Bhojpur, Bihar.  At an early
age of twelve he moved to a nearby town Ara to
complete his intermediate level studies. He went
to Sindri, Jharkhand for his engineering degree
and he got a job at Bhilai, where he is living for
the last 31 years. His parents were illiterate and
the only source of their livelihood was meagre
income from agriculture. They spent their whole
life in that village.
Ram Babu has three children who got their
education up to the intermediate level at Bhilai
and then moved to different places for higher
education. First one studied at Allahabad and
Mumbai and is presently working in Delhi as a
scientist. The second child got her higher
education from different universities in India
and is now working in USA. The third one after
finishing her education settled at Surat after
marriage.
This is not a story of only Ram Babu and
his children but such movements are
increasingly becoming universal trend. People
have been moving from one village to another,
from villages to towns, from smaller towns to
bigger towns and from one country to another.
In your Book Fundamentals of Human
Geography you have already learnt about the
concept and definition of migration. Migration
has been an integral part and a very important
factor in redistributing population over time
and space. India has witnessed the waves of
migrants coming to the country from Central
and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia.
In fact, the history of India is a history of waves
of migrants coming and settling one after
another in different parts of the country. In the
words of a renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri;
SAR ZAMIN-E-HIND PAR AQWAM-E-ALAM KE
FIRAQUE
CARVAN BASTE GAYE, HINDOSTAN BANTA
GAYA
(The carvans of people from all parts of the
world kept on coming and settling in India and
led to the formation of India.)
Similarly, large numbers of people from
India too have been migrating to places in search
© NCERT
not to be republished
16 India : People and Economy
of better opportunities specially to the countries
of the Middle-East, Western Europe, America,
Australia and East and South East Asia.
Indian Diaspora
During colonial period (British period)
millions of the indentured labourers were
sent to Mauritius, Caribbean islands
(Trinidad, Tobago and Guyana), Fiji and
South Africa by British from Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar; to Reunion Island, Guadeloupe,
Martinique and Surinam by French and
Dutch and by Portuguese from Goa, Daman
and Diu to Angola, Mozambique to work as
plantation workers. All such migrations were
covered under the time-bound contract
known as Girmit Ac t (Indian Emigration Act).
However, the living conditions of these
indentured labourers were not better than
the slaves.
The second wave of migrants ventured out into
the neighbouring countries in recent times as
professionals, artisans, traders and factory
workers, in search of economic opportunities
to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia,
Brunei and African countries, etc. and the
trend still continues. There was a steady
outflow of India’s semi-skilled and skilled labour
in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in
the 1970s. There was also some outflow of
entrepreneurs, storeowners, professionals,
businessmen to Western Countries.
Third wave, of migrant was comprised
professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s
onwards), software engineers, management
consultants, financial experts, media
persons (1980s onwards), and others
migrated to countries such as USA, Canada,
UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany,
etc. These professional enjoy the distinction
of being one of highly educated, the highest
earning and prospering groups. After
liberalisation, in the 90s education and
knowledge–based Indian emigration has
made Indian Diaspora one of the most
powerful diasporas in the world.
In all these countries, Indian diaspora has
been playing an important role in the
development of the respective countries.
Migration Migration Migration Migration Migration
You are familiar with Census in India. It contains
information about migration in the country.
Actually migration was recorded beginning
from the first Census of India conducted in
1881. This data were recorded on the basis of
place of birth. However, the first major
modification was introduced in 1961 Census
by bringing in two additional components viz;
place of birth i.e. village or town and duration
of residence (if born elsewhere). Further in
1971, additional information on place of last
residence and duration of stay at the place of
enumeration were incorporated. Information on
reasons for migration were incorporated in
1981 Census and modified in consecutive
Censuses.
In the Census the following questions are
asked on migration :
• Is the person born in this village or
town? If no, then further information
is taken on rural/urban status of the
place of birth, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country of birth.
• Has the person come to this village or
town from elsewhere? If yes, then
further questions are asked about the
status (rural/urban) of previous place
of residence, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country.
In addition, reasons for migration from the
place of last residence and duration of residence
in place of enumeration are also asked.
In the Census of India migration is
enumerated on two bases : (i) place of birth, if
the place of birth is different from the place of
enumeration (known as life-time migrant);
(ii) place of residence, if the place of last
residence is different from the place of
enumeration (known as migrant by place of last
residence). Can you imagine the proportion of
migrants in the population of India? As per
2001 census, out of 1,029 million people in the
country, 307 million (30 per cent) were reported
as migrants by place of birth. However, this
figure was 315 million (31 per cent) in case of
place of last residence.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences     17
Conduct a survey of five households in your
neighbourhood  to find out their migration status. If
migrants, classify these on the basis of the two criteria
mentioned in the text.
Streams of Migration
A few facts pertaining to the internal
migration (within the country) and
international migration (out of the country
and into the country from other countries)
are presented here. Under the internal
The distribution of male and female
migrants in different streams of intra-state and
inter-state migration is presented in
Fig. 2.1 a and 2.1 b. It is clearly evident that
females predominate the streams of short
distance rural to rural migration in both types
of migration. Contrary to this, men predominate
the rural to urban stream of inter-state
migration due to economic reasons.
Apart from these streams of internal
migration, India also experiences immigration
from and emigration to the neighbouring
countries. Table 2.1 presents the details of
migrants from neighbouring countries. Indian
migration, four streams are identified: (a)
rural to rural (R-R); (b) rural to urban (R-U);
(c) urban to urban (U-U); and (d) urban to
rural (U-R).  In India, during 2001, out of
315 million migrants, enumerated on the
basis of the last residence, 98 million had
changed their place of residence in the last
ten years. Out of these, 81 million were intra-
state migrants. The stream was dominated
by female migrants. Most of these were
migrants related to marriage.
Census 2001 has recorded that more than 5
million person have migrated to India from
other countries. Out of these, 96 per cent came
from the neighbouring countries: Bangladesh
(3.0 million) followed by Pakistan (0.9 million)
and Nepal (0.5 million). Included in this are 0.16
million refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka,
Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and
Myanmar. As far as emigration from India is
concerned it is estimated that there are around
20 million people of Indian Diaspora, spread
across 110 countries.
Source: Census of India, 2001
Fig. 2.1 a : Intra State Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
(Duration 0-9 years), India, 2001
Fig. 2.1 b : Inter State Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
(Duration 0-9 years), India, 2001
Examine Fig. 2.1 a and 2.1 b showing intra-state and inter-state migration in India according to the Census 2001
and find out:
( i ) Why are the numbers of females migrating from rural to rural areas in both the diagrams higher?
( i i ) Why is the male migration higher from rural to urban?
© NCERT
not to be republished
18 India : People and Economy
Countries% No of %  of
immigrants total
immigrants
Total international
migration 5,155,423 100
Migration from
neighbouring
countries 4,918,266 95.5
Afghanistan 9,194 0.2
Bangladesh 3,084,826 59.8
Bhutan 8,337 0.2
China 23,721 0.5
Myanmar 49,086 1.0
Nepal 596,696 11.6
Pakistan 997,106 19.3
Sri Lanka 149,300 2.9
Table 2.1 : Immigrants by last residence
from neighbouring countries by all
duration in India, 2001
Source : Census of India, 2001
Represent the data given in Table 2.1 by pie diagrams
assuming the migration from neighbouring countries
(4,918,266 persons as 100 per cent).
Spatial Variation in Migration
Some states like Maharashtra, Delhi, Gujarat and
Haryana attract migrants from other states such
as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, etc. (see Appendix–vii for
detail). Maharashtra occupied first place in the
list with 2.3 million net in-migrants, followed by
Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana. On the other hand,
Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar
(-1.7 million) were the states, which had the largest
number of net out-migrants from the state.
Among the  urban agglomeration (UA),
Greater Mumbai received the higher number of
in migrants. Intra-states migration constituted
the largest share in it. These differences are
largely due to the size of the state in which these
Urban Agglomeration are located.
From the given news
items try to identify
the political and
economic causes of
migration.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Unit I
Chapter 2
MIGRATION
Types, Causes and
Consequences
Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai
Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small
village of district Bhojpur, Bihar.  At an early
age of twelve he moved to a nearby town Ara to
complete his intermediate level studies. He went
to Sindri, Jharkhand for his engineering degree
and he got a job at Bhilai, where he is living for
the last 31 years. His parents were illiterate and
the only source of their livelihood was meagre
income from agriculture. They spent their whole
life in that village.
Ram Babu has three children who got their
education up to the intermediate level at Bhilai
and then moved to different places for higher
education. First one studied at Allahabad and
Mumbai and is presently working in Delhi as a
scientist. The second child got her higher
education from different universities in India
and is now working in USA. The third one after
finishing her education settled at Surat after
marriage.
This is not a story of only Ram Babu and
his children but such movements are
increasingly becoming universal trend. People
have been moving from one village to another,
from villages to towns, from smaller towns to
bigger towns and from one country to another.
In your Book Fundamentals of Human
Geography you have already learnt about the
concept and definition of migration. Migration
has been an integral part and a very important
factor in redistributing population over time
and space. India has witnessed the waves of
migrants coming to the country from Central
and West Asia and also from Southeast Asia.
In fact, the history of India is a history of waves
of migrants coming and settling one after
another in different parts of the country. In the
words of a renowned poet Firaque Gorakhpuri;
SAR ZAMIN-E-HIND PAR AQWAM-E-ALAM KE
FIRAQUE
CARVAN BASTE GAYE, HINDOSTAN BANTA
GAYA
(The carvans of people from all parts of the
world kept on coming and settling in India and
led to the formation of India.)
Similarly, large numbers of people from
India too have been migrating to places in search
© NCERT
not to be republished
16 India : People and Economy
of better opportunities specially to the countries
of the Middle-East, Western Europe, America,
Australia and East and South East Asia.
Indian Diaspora
During colonial period (British period)
millions of the indentured labourers were
sent to Mauritius, Caribbean islands
(Trinidad, Tobago and Guyana), Fiji and
South Africa by British from Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar; to Reunion Island, Guadeloupe,
Martinique and Surinam by French and
Dutch and by Portuguese from Goa, Daman
and Diu to Angola, Mozambique to work as
plantation workers. All such migrations were
covered under the time-bound contract
known as Girmit Ac t (Indian Emigration Act).
However, the living conditions of these
indentured labourers were not better than
the slaves.
The second wave of migrants ventured out into
the neighbouring countries in recent times as
professionals, artisans, traders and factory
workers, in search of economic opportunities
to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia,
Brunei and African countries, etc. and the
trend still continues. There was a steady
outflow of India’s semi-skilled and skilled labour
in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in
the 1970s. There was also some outflow of
entrepreneurs, storeowners, professionals,
businessmen to Western Countries.
Third wave, of migrant was comprised
professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s
onwards), software engineers, management
consultants, financial experts, media
persons (1980s onwards), and others
migrated to countries such as USA, Canada,
UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany,
etc. These professional enjoy the distinction
of being one of highly educated, the highest
earning and prospering groups. After
liberalisation, in the 90s education and
knowledge–based Indian emigration has
made Indian Diaspora one of the most
powerful diasporas in the world.
In all these countries, Indian diaspora has
been playing an important role in the
development of the respective countries.
Migration Migration Migration Migration Migration
You are familiar with Census in India. It contains
information about migration in the country.
Actually migration was recorded beginning
from the first Census of India conducted in
1881. This data were recorded on the basis of
place of birth. However, the first major
modification was introduced in 1961 Census
by bringing in two additional components viz;
place of birth i.e. village or town and duration
of residence (if born elsewhere). Further in
1971, additional information on place of last
residence and duration of stay at the place of
enumeration were incorporated. Information on
reasons for migration were incorporated in
1981 Census and modified in consecutive
Censuses.
In the Census the following questions are
asked on migration :
• Is the person born in this village or
town? If no, then further information
is taken on rural/urban status of the
place of birth, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country of birth.
• Has the person come to this village or
town from elsewhere? If yes, then
further questions are asked about the
status (rural/urban) of previous place
of residence, name of district and state
and if outside India then name of the
country.
In addition, reasons for migration from the
place of last residence and duration of residence
in place of enumeration are also asked.
In the Census of India migration is
enumerated on two bases : (i) place of birth, if
the place of birth is different from the place of
enumeration (known as life-time migrant);
(ii) place of residence, if the place of last
residence is different from the place of
enumeration (known as migrant by place of last
residence). Can you imagine the proportion of
migrants in the population of India? As per
2001 census, out of 1,029 million people in the
country, 307 million (30 per cent) were reported
as migrants by place of birth. However, this
figure was 315 million (31 per cent) in case of
place of last residence.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences     17
Conduct a survey of five households in your
neighbourhood  to find out their migration status. If
migrants, classify these on the basis of the two criteria
mentioned in the text.
Streams of Migration
A few facts pertaining to the internal
migration (within the country) and
international migration (out of the country
and into the country from other countries)
are presented here. Under the internal
The distribution of male and female
migrants in different streams of intra-state and
inter-state migration is presented in
Fig. 2.1 a and 2.1 b. It is clearly evident that
females predominate the streams of short
distance rural to rural migration in both types
of migration. Contrary to this, men predominate
the rural to urban stream of inter-state
migration due to economic reasons.
Apart from these streams of internal
migration, India also experiences immigration
from and emigration to the neighbouring
countries. Table 2.1 presents the details of
migrants from neighbouring countries. Indian
migration, four streams are identified: (a)
rural to rural (R-R); (b) rural to urban (R-U);
(c) urban to urban (U-U); and (d) urban to
rural (U-R).  In India, during 2001, out of
315 million migrants, enumerated on the
basis of the last residence, 98 million had
changed their place of residence in the last
ten years. Out of these, 81 million were intra-
state migrants. The stream was dominated
by female migrants. Most of these were
migrants related to marriage.
Census 2001 has recorded that more than 5
million person have migrated to India from
other countries. Out of these, 96 per cent came
from the neighbouring countries: Bangladesh
(3.0 million) followed by Pakistan (0.9 million)
and Nepal (0.5 million). Included in this are 0.16
million refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka,
Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and
Myanmar. As far as emigration from India is
concerned it is estimated that there are around
20 million people of Indian Diaspora, spread
across 110 countries.
Source: Census of India, 2001
Fig. 2.1 a : Intra State Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
(Duration 0-9 years), India, 2001
Fig. 2.1 b : Inter State Migration by Place of
Last Residence Indicating Migration Streams
(Duration 0-9 years), India, 2001
Examine Fig. 2.1 a and 2.1 b showing intra-state and inter-state migration in India according to the Census 2001
and find out:
( i ) Why are the numbers of females migrating from rural to rural areas in both the diagrams higher?
( i i ) Why is the male migration higher from rural to urban?
© NCERT
not to be republished
18 India : People and Economy
Countries% No of %  of
immigrants total
immigrants
Total international
migration 5,155,423 100
Migration from
neighbouring
countries 4,918,266 95.5
Afghanistan 9,194 0.2
Bangladesh 3,084,826 59.8
Bhutan 8,337 0.2
China 23,721 0.5
Myanmar 49,086 1.0
Nepal 596,696 11.6
Pakistan 997,106 19.3
Sri Lanka 149,300 2.9
Table 2.1 : Immigrants by last residence
from neighbouring countries by all
duration in India, 2001
Source : Census of India, 2001
Represent the data given in Table 2.1 by pie diagrams
assuming the migration from neighbouring countries
(4,918,266 persons as 100 per cent).
Spatial Variation in Migration
Some states like Maharashtra, Delhi, Gujarat and
Haryana attract migrants from other states such
as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, etc. (see Appendix–vii for
detail). Maharashtra occupied first place in the
list with 2.3 million net in-migrants, followed by
Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana. On the other hand,
Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar
(-1.7 million) were the states, which had the largest
number of net out-migrants from the state.
Among the  urban agglomeration (UA),
Greater Mumbai received the higher number of
in migrants. Intra-states migration constituted
the largest share in it. These differences are
largely due to the size of the state in which these
Urban Agglomeration are located.
From the given news
items try to identify
the political and
economic causes of
migration.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences     19
Statewise in-migration and out-migration data are given
i n Appendix (vii). Calculate net migration for all the states
of India.
Causes of Migration
People, generally are emotionally attached to
their place of birth. But millions of people leave
their places of birth and residence. There could
be variety of reasons. These reasons can be put
into two broad categories : (i) push factor, these
cause people to leave their place of residence or
origin; and (ii) pull factors, which attract the
people from different places.
In India people migrate from rural to urban
areas mainly due to poverty, high population
pressure on the land, lack of basic infrastructural
facilities like health care, education, etc. Apart
from these factors, natural disasters such as,
flood, drought, cyclonic storms, earthquake,
The four stories describe different situations of migrants.
Enumerate the push and pull factors for Aarif?
What are the pull factors for Mohan Singh?
Study the story of Subbalakshmi and Manish Gawarkar. Compare their cases on the basis of types of
migration, causes of migration and their living conditions.
© NCERT
not to be republished
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