NCERT Textbook - Tenses Class 10 Notes | EduRev

English Grammar (Communicative) Interact In English Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - Tenses Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


2
TENSES
11
A. The concept of tense and time:
In class IX you studied in some detail the uses of verb forms like simple past, 
past continuous, past perfect, simple present, present perfect and present 
perfect continuous. You also learnt how to use the verb 'to have' to convey the 
meaning of 'possession' and the use of 'used to'  and 'would' to talk about past 
habits or routines now given up or discontinued.
In this unit you will learn more about the use of past and present forms of verbs 
and their relation with past, present and future time.
Let us begin by studying the relationship between the different verb forms 
and the time they denote. 
Indicate the tense and time of each of the highlighted verbs in the table below.  
The first has been done as an example.
A.1 Work individually
Sentence
1. We are planning to go out for a 
picnic tomorrow.
2. India has made tremendous 
progress in the past few decades.
3. It has been raining since morning.
4. Could you please send your e-mail 
address as soon as possible?
5. The train must have reached Delhi 
by now.
6. It always rains in July here.
7. Cold wave intensifies further.
(A news headline)
8. He was playing here a minute ago.
9. She won the Student of the Year 
award last year.
10. All incomplete forms will be 
rejected.
Tense
Present
Time
Future
Page 2


2
TENSES
11
A. The concept of tense and time:
In class IX you studied in some detail the uses of verb forms like simple past, 
past continuous, past perfect, simple present, present perfect and present 
perfect continuous. You also learnt how to use the verb 'to have' to convey the 
meaning of 'possession' and the use of 'used to'  and 'would' to talk about past 
habits or routines now given up or discontinued.
In this unit you will learn more about the use of past and present forms of verbs 
and their relation with past, present and future time.
Let us begin by studying the relationship between the different verb forms 
and the time they denote. 
Indicate the tense and time of each of the highlighted verbs in the table below.  
The first has been done as an example.
A.1 Work individually
Sentence
1. We are planning to go out for a 
picnic tomorrow.
2. India has made tremendous 
progress in the past few decades.
3. It has been raining since morning.
4. Could you please send your e-mail 
address as soon as possible?
5. The train must have reached Delhi 
by now.
6. It always rains in July here.
7. Cold wave intensifies further.
(A news headline)
8. He was playing here a minute ago.
9. She won the Student of the Year 
award last year.
10. All incomplete forms will be 
rejected.
Tense
Present
Time
Future
12
CBSE
A.2 Now compare your answers with those of your partner and discuss the 
following questions and write your observations in the given space.
a. Is the time referred to in the sentences always the same as the tense of 
the verb? What conclusion can you draw from your observation? Write 
your observation below.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
b. How did you find out the tense of the verbs in the sentences above? Are 
there any indicators or markers that reveal the tense of the verb? Write 
your observation below.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
c. Did you find any verb form that can be called 'future form'? (You will 
learn more about the different ways of talking about future later in this 
unit.)
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
d. Why do you think verb forms are often labelled as 'simple’ or ‘indefinite', 
'progressive’ or ‘continuous', 'perfect' and 'perfect continuous'?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Page 3


2
TENSES
11
A. The concept of tense and time:
In class IX you studied in some detail the uses of verb forms like simple past, 
past continuous, past perfect, simple present, present perfect and present 
perfect continuous. You also learnt how to use the verb 'to have' to convey the 
meaning of 'possession' and the use of 'used to'  and 'would' to talk about past 
habits or routines now given up or discontinued.
In this unit you will learn more about the use of past and present forms of verbs 
and their relation with past, present and future time.
Let us begin by studying the relationship between the different verb forms 
and the time they denote. 
Indicate the tense and time of each of the highlighted verbs in the table below.  
The first has been done as an example.
A.1 Work individually
Sentence
1. We are planning to go out for a 
picnic tomorrow.
2. India has made tremendous 
progress in the past few decades.
3. It has been raining since morning.
4. Could you please send your e-mail 
address as soon as possible?
5. The train must have reached Delhi 
by now.
6. It always rains in July here.
7. Cold wave intensifies further.
(A news headline)
8. He was playing here a minute ago.
9. She won the Student of the Year 
award last year.
10. All incomplete forms will be 
rejected.
Tense
Present
Time
Future
12
CBSE
A.2 Now compare your answers with those of your partner and discuss the 
following questions and write your observations in the given space.
a. Is the time referred to in the sentences always the same as the tense of 
the verb? What conclusion can you draw from your observation? Write 
your observation below.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
b. How did you find out the tense of the verbs in the sentences above? Are 
there any indicators or markers that reveal the tense of the verb? Write 
your observation below.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
c. Did you find any verb form that can be called 'future form'? (You will 
learn more about the different ways of talking about future later in this 
unit.)
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
d. Why do you think verb forms are often labelled as 'simple’ or ‘indefinite', 
'progressive’ or ‘continuous', 'perfect' and 'perfect continuous'?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
13
CBSE
B. Present Progressive*
(*Progressive = continuous)
B.1 Form
Past Now Future
S +is/am/are + verb+ ing
S + is/am/are + not+ verb+ ing.
Is/am/are + S + verb+ing?
 S + is/am/are + being + Verb (past participle)
Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with the present 
progressive form of the given verbs.
i. “You've put on weight, Cheryl."
"Yes. I……(eat) a lot these days."
ii. "Hurry up! We …(get) late for school."
"Just a second, please! I …(come)."
iii. Temperatures… (rise) all over the world.
•
•
•
•
B.1 Meaning
The votes are being counted.
I am completing my notes at the 
moment
Is she playing with her toys?
You are not paying attention, Vishu
Page 4


2
TENSES
11
A. The concept of tense and time:
In class IX you studied in some detail the uses of verb forms like simple past, 
past continuous, past perfect, simple present, present perfect and present 
perfect continuous. You also learnt how to use the verb 'to have' to convey the 
meaning of 'possession' and the use of 'used to'  and 'would' to talk about past 
habits or routines now given up or discontinued.
In this unit you will learn more about the use of past and present forms of verbs 
and their relation with past, present and future time.
Let us begin by studying the relationship between the different verb forms 
and the time they denote. 
Indicate the tense and time of each of the highlighted verbs in the table below.  
The first has been done as an example.
A.1 Work individually
Sentence
1. We are planning to go out for a 
picnic tomorrow.
2. India has made tremendous 
progress in the past few decades.
3. It has been raining since morning.
4. Could you please send your e-mail 
address as soon as possible?
5. The train must have reached Delhi 
by now.
6. It always rains in July here.
7. Cold wave intensifies further.
(A news headline)
8. He was playing here a minute ago.
9. She won the Student of the Year 
award last year.
10. All incomplete forms will be 
rejected.
Tense
Present
Time
Future
12
CBSE
A.2 Now compare your answers with those of your partner and discuss the 
following questions and write your observations in the given space.
a. Is the time referred to in the sentences always the same as the tense of 
the verb? What conclusion can you draw from your observation? Write 
your observation below.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
b. How did you find out the tense of the verbs in the sentences above? Are 
there any indicators or markers that reveal the tense of the verb? Write 
your observation below.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
c. Did you find any verb form that can be called 'future form'? (You will 
learn more about the different ways of talking about future later in this 
unit.)
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
d. Why do you think verb forms are often labelled as 'simple’ or ‘indefinite', 
'progressive’ or ‘continuous', 'perfect' and 'perfect continuous'?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
13
CBSE
B. Present Progressive*
(*Progressive = continuous)
B.1 Form
Past Now Future
S +is/am/are + verb+ ing
S + is/am/are + not+ verb+ ing.
Is/am/are + S + verb+ing?
 S + is/am/are + being + Verb (past participle)
Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with the present 
progressive form of the given verbs.
i. “You've put on weight, Cheryl."
"Yes. I……(eat) a lot these days."
ii. "Hurry up! We …(get) late for school."
"Just a second, please! I …(come)."
iii. Temperatures… (rise) all over the world.
•
•
•
•
B.1 Meaning
The votes are being counted.
I am completing my notes at the 
moment
Is she playing with her toys?
You are not paying attention, Vishu
14
CBSE
iv. “You….not…(wear) this dirty shirt to office. Wait, I'll give you another."
v. “I…not…(do) your homework-forget it. I still haven't forgotten how you 
fought with me in the morning."
vi. The Prime Minister …(leave) for Russia tomorrow on a 5 day state visit.
vii. "You …(be) very rude, Abhi."
viii. She …always (make) excuses for coming late.
ix. Aabha… (write) a novel these days.
The table below shows different uses or meanings of the present progressive. 
Match the verbs in the above sentences with the uses or meanings they convey.
a. Something pre-arranged or a fixed plan _____
b. Insistence _____
c. Annoyance _____
d. Repeated action _____
e. Some development or change _____
f. Emphatic refusal _____
g. Something happening 'around now' _____
h. An action just starting. _____
i. Temporary action not necessarily taking place at the moment
of  speaking. _____
*It is a little difficult to match the sentences with uses of present progressive 
tense.  Here are the answers: 
a-vi, b-iv, c-vii, d-i, e-iii, f-v, g-ix, h-ii, i-viii.
Compare your answers with these and have a class discussion.
Page 5


2
TENSES
11
A. The concept of tense and time:
In class IX you studied in some detail the uses of verb forms like simple past, 
past continuous, past perfect, simple present, present perfect and present 
perfect continuous. You also learnt how to use the verb 'to have' to convey the 
meaning of 'possession' and the use of 'used to'  and 'would' to talk about past 
habits or routines now given up or discontinued.
In this unit you will learn more about the use of past and present forms of verbs 
and their relation with past, present and future time.
Let us begin by studying the relationship between the different verb forms 
and the time they denote. 
Indicate the tense and time of each of the highlighted verbs in the table below.  
The first has been done as an example.
A.1 Work individually
Sentence
1. We are planning to go out for a 
picnic tomorrow.
2. India has made tremendous 
progress in the past few decades.
3. It has been raining since morning.
4. Could you please send your e-mail 
address as soon as possible?
5. The train must have reached Delhi 
by now.
6. It always rains in July here.
7. Cold wave intensifies further.
(A news headline)
8. He was playing here a minute ago.
9. She won the Student of the Year 
award last year.
10. All incomplete forms will be 
rejected.
Tense
Present
Time
Future
12
CBSE
A.2 Now compare your answers with those of your partner and discuss the 
following questions and write your observations in the given space.
a. Is the time referred to in the sentences always the same as the tense of 
the verb? What conclusion can you draw from your observation? Write 
your observation below.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
b. How did you find out the tense of the verbs in the sentences above? Are 
there any indicators or markers that reveal the tense of the verb? Write 
your observation below.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
c. Did you find any verb form that can be called 'future form'? (You will 
learn more about the different ways of talking about future later in this 
unit.)
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
d. Why do you think verb forms are often labelled as 'simple’ or ‘indefinite', 
'progressive’ or ‘continuous', 'perfect' and 'perfect continuous'?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
13
CBSE
B. Present Progressive*
(*Progressive = continuous)
B.1 Form
Past Now Future
S +is/am/are + verb+ ing
S + is/am/are + not+ verb+ ing.
Is/am/are + S + verb+ing?
 S + is/am/are + being + Verb (past participle)
Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with the present 
progressive form of the given verbs.
i. “You've put on weight, Cheryl."
"Yes. I……(eat) a lot these days."
ii. "Hurry up! We …(get) late for school."
"Just a second, please! I …(come)."
iii. Temperatures… (rise) all over the world.
•
•
•
•
B.1 Meaning
The votes are being counted.
I am completing my notes at the 
moment
Is she playing with her toys?
You are not paying attention, Vishu
14
CBSE
iv. “You….not…(wear) this dirty shirt to office. Wait, I'll give you another."
v. “I…not…(do) your homework-forget it. I still haven't forgotten how you 
fought with me in the morning."
vi. The Prime Minister …(leave) for Russia tomorrow on a 5 day state visit.
vii. "You …(be) very rude, Abhi."
viii. She …always (make) excuses for coming late.
ix. Aabha… (write) a novel these days.
The table below shows different uses or meanings of the present progressive. 
Match the verbs in the above sentences with the uses or meanings they convey.
a. Something pre-arranged or a fixed plan _____
b. Insistence _____
c. Annoyance _____
d. Repeated action _____
e. Some development or change _____
f. Emphatic refusal _____
g. Something happening 'around now' _____
h. An action just starting. _____
i. Temporary action not necessarily taking place at the moment
of  speaking. _____
*It is a little difficult to match the sentences with uses of present progressive 
tense.  Here are the answers: 
a-vi, b-iv, c-vii, d-i, e-iii, f-v, g-ix, h-ii, i-viii.
Compare your answers with these and have a class discussion.
15
CBSE
B 2. Verbs that are normally NOT used in the progressive form.
i. Which sentence in each of the following pairs is acceptable and 
why?
1. a. I am respecting you.
b. I respect you.
2. a. My son loves to draw and paint.
b. My son is loving to draw and paint.
3. a. We are having two cars.
b. We have two cars.
4. a. I am thinking you are new to this place.
b. I think you are new to this place.
5. a. The cake smells good.
b. The cake is smelling good.
Verbs referring to mental states (eg. know, think, believe etc) and to the use of 
the senses (eg. smell, taste etc) are never or hardly ever used in  progressive 
forms.  Some of these verbs are:
believe prefer know suppose feel sound
(dis)like love realise understand hear taste
see hate recognise want see belong
doubt imagine remember wish smell agree
possess own owe involve include depend
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