NCERT Textbook - Structure and Physiology Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography Class 11

Created by: Mehtab Ahmed

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Structure and Physiology Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


PHYSIOGRAPHY
This unit deals with
• Structure and Relief; physiographic divisions
• Drainage systems: concept of water sheds — the Himalayan
and the Peninsular
UNIT
II
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 2


PHYSIOGRAPHY
This unit deals with
• Structure and Relief; physiographic divisions
• Drainage systems: concept of water sheds — the Himalayan
and the Peninsular
UNIT
II
2015-16(20/01/2015)
D
o you know that our earth also has a
history.  The earth and its landforms
that we see today have evolved over a
very long time. Current estimation shows that
the earth is approximately 460 million years old.
Over these long years, it has undergone many
changes brought about primarily by the
endogenic and exogenic forces. These forces have
played a significant role in giving shape to various
surface and subsurface featur es of the earth.  You
have already studied  about the Plate Tectonics
and the movement of the Earth’s plates in the
book Fundamentals of Physical Geography
(NCERT, 2006).  Do you know that the Indian
plate was to the south of the equator millions of
years ago? Do you also know that it was much
larger in size and the Australian plate was a part
of it?  Over millions of years, this plate broke into
many parts and the Australian plate moved
towards the southeastern direction and the
Indian plate to the north. Can you map different
phases in the movement of the Indian plate?  This
northward movement of the Indian plate is still
continuing and it has significant consequences
on the physical environment of the Indian
subcontinent.  Can you name some important
consequences of the northward movement  of the
Indian plate?
It is primarily through the interplay of these
endogenic and exogenic forces and lateral
movements of the plates that the present geological
structure and geomorphologic processes active
in the Indian subcontinent came into existence.
Based on the variations in its geological structure
and formations, India can  be divided into three
geological divisions. These geological regions
broadly follow the physical features:
(i) The Penisular Block
(ii) The Himalayas and other Peninuslar
Mountains
(iii) Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain.
T HE PENINSULAR BLOCK
The northern boundary of the Peninsular
Block may be taken as an irregular line
running from Kachchh along the western flank
of the Aravali Range near Delhi and then
roughly parallel to the Yamuna and the Ganga
as far as the Rajmahal Hills and the Ganga
delta. Apart from these, the Karbi Anglong and
the Meghalaya Plateau in the northeast and
Rajasthan in the west are also extensions of
this block. The northeastern parts are
separated by the Malda fault in West Bengal
from the Chotanagpur plateau.  In Rajasthan,
the desert and other desert–like features
overlay  this block.
The Peninsula is formed essentially by a
great complex of very ancient gneisses and
granites, which constitutes a major part of it.
Since the Cambrian period, the Peninsula has
been standing like a rigid block with the
exception of some of its western coast  which
is submerged beneath the sea and some other
parts changed due to tectonic activity without
affecting the original basement. As a part of
the Indo-Australian Plate, it has been subjected
to various vertical movements and block
faulting.  The rift valleys of the Narmada, the
Tapi and the Mahanadi and the Satpura block
mountains are some examples of it.  The
Peninsula mostly consists of relict and residual
mountains like the Aravali hills, the Nallamala
hills, the Javadi hills, the Veliconda hills, the
STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 3


PHYSIOGRAPHY
This unit deals with
• Structure and Relief; physiographic divisions
• Drainage systems: concept of water sheds — the Himalayan
and the Peninsular
UNIT
II
2015-16(20/01/2015)
D
o you know that our earth also has a
history.  The earth and its landforms
that we see today have evolved over a
very long time. Current estimation shows that
the earth is approximately 460 million years old.
Over these long years, it has undergone many
changes brought about primarily by the
endogenic and exogenic forces. These forces have
played a significant role in giving shape to various
surface and subsurface featur es of the earth.  You
have already studied  about the Plate Tectonics
and the movement of the Earth’s plates in the
book Fundamentals of Physical Geography
(NCERT, 2006).  Do you know that the Indian
plate was to the south of the equator millions of
years ago? Do you also know that it was much
larger in size and the Australian plate was a part
of it?  Over millions of years, this plate broke into
many parts and the Australian plate moved
towards the southeastern direction and the
Indian plate to the north. Can you map different
phases in the movement of the Indian plate?  This
northward movement of the Indian plate is still
continuing and it has significant consequences
on the physical environment of the Indian
subcontinent.  Can you name some important
consequences of the northward movement  of the
Indian plate?
It is primarily through the interplay of these
endogenic and exogenic forces and lateral
movements of the plates that the present geological
structure and geomorphologic processes active
in the Indian subcontinent came into existence.
Based on the variations in its geological structure
and formations, India can  be divided into three
geological divisions. These geological regions
broadly follow the physical features:
(i) The Penisular Block
(ii) The Himalayas and other Peninuslar
Mountains
(iii) Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain.
T HE PENINSULAR BLOCK
The northern boundary of the Peninsular
Block may be taken as an irregular line
running from Kachchh along the western flank
of the Aravali Range near Delhi and then
roughly parallel to the Yamuna and the Ganga
as far as the Rajmahal Hills and the Ganga
delta. Apart from these, the Karbi Anglong and
the Meghalaya Plateau in the northeast and
Rajasthan in the west are also extensions of
this block. The northeastern parts are
separated by the Malda fault in West Bengal
from the Chotanagpur plateau.  In Rajasthan,
the desert and other desert–like features
overlay  this block.
The Peninsula is formed essentially by a
great complex of very ancient gneisses and
granites, which constitutes a major part of it.
Since the Cambrian period, the Peninsula has
been standing like a rigid block with the
exception of some of its western coast  which
is submerged beneath the sea and some other
parts changed due to tectonic activity without
affecting the original basement. As a part of
the Indo-Australian Plate, it has been subjected
to various vertical movements and block
faulting.  The rift valleys of the Narmada, the
Tapi and the Mahanadi and the Satpura block
mountains are some examples of it.  The
Peninsula mostly consists of relict and residual
mountains like the Aravali hills, the Nallamala
hills, the Javadi hills, the Veliconda hills, the
STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER
2015-16(20/01/2015)
9 STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY
Palkonda range and the Mahendragiri hills, etc.
The river valleys here are shallow with low
gradients.
You are aware of the method of calculating
the gradient as a part of your study of the book
Practical Work in Geography– Part I  (NCERT,
2006).  Can you calculate the gradient of the
Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers and draw
the comparisons?
Most of the east flowing rivers form deltas
before entering  into the Bay of Bengal.  The
deltas formed by the Mahanadi, the Krishna,
the Kaveri and the Godavari  are important
examples.
THE HIMALAYAS AND OTHER
PENINSULAR MOUNTAINS
The Himalayas along with other Peninsular
mountains are young, weak and flexible in their
geological structure unlike the rigid and stable
Peninsular Block. Consequently, they are still
subjected to the interplay of exogenic and
endogenic forces, resulting in the development of
faults, folds and thrust plains. These mountains
are tectonic in origin, dissected by fast-flowing
rivers which are in their youthful stage. Various
landforms like gorges, V-shaped valleys, rapids,
waterfalls, etc. are indicative of this stage.
INDO-GANGA-BRAHMAPUTRA PLAIN
The third geological division of India
comprises the plains formed by the river
Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
Originally, it was a geo-synclinal depression
which attained its maximum development
during the third phase of the Himalayan
mountain formation approximately about 64
million years ago. Since then, it has been
gradually filled by the sediments brought by
the Himalayan and Peninsular rivers. Average
depth of alluvial deposits in these plains
ranges from 1,000-2,000 m.
It is evident from the above discussion that
there are significant variations among the
different regions of India in terms of their
geological structure, which has far-reaching
impact upon other related aspects.  Variations
in the physiography and relief are important
among these. The relief and physiography of
India has been greatly influenced by the
geological and geomorphological processes
active in the Indian subcontinent.
PHYSIOGRAPHY
‘Physiography’ of an area is the outcome of
structure, process and the stage of
development. The land of India is characterised
by great diversity in its physical features. The
north has a vast expanse of rugged topography
consisting of a series of mountain ranges with
varied peaks, beautiful valleys and deep gorges.
The south consists of stable table land with
highly dissected plateaus, denuded rocks and
developed series of scarps. In between these
two lies the vast north Indian plain.
Based on these macro variations, India can
be divided into the following physiographic
divisions:
(1) The Northern and North-eastern
Mountains
(2) The Northern Plain
(3) The Peninsular Plateau
(4) The Indian Desert
(5) The Coastal Plains
(6) The Islands.
The North and Northeastern Mountains
The North and Northeastern Mountains consist
of the Himalayas and the Northeastern hills.
The Himalayas consist of a series of parallel
mountain ranges. Some of the important
ranges are the Greater Himalayan range,
which includes the Great Himalayas and
Figure 2.1 : A Gorge
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 4


PHYSIOGRAPHY
This unit deals with
• Structure and Relief; physiographic divisions
• Drainage systems: concept of water sheds — the Himalayan
and the Peninsular
UNIT
II
2015-16(20/01/2015)
D
o you know that our earth also has a
history.  The earth and its landforms
that we see today have evolved over a
very long time. Current estimation shows that
the earth is approximately 460 million years old.
Over these long years, it has undergone many
changes brought about primarily by the
endogenic and exogenic forces. These forces have
played a significant role in giving shape to various
surface and subsurface featur es of the earth.  You
have already studied  about the Plate Tectonics
and the movement of the Earth’s plates in the
book Fundamentals of Physical Geography
(NCERT, 2006).  Do you know that the Indian
plate was to the south of the equator millions of
years ago? Do you also know that it was much
larger in size and the Australian plate was a part
of it?  Over millions of years, this plate broke into
many parts and the Australian plate moved
towards the southeastern direction and the
Indian plate to the north. Can you map different
phases in the movement of the Indian plate?  This
northward movement of the Indian plate is still
continuing and it has significant consequences
on the physical environment of the Indian
subcontinent.  Can you name some important
consequences of the northward movement  of the
Indian plate?
It is primarily through the interplay of these
endogenic and exogenic forces and lateral
movements of the plates that the present geological
structure and geomorphologic processes active
in the Indian subcontinent came into existence.
Based on the variations in its geological structure
and formations, India can  be divided into three
geological divisions. These geological regions
broadly follow the physical features:
(i) The Penisular Block
(ii) The Himalayas and other Peninuslar
Mountains
(iii) Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain.
T HE PENINSULAR BLOCK
The northern boundary of the Peninsular
Block may be taken as an irregular line
running from Kachchh along the western flank
of the Aravali Range near Delhi and then
roughly parallel to the Yamuna and the Ganga
as far as the Rajmahal Hills and the Ganga
delta. Apart from these, the Karbi Anglong and
the Meghalaya Plateau in the northeast and
Rajasthan in the west are also extensions of
this block. The northeastern parts are
separated by the Malda fault in West Bengal
from the Chotanagpur plateau.  In Rajasthan,
the desert and other desert–like features
overlay  this block.
The Peninsula is formed essentially by a
great complex of very ancient gneisses and
granites, which constitutes a major part of it.
Since the Cambrian period, the Peninsula has
been standing like a rigid block with the
exception of some of its western coast  which
is submerged beneath the sea and some other
parts changed due to tectonic activity without
affecting the original basement. As a part of
the Indo-Australian Plate, it has been subjected
to various vertical movements and block
faulting.  The rift valleys of the Narmada, the
Tapi and the Mahanadi and the Satpura block
mountains are some examples of it.  The
Peninsula mostly consists of relict and residual
mountains like the Aravali hills, the Nallamala
hills, the Javadi hills, the Veliconda hills, the
STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER
2015-16(20/01/2015)
9 STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY
Palkonda range and the Mahendragiri hills, etc.
The river valleys here are shallow with low
gradients.
You are aware of the method of calculating
the gradient as a part of your study of the book
Practical Work in Geography– Part I  (NCERT,
2006).  Can you calculate the gradient of the
Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers and draw
the comparisons?
Most of the east flowing rivers form deltas
before entering  into the Bay of Bengal.  The
deltas formed by the Mahanadi, the Krishna,
the Kaveri and the Godavari  are important
examples.
THE HIMALAYAS AND OTHER
PENINSULAR MOUNTAINS
The Himalayas along with other Peninsular
mountains are young, weak and flexible in their
geological structure unlike the rigid and stable
Peninsular Block. Consequently, they are still
subjected to the interplay of exogenic and
endogenic forces, resulting in the development of
faults, folds and thrust plains. These mountains
are tectonic in origin, dissected by fast-flowing
rivers which are in their youthful stage. Various
landforms like gorges, V-shaped valleys, rapids,
waterfalls, etc. are indicative of this stage.
INDO-GANGA-BRAHMAPUTRA PLAIN
The third geological division of India
comprises the plains formed by the river
Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
Originally, it was a geo-synclinal depression
which attained its maximum development
during the third phase of the Himalayan
mountain formation approximately about 64
million years ago. Since then, it has been
gradually filled by the sediments brought by
the Himalayan and Peninsular rivers. Average
depth of alluvial deposits in these plains
ranges from 1,000-2,000 m.
It is evident from the above discussion that
there are significant variations among the
different regions of India in terms of their
geological structure, which has far-reaching
impact upon other related aspects.  Variations
in the physiography and relief are important
among these. The relief and physiography of
India has been greatly influenced by the
geological and geomorphological processes
active in the Indian subcontinent.
PHYSIOGRAPHY
‘Physiography’ of an area is the outcome of
structure, process and the stage of
development. The land of India is characterised
by great diversity in its physical features. The
north has a vast expanse of rugged topography
consisting of a series of mountain ranges with
varied peaks, beautiful valleys and deep gorges.
The south consists of stable table land with
highly dissected plateaus, denuded rocks and
developed series of scarps. In between these
two lies the vast north Indian plain.
Based on these macro variations, India can
be divided into the following physiographic
divisions:
(1) The Northern and North-eastern
Mountains
(2) The Northern Plain
(3) The Peninsular Plateau
(4) The Indian Desert
(5) The Coastal Plains
(6) The Islands.
The North and Northeastern Mountains
The North and Northeastern Mountains consist
of the Himalayas and the Northeastern hills.
The Himalayas consist of a series of parallel
mountain ranges. Some of the important
ranges are the Greater Himalayan range,
which includes the Great Himalayas and
Figure 2.1 : A Gorge
2015-16(20/01/2015)
10 INDIA : PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Figure 2.2 : India : Physical
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 5


PHYSIOGRAPHY
This unit deals with
• Structure and Relief; physiographic divisions
• Drainage systems: concept of water sheds — the Himalayan
and the Peninsular
UNIT
II
2015-16(20/01/2015)
D
o you know that our earth also has a
history.  The earth and its landforms
that we see today have evolved over a
very long time. Current estimation shows that
the earth is approximately 460 million years old.
Over these long years, it has undergone many
changes brought about primarily by the
endogenic and exogenic forces. These forces have
played a significant role in giving shape to various
surface and subsurface featur es of the earth.  You
have already studied  about the Plate Tectonics
and the movement of the Earth’s plates in the
book Fundamentals of Physical Geography
(NCERT, 2006).  Do you know that the Indian
plate was to the south of the equator millions of
years ago? Do you also know that it was much
larger in size and the Australian plate was a part
of it?  Over millions of years, this plate broke into
many parts and the Australian plate moved
towards the southeastern direction and the
Indian plate to the north. Can you map different
phases in the movement of the Indian plate?  This
northward movement of the Indian plate is still
continuing and it has significant consequences
on the physical environment of the Indian
subcontinent.  Can you name some important
consequences of the northward movement  of the
Indian plate?
It is primarily through the interplay of these
endogenic and exogenic forces and lateral
movements of the plates that the present geological
structure and geomorphologic processes active
in the Indian subcontinent came into existence.
Based on the variations in its geological structure
and formations, India can  be divided into three
geological divisions. These geological regions
broadly follow the physical features:
(i) The Penisular Block
(ii) The Himalayas and other Peninuslar
Mountains
(iii) Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain.
T HE PENINSULAR BLOCK
The northern boundary of the Peninsular
Block may be taken as an irregular line
running from Kachchh along the western flank
of the Aravali Range near Delhi and then
roughly parallel to the Yamuna and the Ganga
as far as the Rajmahal Hills and the Ganga
delta. Apart from these, the Karbi Anglong and
the Meghalaya Plateau in the northeast and
Rajasthan in the west are also extensions of
this block. The northeastern parts are
separated by the Malda fault in West Bengal
from the Chotanagpur plateau.  In Rajasthan,
the desert and other desert–like features
overlay  this block.
The Peninsula is formed essentially by a
great complex of very ancient gneisses and
granites, which constitutes a major part of it.
Since the Cambrian period, the Peninsula has
been standing like a rigid block with the
exception of some of its western coast  which
is submerged beneath the sea and some other
parts changed due to tectonic activity without
affecting the original basement. As a part of
the Indo-Australian Plate, it has been subjected
to various vertical movements and block
faulting.  The rift valleys of the Narmada, the
Tapi and the Mahanadi and the Satpura block
mountains are some examples of it.  The
Peninsula mostly consists of relict and residual
mountains like the Aravali hills, the Nallamala
hills, the Javadi hills, the Veliconda hills, the
STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER
2015-16(20/01/2015)
9 STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY
Palkonda range and the Mahendragiri hills, etc.
The river valleys here are shallow with low
gradients.
You are aware of the method of calculating
the gradient as a part of your study of the book
Practical Work in Geography– Part I  (NCERT,
2006).  Can you calculate the gradient of the
Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers and draw
the comparisons?
Most of the east flowing rivers form deltas
before entering  into the Bay of Bengal.  The
deltas formed by the Mahanadi, the Krishna,
the Kaveri and the Godavari  are important
examples.
THE HIMALAYAS AND OTHER
PENINSULAR MOUNTAINS
The Himalayas along with other Peninsular
mountains are young, weak and flexible in their
geological structure unlike the rigid and stable
Peninsular Block. Consequently, they are still
subjected to the interplay of exogenic and
endogenic forces, resulting in the development of
faults, folds and thrust plains. These mountains
are tectonic in origin, dissected by fast-flowing
rivers which are in their youthful stage. Various
landforms like gorges, V-shaped valleys, rapids,
waterfalls, etc. are indicative of this stage.
INDO-GANGA-BRAHMAPUTRA PLAIN
The third geological division of India
comprises the plains formed by the river
Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
Originally, it was a geo-synclinal depression
which attained its maximum development
during the third phase of the Himalayan
mountain formation approximately about 64
million years ago. Since then, it has been
gradually filled by the sediments brought by
the Himalayan and Peninsular rivers. Average
depth of alluvial deposits in these plains
ranges from 1,000-2,000 m.
It is evident from the above discussion that
there are significant variations among the
different regions of India in terms of their
geological structure, which has far-reaching
impact upon other related aspects.  Variations
in the physiography and relief are important
among these. The relief and physiography of
India has been greatly influenced by the
geological and geomorphological processes
active in the Indian subcontinent.
PHYSIOGRAPHY
‘Physiography’ of an area is the outcome of
structure, process and the stage of
development. The land of India is characterised
by great diversity in its physical features. The
north has a vast expanse of rugged topography
consisting of a series of mountain ranges with
varied peaks, beautiful valleys and deep gorges.
The south consists of stable table land with
highly dissected plateaus, denuded rocks and
developed series of scarps. In between these
two lies the vast north Indian plain.
Based on these macro variations, India can
be divided into the following physiographic
divisions:
(1) The Northern and North-eastern
Mountains
(2) The Northern Plain
(3) The Peninsular Plateau
(4) The Indian Desert
(5) The Coastal Plains
(6) The Islands.
The North and Northeastern Mountains
The North and Northeastern Mountains consist
of the Himalayas and the Northeastern hills.
The Himalayas consist of a series of parallel
mountain ranges. Some of the important
ranges are the Greater Himalayan range,
which includes the Great Himalayas and
Figure 2.1 : A Gorge
2015-16(20/01/2015)
10 INDIA : PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Figure 2.2 : India : Physical
2015-16(20/01/2015)
11 STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOGRAPHY
the Trans-Himalayan range, the Middle
Himalayas and the Shiwalik. The general
orientation of these ranges is from northwest to
the southeast direction in the northwestern part
of India. Himalayas in the Darjiling and Sikkim
regions lie in an eastwest direction, while in
Arunachal Pradesh they are from southwest to
the northwest direction. In Nagaland, Manipur
and Mizoram, they are in the northsouth
direction. The approximate length of the Great
Himalayan range, also known as the central
axial range, is 2,500 km from east to west, and
their width varies between 160-400 km from
north to south. It  is also evident from the map
that the Himalayas stand almost like a strong
and long wall between the Indian subcontinent
and the Central and East Asian countries.
Himalayas are not only the physical barrier,
they are also a climatic, drainage and cultural
divide.  Can you identify the impact of Himalayas
on the geoenvironment of the countries of South
Asia?  Can you find some other examples of
similar geoenvironmental divide in the world?
There are large-scale regional variations
within the Himalayas. On the basis of relief,
alignment of ranges and other geomorphological
features, the Himalayas can be divided into the
following sub-divisions:
(i) Kashmir or Northwestern Himalayas
(ii) Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
(iii) Darjiling and Sikkim Himalayas
(iv) Arunachal Himalayas
(v) Eastern Hills and Mountains.
Kashmir or Northwestern Himalayas
It comprise a series of ranges such as the
Karakoram, Ladakh, Zaskar and Pir Panjal. The
northeastern part of the Kashmir Himalayas is a
cold desert, which lies between the Greater
Himalayas and the Karakoram ranges. Between
the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range,
lies the world famous valley of Kashmir and the
famous Dal Lake. Important glaciers of South
Asia such as the Baltoro and Siachen are also
found in this region. The Kashmir Himalayas are
also famous for Karewa
formations, which are useful
for the cultivation of Zafran,
a local variety of saffron.
Some of the important
passes of the region are Zoji
La on the Great Himalayas,
Banihal on the Pir Panjal,
Photu La on the Zaskar and Khardung La on
the Ladakh range. Some of the important fresh
lakes such as Dal and Wular and salt water lakes
such as Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri are also in
this region. This region is drained by the river
Indus, and its tributaries such as the Jhelum
and the Chenab. The Kashmir and northwestern
Himalayas are  well-known for their scenic
beauty and picturesque landscape. The
landscape of Himalayas is a major source of
attraction for adventure tourists. Do you know
that some famous places of pilgrimage such as
V aishno Devi, Amarnath Cave, Charar -e-Sharif,
etc. are also located here and large number of
pilgrims visit these places every year?
Srinagar , capital city of the state of Jammu
and Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum
river.  Dal Lake in Srinagar presents an
interesting physical feature.  Jhelum in the valley
of Kashmir is still in its youth stage and yet forms
meanders – a typical feature associated with the
mature stage in the evolution of fluvial land form
(Figure 2.4). Can you name some other fluvial
landforms in the mature stage of a river?
Figure 2.3 : The Himalayas
Karewas
Karewas are the
thick deposits of
glacial clay and
other materials
embedded with
moraines.
Figure 2.4 : Meandering Jhelum
2015-16(20/01/2015)
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